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In 1636, when ship-money was about tined long to enjoy them. In 1659 a to be exacted by Charles I. Liverpool bill passed for its demolition, and the was rated at £25, Chester at £26, and site, with a dwelling-house in the inBristol at £1000. These comparative terior, together with all the old mateestimates are not calculated to give rials, were given to Col. Birch, on any very exalted ideas of its wealth or condition of his carrying the order commercial prosperity.
into effect. “The town,” says Seacomb,“ in 1644, Towards the conclusion of the 17th was in the hands of the commonwealth, century, Liverpool was emancipated under the command of Col. Moore, from its parochial dependence on who defended it for some time against Walton. An act for this purpose was the army of Prince Rupert.” This passed on the 24th of June 1699, emprince, about the 26th of June, 1644, sat powering the corporation to erect a down before it. At that time it was new church, and a house for the rector, well fortified, with a strong and high and authorizing them to raise the sum mud wall, and a ditch twelve yards of £400 by assessment on the inhabiwide, and nearly three yards deep, tants, for defraying the expense. It was enclosing the town from the east end also enjoined, that two rectors should of Dale-street, and so westward to the be appointed, one for the new church river. On every commanding emi- and the other for the parochial chapel. nence batteries were erected, and can- From this time the old chapel was callnon were placed in every assailable ed St. Nicholas, and the new church part.
St. Peter's. The patronage, and prePrince Rupert at this time fixed his sentation to the rectory, were vested in main camp round the beacon, the pre- the mayor, aldermen, and commonsent St. Domingo, about a mile out of council, subject, in case of disputes, to town, and his batteries were raised an appeal to the Bishop of Chester. upon the ridge of ground running The whole population of Liverpool was from the top of Shaw's-brow to the estimated at this time to be about 5000 Copperas works, having his trenches souls. in the lower ground just below.
(To be continued.) From these he frequently attacked the town, but was as often repulsed.
Strictures, &c. on some of the Reflections At length, after many ineffectual
subjoined to Mr. Evans's “ Sketch of efforts, he entered the town in the
All Denominations.” morning about three o'clock, and marching to the spot on which the 1. The author seems anxious to protown-hall now stands, he put every mote Christian charity ; but his labour person to the sword who opposed his will resemble that of the man who built progress. But having reached this his house upon the sand. In order to place, and finding himself master of the offer the right hand of Christian feltown, he committed the surviving in lowship to another, it is not sufficient habitants prisoners to the Tower and that there is proof of his sincerity St. Nicholas's church, and took pos- merely; there must be a conviction session of the castle. Liverpool was that he is a child of God. soon afterwards retaken by the parlia The next point to be settled is, What mentary forces; and on the 5th of No-constitutes a child of God ? Faith in vember following, “ thanks to God for Jesus Christ as the Son of God, and the recovering and retaking of Liver-| Saviour of men.* But as words are pool,” were ordered by both houses of merely signs of ideas, it may be proparliament. Shortly afterwards an or- per to inquire, what is meant by the dinance was passed confirming former | terms Son of God, and Saviour of grants and charters, and the sum of men? The Trinitarian says, Son of £10,000 was voted to indemnify the God is equivalent to Immanuel-the inhabitants for the losses they had Word made flesh--or, God incarnate. sustained in their property during the The Unitarian says, it is equivalent to siege at the same time to prevent the “ a man highly inspired, or one of the recurrence of a similar disaster, it was | angelic order.” Now, our author conordered to be fortified with a garrison siders the difference between the defiof 600 men.
nitions of the Trinitarian and Unitarian · The old castle, however, if permitted to share in these honours, was not des- / * John i. 12. Gal. iii. 26. 1 John v. 11,
as a matter of trifling importance; see have been a sufficient example without Refl. 3. Is there, indeed, no differ- reference to the example of Christ. ence between faith in a being pos- That he would have been sufficient, sessed of the attributes of Deity, and and that others were sufficient, appears faith in a mere creature? If the Tri- from the epistle to the Hebrews, in nitarian maintains that the faith of which the apostle exhorts them to be every child of God, acknowledges followers of the ancient worthies.** Christ to be God-man; how can he, Upon the Unitarian scheme, the so long as he continues a Trinitarian, conduct of the apostle Paul, in the recognize a person who has not this prospect of death, is much more confaith, as a child of God ?
solatory to the believer than that of Again, if a Trinitarian worships the prophet Jesus Christ; for the forJesus Christ, by honouring him with mer triumphed,tt while the latter the same honour with which he honours was “ exceeding sorrowful even unto the Father; how can a Unitarian ac- death."If It is to be observed, that knowledge him as a child of God, the object of Paul's love and confiwhile he is, according to the Unita-dence was Jesus Christ, a mere crearian's principles, an Idolater, or De- ture; while that of Christ's love and monolater; and the Scripture express obedience was the eternal God! In ly condemns idolaters and idolatry.* this case, the servant is above his Hence it would seem, that Unitarian- | Lord! ism is founded upon a basis different 2. An attentive and impartial reader from that of Christianity,
can scarcely refrain from viewing our In the next place, it will appear, author's fourth Reflection as a piece of that there exists as great a difference sophistry. His words are as follows; between the views of a Trinitarian and “Let us reflect with pleasure in how those of a Unitarian, with regard to many important articles of belief ALL the official character of Christ as the Christians are agreed.” Saviour of men. The former considers “ Respecting the origin of evil, the Jesus Christ as our Saviour, because nature of the human soul, the existhis death was a sacrifice for sin ;t the ence of an intermediate state, and the latter, because he taught the will of duration of punishment, together with God, and exhibited an example for our points of a similar kind, opinions have imitation. But surely there is a great been, and in this imperfect state will difference between the knowledge of ever continue to be, different. But on our duty, and the acceptance of our articles of faith, far more interesting in persons. According to the Unitarian themselves, and far more conducive to scheme, the Gentiles are more indebted our welfare, are not all Christians to Paul than to Jesus Christ for their united ? We all believe in the perfecsalvation; for the latter was the mi- tions and government of one God, in nister only of the circumcision,t while the degradation of human nature thro' the former was peculiarly the minister transgression; in the unspeakable effiof the uncircumcision. The mystery cacy of the life, death, and sufferings that the Gentiles should, under the of Jesus Christ; in the assurance of Gospel dispensation, be made fellow-divine aid; in the necessity of exerheirs with the believing Jews, was cising repentance, and of cultivating made known to Paul by the special re- holiness; in a resurrection from the velation of the Spirit, after Jesus dead; and in a future state of rewards Christ, as a teacher, had finished his and punishments.” course.ll
Our author classes with Christians The "example of Paul is highly the Swedenborgians, and the Shakers worthy of imitation. We are not left of America ; yet these two denominamerely to infer such a truth, for the tions, according to his own account, apostle himself enjoins the imitatiny deny the resurrection of the body. of his conduct.
As it regards the articles upon which It may be objected, that he had the rest agree, the agreement lies more Christ for a pattern. True; but it in words than in ideas. Take for an does not follow, that he would not example the following ; “the unspeak
able efficacy of the life, death, and founded on liberal principles, and yet sufferings, of Jesus Christ.” Upon the depart from these rules when their own Unitarian scheme, the life, death, and peculiarities come to be examined. sufferings of Jesus Christ, can be of no Strange as it may appear, bigotry is more efficacy than the life, death, and sometimes found in the minds of persufferings of the apostle Paul: while, sons noted for their free-thinking. according to Trinitarian views, Jesus They are conscious of their exoneraChrist is not only a medium of know- tion from the yoke of authority, while ledge concerning the divine character they want the penetration to discover and will, but a meritorious medium, that they are bound by prejudices of through which the divine mercy is ex- their own manufacture; and hence tended to sinners consistently with di- they imagine, that none are equally vine justice, as through which, in the sincere with themselves in the pursuit language of Scripture, “ God might of truth. be just, and” yet “ the justifier of
Aberdeen, 18th August, 1820. him that believeth in Jesus.”
In the list of subjects given by our author, concerning which there has
ESSAYS ON CREATION AND GEOLOGY. been a difference of opinion, nothing is said of the Divinity of Christ, and
Essay IX.—The Creation of Living the Atonement by his death. If our
Creatures, and an inquiry into their author had these doctrines in his view, he must have confined them to “points
nature, and the preservation of their of a similar kind” with those men
species ; being the work of the fifth tioned. If so, no person needs find
and anterior part of the sixth days of fault with him for concealing his own peculiar views. And if he did not in- HAVING in the preceding Essays clude these doctrines with points of a traced the various and gradually assimilar kind, bis own views of Christian cending steps of Creative Power, and charity will warrant us to ask the ques having at last seen the visible heavens tion, Where was his honesty?
illuminated with sun, moon, and stars, 3. Much is said, throughout the Re- and the earth, (furnished with vegeflections, in favour of the right of pri- tables) which, through the influence of vate judgment, and of the advantages the heavens, is now prepared to pour resulting from free inquiry; while lit-forth in abundance her luxuriant protle or nothing is said concerning the ductions; the question comes to be, danger which frequently attends the For what purpose were matters so arhabit of thinking for ourselves, or con- ranged? Shall we search for an ancerning the requisite qualifications for swer to this question in the theory of free inquiry. Infidels of every descrip- | Mr. Macnab? Then we observe him tion think for themselves; and it is to having recourse to the geologists, and be suspected, that few of such charac- seemingly giving credit to all that they ters will be found free from pride of say respecting the amazing antiquity intellect, and insubordination to the of the globe. Supreme Being. It was justly ob- By the help of his aions, he says, served by a great man, well qualified “ Generations after generations of veto judge,' “ that the greatest enemy to getables seem to have rolled away, the truth of the Bible is a bad heart.” during these immeasurable ages, de
Thousands of Christians who think positing immense masses of carbonafor themselves, would prefer the im- ceous matter, which are found far beplicit faith of the members of the neath the present surface of the earth.” Romish Communion, to the lawless li- | Thus does he in effect charge folly berty of the Free-thinking Christians. | upon the God of wisdom : for is it at It is, however, to be lamented, that so all becoming the majesty, power, and few think for themselves on religious wisdom of the Divine Being, to say, subjects. Of such as do think for that all this labour and grandeur of themselves at all, comparatively few operation, occupying such a space of do so uniformly. It is as easy to set time too, should be for the paltry purup one's own dogmas as a standard of pose suggested in this quotation ? But truth, as it is to become an implicit without regarding the vain speculafollower of others. There are some tions of men, when we have recourse that acknowledge rules of investigation to God's own account of the matter,
we find things appearing under a dif- ture; by the operation of which every ferent aspect.
vestige connecting them with their forWe discover, on the one hand, no mer state of existence will soon be abunnecessary lapse of time between the sorbed and swallowed up in the latcreation of vegetables and that of the ter. solar powers, to render them pro- Life is therefore evidently a principle ductive; and on the other, no unne to which we can give nothing but an cessary period between this arrange- arbitrary name; a principle communiment, the effect of which is the pro- cated from one living animal to another duction of food for living creatures, throughout successive ages, which and the creation of living creatures to must be traced back to a First Cause; subsist on them. Immediately after which first cause must have this namethe production of the vegetable king less principle essentially residing in dom, were the celestial lights ordained, himself-entering his very nature and and immediately after the celestial constitution, with a power to commulights, which are the cause of the nicate it to whomsoever or whatsoever growth of vegetables,—were animals | he will. produced to subsist on them. Thus! This is the best definition we can from the very beginning, was there a give of this subtile subject. What harmony established in the world of signifies it to consider life merely in nature, between the heavens and the the creature, who holds it not necessaearth, and the beings which inhabitrily, but entirely at the will and pleathe earth. Nor must the divine wis- sure of the Creator ? dom and goodness manifested by such Since then it proceeds from God an arrangement escape our notice. alone, he must be viewed in this part Animals are not ushered into existence of the creation as imparting a printill there is provision made for their ciple, even the principle we call life, subsistence; which, with the tran to some particles of dead matter which sitions already noticed, shews the ar they did not possess before. And from rangement to be infinitely wise, and this first emanation of the principle of exactly what we should expect. life from the Creator himself, we see it
The operation of the fifth and sixth continued down to the present moment days of Creation, consisting of the pro- by means of parent and offspring, duction of living creatures, is calcu- through the successive generations lated in its nature to lead to wonderful through which the world has passed. speculations. Of all the divine opera Thus reckoning either backward or tions bitherto examined, this is the forward, we are necessarily brought to most astonishing. Life! What is life? | the same conclusion: name
the same conclusion; namely, that Who can define what it is? Observe mere matter has no life in itself, at its effects. See it in the horse, the least not that kind of life of which we dog, the fly,-in the largest and strong- are speaking; and that all the life est animal, or in the most diminutive which exists in the world at the preand weakest insect. How they exer- sent moment, and in the present genecise their functions, put forth their ration, was, by a concatenation which strength, distinguish themselves every Almighty God from the beginning one after its kind,-in walking, flying, | established, derived, first, from the eating, and in every thing else; having last moment,-(for it is to the last moevidently the gross matter of their ment of my existence that I owe, bodies so united to some principle under God, the present ;) and secondwithin, as to convert the whole into ly, from the former generation, for it another sort of substance from that is to my parents, in like manner under which it possessed in the chemical or God, that I am indebted for my existvegetable state; and which principle ence at first. And so on we must proseems to have the entire control of ceed in our calculation backward, from the matter thus constituting their re- moment to moment, and from generaspective bodies. See these same bo- tion to generation, till we come to the dies when they are deprived of this fifth and sixth days of the Creation, principle: the exercise of all their and arrive at the precise and deterfunctions is at an end. Their body is minate point when the principle we now a carcase running to putrefaction; call life began to emanate from the they have undergone a transition from Eternal himself, and to be diffused the animal to the chemical laws of na- among so many short-lived creatures
which have in successive moments and from the fact, that alligators and other generations existed since.
amphibious animals, and fishes, bave And as God at first imparted life to been found in the undermost of the creatures, and by a constitution he bas strata containing fossil bones; yet it formed still sustains it, so life may be appears that the Mosaic system is considered, when the creature dies, as founded upon principles very different retiring to its original source again. from theirs. If Moses, for instance, Thus computing backward, all the liv- says that fishes were created to-day, he ing creatures which have ever existed assures us that land animals were not may be considered as resembling a long in following, for that they were vast army on their march, when viewed created to-morrow. The Mosaic acthrough that wonderful optical instru-count affords not the smallestground for ment, the Kaleidoscope of Dr. Brewster; the romantic theory of the geologists; by which we observe, as they suc- and it is but like a drowning man cessively advance, they first come into catching at a straw after all other hope notice at the circumference, thence is gone, for them to fix upon this incipass along the angles, till at last they dent of Moses to support a dying are absorbed in the centre, which may cause. Nor, let it be observed, of the be considered as the object whence aquatic tribe of animals, were they proceeded their life and motion; which alligators and other amphibiæ only, life and motion in a manner lead them and the particular kinds of fish which back to their original point, where have been found in these strata, which they are all again swallowed up in are said by Moses to have been created Him, and are seen no more.
first; but they were fishes of all descripThus we observe, that ever since tions, “great whales, and every living this memorable epoch,“ One genera creature that moveth, which the waters tion passeth away, and another genera brought forth abundantly,” together tion cometh, but the earth abideth for with the winged tribes which were to ever ;'* still affording the same sus- fly in the open firmament of heaven." tenance for the creatures, which not All, all the fish of the sea, and the fowls only preserves them in existence from of the air, were created on the selfmoment to moment, but inspires them same day. Nor were these long alone, with powers to propagate their species, but were followed by the creation of by which they shall continue, though all the other tribes of animals, on the not as individuals, yet as genera and following day. species, as long as the earth endures. The creation, I say, of all the inferior
Having thus arrived at the origin or tribes of terrestrial animals constituted source of life, and demonstrated the the first part of the operations of the fact, that the life of the creature must sirth day. And therefore, if fishes were be derived from a Being who possesses created only on the preceding day, life essentially in himself, and who where was the time for the formation has power to communicate or with of the strata whish contain the fishes, hold it as he chooses; we are now previous to the creation of the land prepared to attend briefly to the Crea animals, provided the strata were tor's operations at the present period, formed in the manner which geologists when the universe for the first time suppose ? This shews that it is a, teemed with life and animated motion, mere delusion to quote the Mosaic and with every demonstration of hap- order of the creation of fishes before piness and enjoyment, which in a va- the land animals, in support of their riety of ways shewed forth the Creator's theory. praise.
In regard to the creation of the terSome Geologists seem to think they restrial animals, it is said, Gen. i. 24. pay Moses a compliment, by remark- | 25. “ And God said, Let the earth ing that the formation of fishes before bring forth the living creature after its land animals, is an interesting coinci- kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast dence between modern discovery and of the earth, after their kind; and it was the ancient sacred account. But I so. And God made the beast of the ask, How is it so? Though they may earth after its kind, and cattle after their imagine that Moses, in this particular kind, and every thing that creepeth upon coincides with their inferences drawn the earth after its kind : and God saw
that it was good.” * Eccl. i. 4.
Here the original of all kinds of