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686 voooooonstrowansosomorowansowanesconcernananda Field Southernwood, Artemisia Cam- of the public. Hence arose great pestris ; Sea Wormwood, A. maritima; complaints, and open reproaches, all Common Wormwood, A. absinthium ; being indignant that men of their age, Magwort, A. vulgaris; Canada Flea- (they are both past seventy,) should, bane, Erigeron Canadense; Sea Star- for the sake of occupying the pontiwort, Aster tripolium ; Common Flea- fical chair for a few years, lay aside bane, Inula dysenterica; Samphire- the fear of God, and disregard the leaved Fleabane, I. crithmoides ; Corn censure of men. Such were the angry Feverfew, Pyrethrum inodorum ; Com- remarks of people in general. If you mon Chamomile, Anthemis nobilis ; ask my opinion, I was persuaded that Spiral Ophrys, 0. spiralis; Small our Pontiff was deceived by those Burdock, Xanthium strumarium; Wild whom I have mentioned above, and Amaranth, Amaranthus blitum; Com- that evil counsellors filled him with mon Hornwort, Ceratophyllum demer- empty fears: for I had from the besum ; Upright Orache, Atriplex erecta; ginning witnessed his upright intenGrass-leaved Sea Orache, A. litto- tions, and I could not conceive that ralis ; Pedunculated Sea Orache, A. a good man could, without the mispedunculata.
chievous interference of others, undergo so great a change. If I had ima
gined that he entertained any crooked MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND Times of views, you should not have anticipated LEONARDO ARETINO
my departure from his court.
“ Affairs being in this posture, there (Continued from col. 630.)
arose a new occasion of disturbance. “ The Antipope indeed entertained His Holiness determined to proceed no honourable designs; but he con to an election of Cardinals. To this cealed his evil intentions by a spe- step he was incited by two causes : cious shew of integrity; and his cause in the first place, he was desirous of was esteemed the better of the two. making a requital to his partisans, For he had both repaired to Savona who were very importunate with him on the appointed day, which our mas- for some remuneration for their serter had failed to do, and had after-vices. In the second place, because wards, with a semblance of eagerness, he was in hopes that the introduction come to the shore of Tuscany, whilst of some new members into the sacred we were yet delaying. And having college would mitigate the vehemence thus come, as I may say, to our terri- of the ancient cardinals. It was not tory, he seemed to be justified in de- to be doubted that the Fathers would claring that he would not quit the sea object to this new intention of his side, lest he should be deprived of Holiness; and custom will not allow the protection of his fleet; but that he any such proceeding to be adopted would meet our master in any place without their consent. Being detercontiguous to the sea. Such were mined, therefore, to make a strenuthe proposals of Benedict. But our ous effort, he summoned the Fathers Pontiff, on the contrary, refused to to a council. They hastily assemcome down to the shore ; and pro- bled, each forming a different conposed to hold the meeting in an in-jecture, as to the occasion of their land town, and further stipulated that being summoned. The place of meetthe town in question should be one ing had been privately fitted up for which acknowledged his authority. their reception. The Pontiff came Thus the one, like an aquatic animal, from his chamber, and seated himself would not come upon the dry land; and on his throne. The Fathers, in purthe other, like a land animal, dreaded suance of orders to that purport, took the sight of water. In these circum- their places. The assembly being stances our grief was imbittered by constituted, his Holiness, contrary to our knowledge of the general per- the received custom, retained about suasion, that for the two counter pro- his person two of his domestics, and posals neither the one nor the other excluded the rest of the multitude. incurred any hazard. It was, more- Whether he did this, in order that over, thought that both the parties upon occasion he might avail himself were well aware of this, and that they of assistance, or for some other cause, purposely simulated fear, in order to | I know not. After waiting for a little frustrate the expectations and wishes while in silence, he looked upon the
Cardinals with no pleasant counte- | Librafatta, in the neighbourhood of nance, and said, “I command that no which a skirmish took place, and one of you arise." This first speech some of the horsemen were wounded. of his struck the auditors with sudden When intelligence of this was brought astonishment; and whilst one was to Lucca, the Prince of that city, fearlooking indignantly one way and an- ing to provoke the anger of the Floother another, Henrico, the Cardinal rentines by this apparent violation of of Tusoulum, said, “What is this, boly their territory, arrested the horsemen Father, and what is the meaning of who had done this mischief, immedithis command?" "Since,' says the ately on their return. His Holiness Pontiff, “I cannot carry on affairs pro- was also much hurt by the error of perly in association with you, I in- his soldiers, and was extremely contend to provide for the safety of the cerned at this infringement of the Church.' To this Henrico, with a rights and dignity of the Florentine countenanoe glowing with passion, re- republic. He, therefore, instantly plies, 'Nay, you intend to destroy the sent for Marcello Strozza, a man of Church. Here, when all were indig considerable eminence, who then renant, but still kept their seats, Ray- sided at his court, and myself; and naldo, deacon of St. Vitus in Macello, assured us that what had taken place, a man, as I then thought, preeminent had happened in pursuance of no abote the rest in courage, suddenly command of his, but merely through arose, and said, 'Let us rather die.' | the rashness of his soldiers; and he He is, as you know, a man of tall ordered us to go to Florence, and stature. Most of the Cardinals, there- make the necessary explanations to fore, followed his example.
that state. “ In these new and unexpected cir 1 “ Whilst we were in his presence, recumstances, it was easy to determine ceiving his instructions, some one upon the view, how much vigour of suddenly entered, and announced the mind was possessed by each indivi- intelligence that all the Cardinals were dual. Some were red, others pale ; gone away in a body. On the receipt some scolded, others supplicated. I of this news, the Pontiff immediately saw Cardinal Calonna at the feet of dismissed us, being obliged to turn the Pontiff, entreating him to forego his attention to other matters. For his resolution; the Cardinal of Lodi, true indeed were the tidings of the on the contrary, I behold in a mena- departure of the Cardinals, who havcing and angry attitude; whilst the ing, by the arrest of the horsemen, Cardinal of Bourdeaux, acting the been rid of the fear which they had part of a mediator, now attempted to formerly entertained of them and of assuage the wrath of his angry bre- the Prince, had determined to make thren, and now addressed prayers to no secret of their secession. They the Pontiff. Thus the council was were assisted in this enterprise by a dismissed without having transacted citizen of Florence, who had arrived a any business--but not before an edict few days ago at Lucca, and who was issued by the Pontiff, forbidding loudly complained of the invasion of the Fathers to leave Lucca, or to the territory of his country by the meet without his authority. This pontifical troops. Alarmed by his edict was thought to indicate on the clamour, and dreading to be made part of the Pontiff no small degree of responsible for this casual incursion, asperity and suspicion. Greater com- | the Prince of Lucca suffered the Carmotions, therefore, immediately fol- dinals to take their departure for lowed, which broke through all re- Pisa, where they arrived on the same straints; for after the publication of day that they quitted his territories. this edict, the Cardinal of Lodi put | The secession of the Fathers was, inon a disguise, and effected bis escape deed, a lamentable spectacle; but in from Lucca. When this was known, my opinion, the courtiers soon after some horsemen were sent to bring him wards made a still more pitiful exhiback by force. These, following him bition: for there was on their part with little attention, proceeded to the great diversity of conduct, some acterritory of Pisa, which is under the companying the Cardinals, others redominion of the Florentines. In the maining with the Pope, while many meantime, the Cardinal had escaped were uncertain and wavering. there by taking refuge in the town of these circumstances, complaints and
murmurs every where prevailed. In
L. Lire or MARTIN LUTHER. the course of a little time, the Pontiff ' created four new Cardinals. I could
(Continued from col. 611.) wish that this creation had been made When Luther was still at school, he under better auspices; for, if I am was accustomed, as soon as he had not mistaken, many and terrible cala- finished his scholastic exercises, to mities impend over us. As to my-tune, or to make verses, or to devote self, I do not desert the Pontiff, to himself to music. He thus formed whom I am bound by the ties of affec- himself to a good musician, who not tion and duty,-duty from which I only could sing well, and play well cannot recede without the loss of my upon several instruments, but was reputation. At the same time I must also able himself to compose. bo permitted to declare, that many Even that great (artist) musician, the transactions which take place here, immortal Handel, confessed that he by no means meet my approbation."* studied Luther's compositions, and had
The laborious and learned editor of to thank him for much. No wonder the letters of Leonardo Aretino, Lo- then, that Luther entertained a good renzo Mehus, a zealous Roman Ca- opinion of every judge and friend of tholic, is much scandalized by the music, and compared those who had freedom with which the learned Flo no feeling for this noble art to stocks rentine animadverts, in the foregoing and stones. In his commendatory epistle, on the conduct of the sove- speech on music, he says, amongst reign Pontiff. In a cautionary note, other things, “As I from my heart would he styles him rash and inconsiderate; willingly laud and extol this beautiful and calls upon those who, with him and costly gift of God, this free self, regard the Fathers of the faithful science of music; so I find also it has with becoming veneration, to repro- great and many advantages, that I do bate the exercise of such unwarrantable not know where to commence or to liberty in criticizing the proceedings end its praise. First, we find from the of the head of the Church. But by beginning of the world, it was given to Protestant readers, Leonardo will be each creature of God; for there is noesteemed as a man of upright feelings thing in the world that cannot express and of an independent mind, who a sound or a noise, but even the air, could distinguish between obsequi- when it is moved or agitated, gives a ousness and obedience, and who was music or sound. Secondly, in the well aware that the errors of the great beasts, and particularly birds, the muare in general occasioned by the sic, sound, and song, are more wonderflattery of their attendants. His ful. Ah! what an heavenly music is narrative, admitting us within the it which the Almighty Lord in heaven veil which is suspended before the has conferred upon his songster, the chair of St. Peter, exhibits to us the lovely nightingale, with all her young Pontiff, urged by worldly ambition, scholars, and so many thousand birds descending to the meanness of pre- in the air, as every species has its own varication, and attempting to sup- manner and melody, its charming port detestable fraud by open vio- sweet voice and wonderful colouring, lence. The schism of the west was, which no man upon earth can comindeed, a fatal shock to the pontifical prehend. How does king David, that authority. The mutual anathemas of precious musician, who himself says, the rival Popes shook the fidelity even - On the same sit the birds of heaven, of the credulous and of the super- and sing among the branches ;' what stitious. To judge of the contend- shall I say of the human voice then, ing claims of the adverse parties, rea- in comparison of which, all other songs, son was necessarily called into exer- tune, or sound, is not to be reckoned. cise; and when once reason is applied for many learned people have ento a system which depends for its deavoured to investigate the human support on implicit faith, the doom of voice, and to comprehend how it that system is sealed-its duration in arises, that the air, through a small the plenitude of its power cannot be and trivial movement of the tongue, of long continuance.
and after that through a still less mo(To be continued.)
tion of the throat or neck, in many
different ways and manners, after it * Leonardi Aretini Epistolae, lib. ii. ep. 21. lis governed and ruled by the will,
express powerful and forcible words, cation of the saints, of the mother of sound, song, and noise, that it may be God, of adoration of relics, of purgaheard and understood by every one tory, and masses for the dead,- pardons far and wide, and all around by every and their power,- of fasts, and senseperson distinguishably. Therefore, I less miraculous stories,—that in those will recommend to every one this art, times of darkness, every thing was and particularly to young people, and done to keep the poor multitude in igherewith caution them, that they norance, and to exalt the power and esteem and value this precious, use- greatness of the hierarchy, and the ful, and joyful creature of God, by the holiness of the clergy, above all conacknowledgment of which, and indus- ceptions of religions. They repretrious cultivation, they may at times sented (says Luther) a ship called the drive away evil thoughts, and avoid Christian Church, wherein no laymen bad company and vice, and thereafter sat, nor king nor princes, but only the accustom themselves to know, praise, Pope with the cardinals and bishops, and magnify God the Creator in this under the Holy Ghost, with Popes his creature. He, however, who has and monks at his side, with which no love or desire for it, and not moved they sailed to heaven. The laymen by such a lovely work of wonder, must swam in the water around the ship; truly be a gross block, who is not some sank, some drew themselves to worthy to hear such delightful melody, the vessel by cords and ropes, which but to listen to the asses' wild braying, the holy fathers threw out to them out or the music and song of dogs and of favour and reward for their good swine."
works, and helped others from drownHe followed also turning in the ing, so that they might come to heasequel, as a favourite amusement, as ven sticking and hanging to the vessel. may be seen by a letter to his friend But in the water there was never a Linck, in the year 1525.-- I, and my pope, cardinal, bishop, or monk, nofriend Wolf, have taken turnery in thing but laymen. hand. We send you herewith a gold Whilst Luther studied at Erfurth, guilder, begging you to send us two he once, in company with his good or three hollow chisels and turning in- friend Alexias, paid a visit to his pastruments, and also two or three screws. rents at Mansfield. Both were on We have certainly some tools, but we their return to Erfurth, when suddenly want some of your neat Nuremberg his friend, struck with the lightning, ware. Do me this favour; what it sunk by his side, and Luther also fell costs more I will return with thanks. down senseless. This circumstance I know one can procure such things moved his inmost soul, and he made very cheap with you; therewith, in the vow, that he would go into a cloiscase the world will not give us a living ter, because, in conformity with the on account of the word of God, we opinion of that time, he considered that may hereafter get our bread by our / state the best and most pleasing to own handy work.
| God, and hoped, through the exercises When he studied at Erfurth, he of the cloister, to make sure of a joyfound in the library of the university, ful salvation. He himself writes which he then visited the first time in thus: “ Thereupon I did not become a his life, a Latin Bible, the book which monk, on account of eating, or for in the sequel he placed in the hands the belly's sake; but being surrounded of many millions. The subject is with horror and anguish of death, 1 weighty enough, to hear his own words vowed a forced and constrained vow." thereupon.--"When I was twenty years Some time after, he entered into the old, I had never seen a bible, and cloister of the Augustines at Erfurth, thought that the whole bible consist- and became a monk. He found, howed in the gospels and epistles which ever, sore cause to repent this step. were recited every Sunday in the Through his assiduous studies, he church.”
made the monks his enemies, who had It cannot appear to us strange, that the principle, they ought not to spend in those times, when the scholars were their time at a cloister on study, but forbidden to quote any thing from the in begging for bread, grain, eggs, fish, bible, when the books of the heatben meat, and money. From hence, Luphilosophers were explained in the ther seems to have borrowed his strong pulpit, and they spoke only of invo- | description of the monkish state, when
be says, Monks are a lazy people, on of schools was not less important with which account they can neither rule him, and he founded several new ones. or keep house; they do nothing but Without schools (said he) men would prattle in the church, eat, drink, and become bears and wolves. It cannot sleep, and are like fed swine; they remain as it is ; therefore we will put therefore become nothing but rude a hand to the work, and provide blockheads, and lazy rogues. And in schoolmasters. I know of no condianother place he says, A monk is ation upon earth which I would prefer. lad, free from any cares of the church, We must, however, not view it as the town's service; or as the louse, a lazy world rewards and considers it, but as gluttonous brother, eating the goods God esteems it. How much he valued of other people, obtained by the sweat the conscientious schoolman, and how of their brow. Monks, however, do much it pained his kind heart that not permit themselves to be provoked man underrated that situation to which without remark, and Luther must feel the state owes so much obligation, may their displeasure in all its circum- be seen out of the following passage: ference. They committed to him the “An industrious and pious schoolmasmost troublesome and dirty work, in ter or magister, who truly educates order to keep him from his studies. and teaches children, can never be For instance, he was obliged to wind sufficiently rewarded, nor be paid with up the clock, open and close the doors, any money; which even the heathen beg daily for the abbey, and even | Aristotle affirms. With us, however, clean the private places. The univer- it is shamefully despised, as if it was sity of which Luther was a member nothing ; and nevertheless we will be and magister, reckoned this a disgrace Christians. And when I could or put upon them, and applied on that must be dismissed from the preacher's account to Doctor Von Stampitz, first office, I know of none I would so soon deacon of the theological faculty of choose as that of a teacher of boys. Wittemberg. Through his mediation, For I am convinced, that this, next to Luther was freed from all his mean the office of preacher, is the most useoccupations in the abbey, and on that ful, great, and best: for it is very difaccount could apply with more zeal to ficult to tame old dogs, and make old his studies. Respecting his subse-sinners pious, at which the priest's quent ordination as priest, he gives office must work, and often much in the following account. “My conse- vain ; but the young and teachable one crating bishop, when he made me a may better draw and turn, notwithpriest, and gave me the cup into my standing many may break in the opehand, spoke no otherwise than thus : | ration.” Take here the power to atone for the When Luther was examined before living and the dead. That the earth the papal legate and Cardinal Cagidid not swallow us up, was wonderful, tan, a courtier tried to frighten him and therefore a proof of the great pa- with this question ; Where he would tience and forbearance of God.” When remain, in case he should lose the Staxepitz had to undertake a journey Elector's protection, who, on his sole in the country of the Elector of Sax- account, would hardly go to war? ony, he entrusted to Luther the direc- Luther answered, smiling, Under the tion of 40 Augustin convents, in Thurin- canopy of heaven. The courtier was gia and Meissin, under his inspection. silent. Luther met with the greatest abuses, After the fruitless examination beand in some degree the most abomin- fore the Cardinal Cagitan, the Pope able excesses, and was more and more sent his Chamberlain, Von Miltiz, to milled with horror, for a situation which Germany, in order to settle the dislattened upon the spoil of pious sim- pute with Luther.--Miltiz possessed plicity; and, alas! too often contri- | far greater knowledge of mankind, buted to the ruin of the remaining and was better furnished with prupart of mankind. He did as much as dence and moderation, than Cagitanwas possible with his confined means; in short, he was quite the man that de undertook in the convents many the Pope should have chosen for this new arrangements, recommended to business'; and he commenced the mathe monks an assiduous reading of the ter more in a friendly, than in a theodoly scriptures, and a way of life con- logical manner." My dear Martin," want therewith. The improvement was his salutation, the first time he ad