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OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.
MEN IN SAVAGE LIFE, ARE DESTITUTE OF BOOKS."
off the floods, which swell over the
banks, and carry all before them. With a Catalogue of all really British Sometimes the effects are more awful Plants, as they come into Flower.
still; the shock, in proceeding from the cloud to the earth, or from the earth
to the cloud, proves fatal to the lives This is the most important month in of men or animals, frequently with the year to Britain. The warmth, circumstances of curious interest. An and gentle showers of Summer, have electric cloud, thus highly charged, brought the different species of corn commonly traverses some part of a to perfection; and man proceeds to district every year, but within narrow reap the fruit of the bounty of his bounds, and rarely in the same tract Maker.
in two following years. The means The sight of the country at this of safety from a positive or charged period, is pleasing in a high degree; cloud, are easily pointed out. The not, as it has been rightly observed, passenger should avoid taking refuge on account of its picturesque effect, under any thing which is lofty, partibut because it conveys the idea of cularly if the summit be pointed; and fully employed industry, and the at- he should be careful to keep moving. tainment of a blessing, about which In a room, he should keep at a dishope and anxiety have been exercised. tance from metallic substances, more Fine weather is required at this season, especially they communicate with and it is usually enjoyed; the air is the external air; and in general, the calm, hot, and sultry, and the human safest place is in the middle of the body is more relaxed than even the room. A damp situation, in all cases, temperature, as indicated by the ther- is to be selected; and perhaps, as an mometer, seems to account for; we additional security, the feet might be may therefore suppose, that it pro- placed in a vessel of water. Against ceeds from the air being surcharged the returning stroke, or shock given with electric fluid. Accordingly, it is off from the earth to a negative or common for striking electrical pheno- discharged cloud, the means of demena to be displayed at this season ; fence are not so easily obtained, though the atmosphere gathers a thick and perhaps to people in the open air this heavy gloom; a pause seems to take is the most frequent source of danger. place in the operations of nature, The most prudent plan would appear whilst a pitchy cloud, more dense and to be, to wear non-conductors about awful than the general mass with the feet, such as silk stockings; or which it is surrounded, floats heavily the soles of the shoes might be charged along. At last, and to those engaged with rosin. Any thing of iron on the in labour, very unexpectedly, a tre- soles of the shoes, as is now so much mendous' flash is seen, followed by the custom, is productive of danger the most heart-appalling sound: in these circumstances. “ The voice of the Lord is upon the Hops, which are the female floreswaters: the God of glory thundereth- cence of the Humulus lupulus, are the voice of the Lord is powerful and gathered at this time; and in districts
The voice of the where they are cultivated, they afford Lord breaketh the cedars. The voice busy employment to the poor. When of the Lord divideth the flames of twined about the pole, few vegetable fire. The voice of the Lord shaketh productions exceed this plant in the wilderness.” The rain pours in beauty, but the crop is very uncer
and in a short time the tain; at the beginning of the month, rivers' channels, which just before the Pilchard fishery commences on were nearly dry, are unable to carry the shores of Cornwall. The Pilchar No. 30,-Vol. III.
full of majesty,
much resembles the herring, but is Galium religiosum; Sea Plantain, somewhat smaller and much fatter. Plantago maritima; Fringed BuckBeing both gregarious and harmless, bean, Menyanthes
Menyanthes nymphæoides ; this fish is followed and persecuted Round-leaved Bellflower, Campanula by numerous species of voracious rotundifolia; and three other species ; creatures, some of which visit the Round-headed Rampion, Phyteuma coast at no other period. Among these orbiculare; Acrid Lobelia, L. urens; are the Grampus, and others of the Touch-me-not, Impatiens noli me tanWhale tribe, the blue and white gere; Large-flowered Mullein, VerSharks, with other more common spe- bascum virgatum; Dwarf-branch'd cies, and several scarcely less greedy Centaury, Chironia pulchella; Upcreatures of the genus Gadus. The right Goosefoot, Chenopodium urbipursuit of the Pilchard is also a chief cum; and six other species; Sea Beet, cause of the arrival of the Doree; Beta maritima; Greater and Lesser which, though apparently a slow mov- Dodder, Cuscuta Europæa & Epithying fish, finds means of preying on mum; Marsh Felwort, Swertia perthose which are very swift. About ennis; Marsh Gentian, Gentiana this period, the Mackarel reaches the pneumonanthe ; Small Alpine and shores of the Orkney Islands, where Autumnal Geatian, G. nivalis & amait continues but a short time, and then rella; Mountain Stone Parsley, Athareturns to the Atlantic deeps.
mantalibanotis; Meadow SulphurThe Swift, the largest British bird wort, Peucedanum Silaus; Sea Samof the genus Hirundo, disappears in phiré, Crithmum maritimum; Hedge the earlier part of August, sometimes Honewort, Sison amomum; Corn even so soon as the first or second Honewort, S. segetum; Water Hemday; and it has been remarked, that lock, Cicuta virosa; Wild Celery, this and others of its genus retire Apium graveolens; Asparagus, A. earliest in the warmest seasons. The officinalis: Fiddle Dock, Rumex pulmusic of the grove is by this time cher; Scottish Asphodel, Tofiddia pahushed; except, perhaps, that from lustris; Small Water Plantain, Alisma the Redbreast and Wren, which birds ranunculoides; Small Waterwort, having moulted their coats early, re- Elatine hydropiper; Yellow Marsh
their notes somewhat before Saxifrage, Saxifraga hirculus; Soapthe other winged minstrels. Insects wort, Saponaria officinalis; Sea Camabound; and the progeny of those pion, Silene maritima; Orpine, Sewhich appeared early in the year, help dum telephium; Grasspoly, Lythrum to swell the numbers which now crowd hyssopifolium; Portland and Sea the air. The Dragon Fly makes its Spurge, Euphorbia Portlandica & paappearance. There are several spe- ralia ; Seven species of Mint, Mentha; cies, but the chief and commonest is Red Hemp Nettle, Galeopsis Ladathe Libellula grandis, a strong and num; Marsh Woundwort, Stactys parapid insect, which is indeed a dragon lustris; Wild Basil, Clinopodium vulto the creatures it is able to overcome. gare; Lesser Calamint, Thymus neThey all feed on insects, frequenting peta; Lesser Skullcap, Scutellaria watery places, where in their larva minor; Branched Broområpe, Orostate their time is wholly spent; and banché ramosa ; Daisy-leaved Ladies' when perfect, are not only bold and Smock, Cardamine bellidifolia; Sea voracious, but are able to bear con- Stock, Cheiranthus sinuatus;
Smallsiderable blows without injury. Va- flowered Fumitory, Fumaria parvirious kinds of fruit come into season; flora; Dwarf-Furze, Ulex nanus; and are both delicious and refreshing Rough-podded Yellow Vetch, Vicia amidst the heat of the weather.
Corn Sow Thistle, Sonchus arCome into flower in August :-Marsh vensis; Strong-scented and two other and Shrubby Samphire, Salicornia species of Lettuce, Lactuca ; Alpine herbacea & fruticosa; Grasslorack, Hedypnois, H. Taraxici; Autumnal Zostera marina ; eight species of Rush, Hedypnois, H. autumnalis; Shaggy Schoenus scirpus, & Juncus genera; Alpine Hawkweed, Hiracium villosix species of Grass, Milium agrostis, sum, and three other species; Milk Melica dactylis,
Avena, & Rotbollia and woolly-headed Thistle, Carduus genera; Small Teasel, Dipsacus pi- marianus & eriophorus; Trifid Bur losus; Devil's-bit Scabious, Scabiosa Marygold, Bidens tripartita ; Sea succisa; Rough Marsh Bedstraw, Cotton Weed, Santolina maritima ;
Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.
Field Southernwood, Artemisia Cam- of the public. Hence arose great pestris ; Sea Wormwood, A. maritima; complaints, and open reproaches, all Common Wormwood, A. absinthium ; being indignant that men of their age, Mugwort, A. vulgaris; Canada Flea- |(they are both past seventy,) should, bane, Erigeron Canadense; Sea Star- for the sake of occupying the pontiwort, Aster tripolium ; Common Flea- fical chair for a few years, lay aside bane, Inula dysenterica; Samphire- the fear of God, and disregard the leaved Fleabane, I. crithmoides; Corn censure of men. Such were the angry Feverfew, Pyrethrum inodorum; Com- remarks of people in general. If you mon Chamomile, Anthemis nobilis; ask my opinion, I was persuaded ihat Spiral Ophrys, 0. spiralis ; Small our Pontiff was deceived by those Burdock, Xanthium strumarium; Wild whom I have mentioned above, and Amaranth, Amaranthus blitum; Com- that evil counsellors filled him with mon Hornwort, Ceratophyllum demer- empty fears: for I had from the besum ; Upright Orache, Atriplex erecta; ginning witnessed his upright intenGrass-leaved Sea Orache, A. litto- tions, and I could not conceive that ralis ; Pedunculated Sea Orache, A. a good man could, without the mispedunculata.
chievous interference of others, undergo so great a change. If I had ima
gined that he entertained any crooked MEMOIRS OF the life and times of views, you should not have anticipated
my departure from his court.
“ Affairs being in this posture, there (Continued from col. 630.)
arose a new occasion of disturbance. The Antipope indeed entertained His Holiness determined to proceed no honourable designs; but he con- to an election of Cardinals. To this cealed his evil intentions by a spe- step he was incited by two causes : cious shew of integrity; and his cause in the first place, he was desirous of was esteemed the better of the two. making a requital to his partisans, For he had both repaired to Savona who were very importunate with him on the appointed day, which our mas- for some remuneration for their serter had failed to do, and had after- vices. In the second place, because wards, with a semblance of eagerness, he was in hopes that the introduction come to the shore of Tuscany, whilst of some new members into the sacred we were yet delaying. And having college would mitigate the vehemence thus come, as I may say, to our terri- of the ancient cardinals. It was not tory, he seemed to be justified in de- to be doubted that the Fathers would claring that he would not quit the sea object to this new intention of his side, lest he should be deprived of Holiness; and custom will not allow the protection of his fleet; but that he any such proceeding to be adopted would meet our master in any place without their consent. Being detercontiguous to the sea. Such were mined, therefore, to make a strenuthe proposals of Benedict. But our ous effort, he summoned the Fathers Pontiff, on the contrary, refused to to a council. They hastily assemcome down to the shore; and pro- bled, each forming a different conposed to hold the meeting in an in-jecture as to the occasion of their land town, and further stipulated that being summoned. The place of meetthe town in question should be one ing had been privately fitted up for which acknowledged his authority. their reception. The Pontiff came Thus the one, like an aquatic animal, from his chamber, and seated himself would not come upon the dry land; and on his throne. The Fathers, in purthe other, like a land animal, dreaded suance of orders to that purport, took the sight of water. In these circum- their places. The assembly being stances our grief was imbittered by constituted, his Holiness, contrary to our knowledge of the general per- the received custom, retained about suasion, that for the two counter pro- his person two of his domestics, and posals neither the one nor the other excluded the rest of the multitude. incurred any hazard. It was, more
Whether he did this, in order that over, thought that both the parties upon occasion he might avail himself were well aware of this, and that they of assistance, or for some other cause, purposely simulated fear, in order to I know not. After waiting for a little frustrate the expectations and wishes while in silence, he looked upon the
688 Cardinals with no pleasant counte- | Librafatta, in the neighbourhood of nance, and said," I command that no which a skirmish took place, and one of you arise." This first speech some of the horsemen were wounded. of his struck the auditors with sudden When intelligence of this was brought astonishment; and whilst one was to Lucca, the Prince of that city, fearlooking indignantly one way and an- ing to provoke the anger of the Floother another, Henrico, the Cardinal rentines by this apparent violation of of Tusoulum, said, “What is this, boly their territory, arrested the horsemen Father, and what is the meaning of who had done this mischief, immedithis command?" "Since,' says the ately on their return. His Holiness Pontiff, “I cannot carry on affairs pro- was also much hurt by the error of perly in association with you, I in- his soldiers, and was extremely contend to provide for the safety of the cerned at this infringement of the Church. To this Henrico, with a rights and dignity of the Florentine countenance glowing with passion, re- republic. He, therefore, instantly plies, ' Nay, you intend to destroy the sent for Marcello Strozza, a man of Church. Here, when all were indig- considerable eminence, who then renant, but still kept their seats, Ray- sided at his court, and myself; and naldo, deacon of St. Vitus in Macello, assured us that what had taken place, a man, as I then thought, preeminent had happened in pursuance of no abote the rest in courage, suddenly command of his, but merely through arose, and said, 'Let us rather die.' the rashness of his soldiers ; and he He is, as you know, a man of tall ordered us to go to Florence, and stature. Most of the Cardinals, there- make the necessary explanations to fore, followed his example.
that state. “ In these new and unexpected cir- “ Whilst we were in his presence, recumstances, it was easy to determine ceiving his instructions, some one upon the viow, how much vigour of suddenly entered, and announced the mind was possessed by each indivi- intelligence that all the Cardinals were dual. Some were red, others pale; gone away in a body. On the receipt some scolded, others supplicated. I of this news, the Pontiff immediately saw Cardinal Calonna at the feet of dismissed us, being obliged to turn the Pontiff, entreating him to forego his attention to other matters. For bis resolution; the Cardinal of Lodi, true indeed were the tidings of the on the contrary, I beheld in a mena- departure of the Cardinals, who havcing and angry attitude; whilst the ing, by the arrest of the horsemen, Cardinal of Bourdeaux, acting the been rid of the fear which they had part of a mediator, now attempted to formerly entertained of them and of assuage the wrath of his angry bre- the Prince, had determined to make thren, and now addressed prayers to no secret of their secession. They the Pontiff. Thus the council was were assisted in this enterprise by a dismissed without having transacted citizen of Florence, who had arrived a any business--but not before an edict few days ago at Lucca, and who was issued by the Pontiff
, forbidding loudly complained of the invasion of the Fathers to leave Lucca, or to the territory of his country by the meet without his authority. This pontifical troops. Alarmed by his edict was thought to indicate on the clamour, and dreading to be made part of the Pontiff no small degree of responsible for this casual incursion, asperity and suspicion. Greater com- the Prince of Lucca suffered the Carmotions, therefore, immediately fol- dinals to take their departure for lowed, which broke through all re- Pisa, where they arrived on the same straints ; for after the publication of day that they quitted his territories. this edict, the Cardinal of Lodi put The secession of the Fathers was, inon a disguise, and effected his escape deed, a lamentable speetacle; but in from Lucca. When this was known, my opinion, the courtiers soon aftersome horsemen were sent to bring him wards made a still more back by force. These, following him bition: for there was on their part with little attention, proceeded to the great diversity of conduct, some acterritory of Pisa, which is under the companying the Cardinals, others redominion of the Florentines. In the maining with the Pope, while many meantime, the Cardinal had escaped were uncertain and wavering. In there by taking refuge in the town of these circumstances, complaints and
Life of Martin Luther.
murmurs every where prevailed. In
LIFE OF MARTIN LUTHER. the course of a little time, the Pontiff created four new Cardinals. I could
(Continued from col. 611.) wish that this creation had been made When Luther was still at school, he under better auspices; for, if I am was accustomed, as soon as he had not mistaken, many and terrible cala- finished his scholastic exercises, to mities impend over us. As to my- tune, or to make verses, or to devote self, I do not desert the Pontiff, to himself to music. He thus formed whom I am bound by the ties of affec- himself to a good musician, who not tion and duty,-duty from which I only could sing well, and play well cannot recede without the loss of my upon several instruments, but was reputation. At the same time I must also able himself to compose. bo permitted to declare, that many · Even that great(artist) musician, the transactions which take place here, immortal Handel, confessed that he by no means meet my approbation."* studied Luther's compositions, and had The laborious and learned editor of to thank him for much. No wonder the letters of Leonardo Aretino, Lo- then, that Luther entertained a good renzo Mehus, a zealous Roman Ca opinion of every judge and friend of tholic, is much scandalized by the music, and compared those who had freedom with which the learned Flo- no feeling for this noble art to stocks rentine animadverts, in the foregoing and stones. In his commendatory epistle, on the conduct of the sove- speech on music, he says, amongst reign Pontiff. In a cautionary note, other things,“As I from my heart would he styles him rash and inconsiderate; willingly laud and extol this beautiful and calls upon those who, with him- and costly gift of God, this free self, regard the Fathers of the faithful science of music; so I find also it has with becoming veneration, to repro- great and many advantages, that I do bate the exercise of such unwarrantable not know where to commence or to liberty in criticizing the proceedings end its praise. First, we find from the of the head of the Church. But by beginning of the world, it was given to Protestant readers, Leonardo will be each creature of God; for there is noesteemed as a man of upright feelings thing in the world that cannot express and of an independent mind, who a sound or a noise, but even the air, could distinguish between obsequi- when it is moved or agitated, gives á ousness and obedience, and who was music or sound. Secondly, in the well aware that the errors of the great beasts, and particularly birds, the muare in general occasioned by the sic, sound, and song, are more wonderflattery of their attendants. His ful. Ah! what an heavenly music is narrative, admitting us within the it which the Almighty Lord in heaven Veil which is suspended before the has conferred upon his songster, the chair of St. Peter, exhibits to us the lovely nightingale, with all her young Pontiff, urged by worldly ambition, scholars, and so many thousand birds descending to the meanness of pre- in the air, as every species has its own varication, and attempting to sup- manner and melody, its charming port detestable fraud by open vio- sweet voice and wonderful colouring, lence. The schism of the west was, which no man upon earth can comindeed, a fatal shock to the pontifical prehend. How does king David, that authority. The mutual anathemas of precious musician, who himself says, the rival Popes shook the fidelity even On the same sit the birds of heaven, of the credulous and of the super- and sing among the branches ;' what stitious. To judge of the contend- shall I say of the human voice then, ing claims of the adverse parties, rea- in comparison of which, all other songs, son was necessarily called into exer- tune, or sound, is not to be reckoned.
and when once reason is applied For many learned people have ento a system which depends for its deavoured to investigate the human support on implicit faith, the doom of voice, and to comprehend how it that system is sealed—its duration in arises, that the air, through a small the plenitude of its power cannot be and trivial movement of the tongue, of long continuance.
and after that through a still less mo(To be continued.)
tion of the throat or neck, in many
different ways and manners, after it Leonardi Aretini Epistolæ, lib. ii. ep. 21. is governed and ruled by the will, can