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927 Reigns of great Monarchs--Alfred the Great. 928 all their qualities-never can the vivid | this vale of sorrow to regions of eternal hand of encomium poartray all their bliss. advantages: amid the chilling storms 4th. Because they awaken reverence of adversity, they inspire resignation and adoration for the Deity. Though and fortitude-in the smiling hours of we cannot but admit that all rational prosperity, they adorn and irradiate, beings must, in some measure, perThe literary character is considered ceive the superintending providence the ornament of his country, and the of God; yet, alas ! how many melanglory of his friends; his talents are choly instances have we of the darkacquired and matured by long and un- ness and barbarism of those ideas : to remitted attention to the study of men what can this be ascribed ? are we not, and books; his mental powers are ein- collectively, born with the same pasbellished and dignified by the charms sions, the same privileges, and the of science; and, lastly, the tenor of his same spiritual properties? with few conduct through life, generally ensures exceptions, we are. It must be then approbation and esteem, seldom disre- that the natural abilities of the unengard or censure. I have somewhere lightened (incapable of themselves to observed the adage, “ Man is prone to feel, or feeling to appreciate the glories evil;” now, if this allegation be true, of the Creator) are suffered to degeneand I think it can scarcely be doubted rate into passive depravity, instead of -the genial and enchanting quintes- being raised by efficacious instruction sence of rectitude could never pierce and acquired wisdom, to admire the the dark mazes of an uncultivated wonders of nature and nature's God. mind, be its natural abilities what Is it thus with the man whose percipithey may. Education “rears the ten- ent qualifications have been sedulousder thought”-education plants “the ly improved ? No:-he beholds with generous purpose in the glowing reverential awe the divine actions of breast”-in short, to use the emphatic the Father ; he regards with grateful words of Addison, “education draws adoration the amazing and delightful out to view every latent virtue and per- order that pervades all his operations ; fection; which, without such helps, and, to conclude, the more his golden are never able to make their appear- store of knowledge increases, the more

he recognizes the omniscience of that 3rd. Because they are beneficial to Being, whom his ennobled soul volunothers.- Whenever we contemplate the tarily fears, worships, and obeys. nature of the human species, and the

PHILOMATHES. deprivations and infirmities to which Norwich, September 9th, 1821. it is liable, we are almost ready to exclaim with Cicero, “Homines hominum causâ generati fuerunt:" and in- RefLECTIONS ON THE REIGNS OF GREAT deed wecannot be more praiseworthily employed, than in striving to further the happiness of a fellow-creature. ALFRED THE GREAT.-BY A, H. But-can he whose passions are not I SHOULD conceive it impossible for an tempered by the sway of acquired judg- impartial individual to rise from the ment and discretion--can he whose perusal of the reign of Alfred the Great, inclinations are uninfluenced by acqui- without thinking him one of the ablest red morality-can he promote the com- and best monarchs that ever swayed a fort of others ? can he teach them to sceptre. The enthusiasm which natu“ do justly, love mercy, and walk hum- rally attends the consideration of the bly with God ?” No :-the man whose important benefits his wisdom produheart is the seat of pure and philan- ced, is a sufficient apology for directthropic sentiments; whose mind is the ing the attention of the reader to so receptacle of great, and wise, and remote an event.

He cannot suffer good principles; whose understanding blame, whose intention it is to recall is enriched with the ample spoils of to mind any circumstances worthy of moral and intellectual erudition ;-he remembrance, but which may be half instructs them in the various duties of forgotten amid the multiplicity of sublife, he exposes the specious duplicity jects occupying the human intellect. of vice, he excites in their breasts the

Every one is fond of placing before love of virtue, and, ultimately, his himself

, and the minds of others, a precepts conduct them in peace through happy train of events, or of brilliant

ance.

MONARCHS.

929

Reigns of great Monarchs--- Alfred the Great.

930

characters in reference to ancient came not with formal declarations of Greece and Rome; and why should war, or any particular preparations, not a Briton do the same, in reference but as ravagers to lay waste the counto his own country? In order to mark try, and commit depredations. At the internal causes of good effects, to first, when they landed, they harassed penetrate the nature of the human the inhabitants of the place where the mind, discoverable by a search into invasion happened to be, then fled to its designs and policies; and to point their ships, and steered off. They out the tendency of accidents at first always fulfilled their design of carrying

ght trivial, we must have recourse to away plunder. At last they invaded former times and remarkable periods. the kingdom in such numbers, as to

Alfred benefited the nation by two carry all before them. Who then can great services. He overcame the in- withhold praise from him, whose policy vasion of a foreign enemy by his ma- and virtue effected release to the Engnagement, and restored peace to his lish nation in such circumstances ? people: he regulated the internal go- But that for which the nation was vernment, and provided against civil chiefly indebted to this king, was, the commotions and foreign power. regulations he made concerning the

Few are ignorant of his valour, pru- government. A wise lawgiver is always dence, and policy, in driving from the entitled to esteem, both in his own kingdom a set of wretches, who had and in all future times. Without forced him to put on a disguise, in or- government and law, society could not der to avoid their barbarity. In that subsist; and they cause liberty,--for age, when right was little respected, as the great Locke says, “ where there when the laws of nations were trampled is no law there is no liberty.on by those invaders the Danes, one The benefit derived from equitable might expect to hear of heavy reprisals laws and a good constitution, is a subon the part of Alfred, when fortune, or ject upon which I venture with caution, rather wisdom, had given him the ad- but, at the same time, with confidence; vantage. But superior light seemed for, as society is that which induces to illume his soul, for the purpose of great happiness on the human race, pointing out the efficacy and humanity and is of such high value in this state of gentle means, in the treatment of of being; the support by which it is his enemies. Accordingly, he lodged sustained, must be so sacred, as to part of his adversaries in his own realm, merit the notice of a superior mind. and endeavoured to soothe their fierce- The blessings, however, which flow ness by his forbearance, and make from good government, being readily them faithful subjects by his equity. admitted by sensible men, no reasonThose of the conquered who embraced ing is required to prove them, and Christianity remained in England; plain actions present themselves while those who did not, had permis- throughout. sion to go to Flanders.

The protection of the life, liberty, To what extremity Alfred was redu- and property of its members, is the ced, is well known. Amid the deser- design of society, and the paramount tion of many of his subjects, and a object of a wise legislator. Every variety of ills arising from a swarm of society is supposed to have been esta. ravagers, he was, for a time, compel-blished, in order to obtain, by its united led to resign bis royalty. But notwith-power, that happiness for its constitustanding these disasters, by his wisdom ent members, which it was impossible and virtue he at length restored tran- for them to obtain when single: noquillity and peace.

thing but excellent laws can effect this The prospect of a foreign invasion, purpose; there must be proper regutaken in a political point of view, is a Iations to protect the subject from the circumstance demanding the attention assaults of his fellows, to prevent inof the state threatened. It is a funda- testine war, and to foil foreignenemies. mental duty of every society to render As ignorance is the parent of many ills, itself perfect, and to maintain its rights it is the business of the legislator to as a nation against those who would diffuse knowledge : ignorance, and overturn them. Soldiers are prepared, disorder in governinent, reciprocally ships of war fitted out, and every pre- assist each other; and when the latter caution is or ought to be taken. In disadvantage exists, it is of the greatthe case of Alfred the Great, the Danes est importance to reform it.

931
On the Consequences of Adam's Fall.

932 In the dark ages of king Alfred, | made, two other replies to the same great disorders in the government question have reached us; to which, prevailed; it required such a genius as they take distinct views of the subas his to effect their abolition ; accord- ject, we now give publicity. ingly he framed a body of just laws, divided the kingdom into counties,

( First Answer.) hundreds, and tithings, for the better

Mr. Editor. administration of affairs; and endea- SIR, - In the Imperial Magazine for voured to enlighten the nation, which July (col. 650,) I met with the followwas sunk in gross ignorance. Being ing question, on the Fall of mankind. a great encourager of learning, he s. of Huddersfield asks; “Will the invited to England, learned men and fall of mankind by Adam, and their celebrated scholars, from all parts of redemption by Christ, be the means Europe ; he personally set an example of procuring to them greater felicity of application, regularity, and litera- than they would have enjoyed, had ture; he seemed to have employed all Adam not transgressed the divine his talents in the public service; a command ?” generous patriotism glowed within his The following answer is at your breast, and prompted him to the exer- disposal.tion of his abilities.

This question evidently relates to The Danes were, for a season, obli- the whole human race; in this form I ged to desist from their invasion, on

think it cannot receive any other account of the preparations which answer from the Orthodox than a plain were now made against them; and negative; for, as they justly conclude people experienced tranquillity, with all that finally reject the Saviour will very little interruption, for some time, certainly suffer the vengcance of under the reign of this good prince. eternal fire,” they cannot have greater Owing to the distance of time, correct felicity than they would have enjoyed, accounts may not perhaps have been had Adam remained in his primeval transmitted to us : it would be absurd state. to affirm that Alfred was a perfect

But if the question be understood to being; with all his virtues, faults there refer to the enjoyment of such as are must have been. Let us remember, finally saved, I incline to the affirmathat to err is human.” His failings tive. “They will have greater felicity were, perhaps, lost in the preponder- than they would have enjoyed, had ance of his virtue, and the general Adam not transgressed the divine comsplendour of his character: neither mand.” And I incline to this view of must we make Alfred's abilities to the subject, because of their superior have been the boundary of Britain's perception of the peculiar display of deliverance-Divine Providence was

the divine perfections, and their exas watchful then as it is at present; alted pleasure flowing from it, in their it was the will of the Almighty, that redemption, personal salvation, and England, when on the eve of losing eternal glory; for it appears perfectly her king and government, should be reasonable and scriptural to conclude, restored to prosperity. Let men al- that as in redemption by Christ, ways think, concerning an overruling

The whole Deity is known, providence, what Cicero said in refer- Which of the glories brightest shone ence to the heathen divinities :--Quod

The justice, or the grace;deorum immortalium numine omnia That this unequalled manifestation regi gubernarique perspeximus. of boundless mercy, unerring wis(To be continued.)

dom, almighty power, inflexible justice, and unspotted purity, will for

ever excite those elevated feelings, OF ADAM's sublime praises, and uninterrupted

devotion to Jehovah's will, that no

thing but an internal heaven, as the In our number for July (col. 650,) result of redemption by Christ, could a Query was proposed on the Conse- possibly produce. To the above roquences of Adam's Fall, to which, in marks, I subjoin a short extract from our number for September (col. 828,) the Rev. John Wesley's sermon on we inserted a reply. Since our ar- the fall of man, pages 153 and 154, 9th rangements for that insertion were vol. octavo edition.

Nor dares a creature guess,

ON THE

CONSEQUENCES

FALL.

933
On the Consequences of Adam's Fall.

934 * It should be particularly observed, In answering questions of this chathat “where sin abounded, grace does racter, it is evident that our only much more abound.” For “not as the guides must be the revelation of God; condemnation, so is the free gift;" but to step for one moment into the region we may gain infinitely more than we of conjecture, is to leave the bright have lost: we may now attain both rays of the Sun of righteousness, for higher degrees of holiness, and higher the feeble glimmerings of a beclouded degrees of glory, than it would other | understanding. wise have been possible for us to attain. Our first inquiry then, will be, what If Adam had not sinned, the Son of are the circumstances entering into, God had not died ; consequently, that and constituting, the primeval happiamazing instance of the love of God to ness of Adam ? In the account which man had never existed, which has, in the scriptures give us of the creation all ages, excited the highest joy, and of our first parents, we are informed love, and gratitude, from his children. that God created man out of the dust We might have loved God the creator, of the ground, and breathed into him God the preserver, God the governor, the breath of life, and, it is added, he but there would have been no place for became a living soul. Here we may love to God the redeemer ; this could remark, that the origin of the body of have had no being; the highest glory Adam was the same as that of the and joy, of saints on earth and saints beasts of the field; it was earthly, the in heaven, Christ crucified, had been most inferior nature of which we have wanting. We could not then have any knowledge, and of which, in our praised him, who thinking it no rob- present circumstances, corruptibility bery to be equal with God, yet emptied or decomposition is an inseparable himself, took upon him the form of a concomitant. But in Adam's innoservant, and was obedient to death, cent state, we are warranted, I think, even the death of the cross.” This is to infer, from the form of the warning, now the noblest theme of all the chil- that he should be exempt from dissodren of God on earth; yea, we need lution, if he continued holy: “in the not scruple to affirm, even of angels day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt and archangels, and all the company surely die,” implying, that if he did of heaven,

not eat, he should surely live. Hallelujah they cry, to the King of the sky,

Hence we clearly perceive, that it To the great everlasting 1 AM !

was the performance of his duty that To the Lamb that was slain, and liveth again, Hallelujah to God and the Lamb.

exempted the body from dissolution, RICHARD TABRAHAM. and not any thing in the nature of that Buckie, Banffshire,

body. But we also find, that Adam Aug. 18, 1821.

was placed in the midst of natural good, with various limitations; the

most important one is, that which God (Second Answer.)

enjoined by express command, “Thou MR. EDITOR.

shalt not eat of the tree in the midst of SIR,- When I first read the Query the garden;" so that Adam, in his proposed by S. of Huddersfield (col. primeval state of happiness, stood 650,) I intended to trouble you with an constantly in the presence of a prohianswer; but circumstances occurring, bited object; his range amongst the prevented the execution of my pur- objects of natural good, was not free pose. On looking over the Magazine and unlimited. We must also notice for the present month, I find an answer those restrictions arising from the tenfrom Aizeos, which, as far as it goes, dency of his powers to repletion and (being principally restricted to subjects exhaustion. The extent of the enjoyof contemplation,) I heartily approve. ments arising from bodily appetites, My thoughts having taken a little more are but very momentary, and soon saamplitude, may perhaps serve more tiated ; and the exertion of the mental fully to elucidate the Query; however, powers is soon impeded by the decline I take the liberty of submitting them of physical energy in the muscular to your judgment. If you, Mr. Editor, parts of the system ; so that, in a short should concur in my opinion, I have period, a total cessation is absolutely no doubt this communication will find indispensable for the resuscitation of a place in your truly liberal Maga- animal nature; the mind cannot or zine,

will not act, when lassitude prevail

935

On the Consequences of Adam's Fall.

936

in the material parts of the system. / and love, especially, would have been Christ, who was perfectly holy, is a new wanting in an opportunity of displayproof of what is here advanced. Adam ing its infinite perfection, both in the also, in his state of innocence, was procuration and in the nature of the exposed to the temptations of Satan, happiness bestowed. It is in the conand, on the supposition that he had ferring upon man, of glory, honour, stood fast in his original holiness, it immortality, and eternal life, by the would only have been in consequence atonement of Christ, that God is exof his watchfulness, and resistance to hibited in all the glory of his character; the allurements of the deceiver ; for it compared with which, the discoveries is not to be imagined that God would made to Adam in his primitive state, have secured his rectitude by any were but as the morning twilight to thing that would have trenched upon meridian day. his moral freedom, for in that case he The Apostle, in the 5th chap. of his could not have remained an account- Epistle to the Romans, expresses himable creature. Now, on the supposition self after this manner, Where sin that his felicity in his communications did abound, grace hath much more with God, in his intercourse with abounded ;” this appears to be an inholy angels, and his discoveries, both ference that the Apostle draws from of the moral and natural perfections of the foregoing reasonings ; in which he God, were as great as his nature would shews, that the mercy through Christ allow; yet it must be admitted, that greatly surpasses the ruin and misery the circumstances enumerated above, through Adam. “For if by one man's would considerably lessen the sum of offence, death reigned by one; much the absolute happiness for which more they which receive abundance of Adam had a capacity, as a pure and grace, and of the gift of righteousness, holy being; more especially, if we shall reign in life by one Jesus admit the idea of distance from the Christ.” throne of God, the habitation of the We shall now briefly point out, in higher intelligences whom God had two or three particulars, the much created, we must readily grant, that greater felicity bestowed by Christ, these things mark a sovereign disposal, than Adam destroyed by transgression. and require submission as a duty, and we shall first notice the “redemption are something different from a state of the purchased possession (the body) of pure felicity. We think the word which is unto the praise of his glory, of God warrants us to say, that dis- Eph. chap. i. verse 14. “ Christ shall tance from the throne of God was an change our vile body, that it may be inseparable circumstance connected fashioned like unto his glorious body, with Adam's innocent state, for there according to the working, whereby he is a total silence respecting any exalt- is able to subdue all things to himself," ation to a more glorious abode, after Phil. chap. iii. verse 21 ; and in the any, period of standing in his created 15th chap. of 1st Cor. our resurrection purity. And we might reasonably bodyis there described as incorruptible, suppose, that had this been God's in- glorious,powerful, and spiritual. This

, tention on the event of his obedience, I think, indicates a superior nature to it would have been intimated, as a mo- what was before possessed, consetive to that obedience; but we con- quently, a capacity for higher enjoyceive, that exaltation could only be ments, which capacity is filled in the merited by the perfect obedience of heavenly state. According to John, Christ, the merits of which, in relation we do not know what we shall be, our to man, even in his pure state, as con- ideas are so much below what are inferring greater happiness and glory, tended by the terms made use of in we shall now consider. I would the scriptures; but we know we shall premise, before entering upon this part be like him, and of his likeness we find of the subject, that I consider the in- some description in the Revelation, troduction of sin as affording the to which I would refer S. opportunity of that perfect display of We shall now notice the place of the divine character, which could not our future abode. It is not a paradise otherwise have been given. If sin had of natural good, it is heaven itself ; not entered, mercy could have had no there to dwell with God, holy angels, scope; justice could have had neither and redeemed men, not at a distance opportunity nor adequate reparation ; from God's throne, but to sit down

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