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977

Answer to a Query.

978

gentlemen, who yet shewed him all! The great obstacle to the introducpossible esteem and respect ?” hetion of this kind of domestic light is, answered, “I can hardly name a po- the expense and bulk of the apparatus lite family, where the conversation necessary to purify the gas. This, ever turns upon the things of God. I however, may be got over, by fining hear much frothy and worldly chit- it in the dry way, which is this :-fill chat, but not a word of Christ, and I a vessel, of any form whatever, with am determined not to visit those com-tow that has been oiled or greased, panies, where there is not room for and free from water: the vessel should my Master, as well as for myself.” be air-tight. Insert the tube from the -An excellent hint.

mouth of the kettle into the bottom of the vessel, and about an inch high on

the inside. Put a tube in the top of Answer to a Query, on the Division of

the same vessel, to permit the escape the Earth in the Days of Peleg.

of the gas, extending it to whatever | part of the chamber the gas is to be

burned. It will be purified by this MR. EDITOR.

process, without going through water ; SIR,-In answer to Query No. 10,1

it will be literally wiped by the tow, col. 865. respecting the Division of and burn with almost as little smoke the Earth, I would recommend E. W.I as any that is purified in the wet to read the 6th chap. book 1, of Jose

way. phus's Antiquities of the Jews, where

Circumstances will dictate improvehe can obtain the information re

ments--a receptacle must be provided quired.

for the tar that the tow collects, which Your's, respectfully,

may be done by enlarging the tow J. V. T.

vessel at bottom. The vessel, if four feet long, and two inches square, may

| be made ornamental, and hung over On referring to Josephus, E. W. will

the mantle piece every night. The find, that the Division of the Earth, same tow always answers by only mentioned Gen. x. 25, does not refer squeezing it, which may be necessary to any violent convulsion of nature,

not more than once a month. through which the surface of the globe A cast-iron glue pot, to which a tin was broken into islands and conti cover is to be fitted, having a hole, nents, as some have imagined, but to with a small tube, projecting, is the a simple division of territory among best and simplest retort to be met the descendants of Noah, as their fa- with. The apparatus once bought, is milies began to multiply. This was never attended with additional exthe first postdiluvian division that ever pense, so that light may be said to took place, and it became worthy of cost a family comparatively nothing, being thus recorded, as it laid the that is obtained by this simple confoundation of the first nations that ever trivance. appeared in the world.

OBSERVATIONS ON LORD BYRON AND

WORDSWORTH. TO PROCURE GAS. By pursuing the following plan, it is MR. Editor. said, light from gas may be obtained, SIR,-Having read with considerable sufficient for the use of a family, at a pleasure, the two papers that have very tritling expense:

appeared in your Magazine, on Lord An old tea-kettle, half filled with Byron and Mr. Wordsworth, and coals, and placed on the fire, so that thinking that any observations relating the bottom may be always in contact to these great men, will probably be with red coal, will distil gas enough perused with interest by the majority to burn for three or four hours, at the of your readers, I venture to offer a end of a tin tube, four feet long, and half few remarks on the subject, which I an inch diameter, extended from the hope will be free from those angry mouth of the kettle to the table, and feelings, which appear to have dichaving a small degree of curvation at tated the letter of your correspondent, the burning end.

“ ARISTARCHUS.".

979 Observations on Lord Byron and Wordsworth. 980

A French writer has observed, in, view, in employing our time in this some introductory observations to a manner,-present gratification, and translation of Lord Byron's Poems future usefulness and improvement. into that language, “That one reads That Lord Byron is a man of a most with interest these strange composi- exalted genius, few persons, I think, tions, sparkling with beauties, the will venture to deny ;- but that that author of which derives a noble inspi-genius is brought into action in a ration from the wanderings of a melan- manner unworthy of its possessor, is choly and disordered imagination, a sad and solemn fact; sad, because disdainful of every species of restraint. of the effect it has on the morals of the

-He is deficient in the judgment country; and solemn, on account of which would enable him to conceive the relation which it bears to his own and arrange a plan. He rarely evinces individual person, so far as connected that deep sensibility, which evidently with the misapplied talents which he comes from the heart, and certainly is in possession of, and for which, let reaches to it. A sombre misanthropy him remember, he will have to render dominates over his imagination; yet a an account at the great day. But cold contempt for mankind--for life- here, be it recollected, the noble Poet for all terrestrial things—and a satiety coincides with those persons, who which extends to all objects, do not think an hereafter a phantom of man's prevent him from giving utterance to own creation. In one of his Poems, grand and beautiful thoughts, which I do not now remember which, he escape, as if by fits and starts, from / says, death the gloom in which his mind seems Is the first dark day of nothingness, enveloped. The perusal of his poems, The last of misery and distress. though seductive, has no great influ- Thus placing immortal man on a level ence on the heart. No one can find with the beasts of the field, or the himself better or happier, in conse- painted butterfly, who lives a day or quence of his communication with the two, spreads its wings to the sun, works of this distinguished English propagates its species, and mingles nobleman.” If these remarks be with the clods of the valley.And founded on a sober and rational inves- then I would mention the immorality tigation of those qualities that strike and licentiousness that are to be found us on the perusal of his works, as I in nearly all his writings;—where is think they are, the “rapid sale of the parent, who feels as a parent them, and their “ enormous price," ought to feel, that can put his works, will be sufficiently accounted for, on (say his last, Don Juan) into his librathe ground of their “seductive influ-ry, and leave it open for the perusal ence on the heart.” This, at the same of his sons and daughters. A writer time, is but a sorry compliment to the in a respectable monthly journal, at public taste, which is now, according the conclusion of some remarks on to those who are eminently qualified Lord Byron, justly observes: “ That to pronounce an opinion, in a vitiated when there is danger that some of the state, owing, as much as any thing, pernicious doctrines of this our froto Lord Byron's works.-And what ward favourite might have a corruptcan be said of that Poetry that merely ing influence on public opinion, it has captivates the heart—that makes us | been known how to inflict on them the neither“ better” nor“happier?” What correction they merited; and Lord benefit can possibly be received from Byron has received equally clear and it, beyond that of passing a few idle convincing proofs of how much he can hours in its perusal, it not being cal- do with the people of England-and culated, either to “reform the man- how little." ners,” or “correct the life.” It may It may be known to you, what inpudo very well for those who never care merable instances can be pointed out, how their days pass away,—who look of direct and wilful plagiarisms wbich not farther than present gratification; Lord Byron has practised upon Poets, -but for those who value time,—who who are considered by many persons, think of the benefit they ought to ex- and no doubt by himself, as beneath perience by the perusal of any work, him. The Literary Gazette has laudhis Poems will be scarcely read, ex-ably devoted several of its columns to cept in the dearth of others better fitted this purpose, and those who read, to answer the end we ought to have in whether friend or foe, cannot fail of

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being struck with the marks of base-| be perused with interest and profit by ness that characterize the manner in old and young, religious and profane. which he has “traduced” those Poets, | The father need not hide them from his as Poets, and then stolen from their daughter's eye, for there is every works, without the least acknowledg-thing to be admired, and nothing to ment. The Literary Gazette says, be dreaded, in their perusal: neither “ It is an extraordinary fact, but no can there be adduced against him a less strange than true, that there is charge, however remote, of plagiarism. scarcely a Poet, of any reputation, His scenes from nature are as truly, whom Lord Byron has found occasion as happily pourtrayed and exemplito satirize (whether in his “ English | fied, as ever any Poet's were: and Bards” or “ Don Juan") that he has with them there is mixed an inward not also taken occasion' to plunder. something, that speaks the gratitude Stale Scott-ballad-monger Southey~ of his heart, and leads his readers to simple Wordsworth-drowthy Camp- look “from nature, up to nature's bell-lewd Moore-raving Montgom- God," and admire the goodness of ery-turgid Coleridge-and even son Him, who “rides in the whirlwind, and netteering Bowles, * have furnished directs the storm." There is scarcely him with very many of the most popu- a single scene he has not described, at lar passages in his writings; this is no one time or other, so closely does he vague and idle assertion, but a serious follow the object of his ardent love; and incontrovertible charge, clearly it may well be said of him, that he established, by the adduction of the “ finds tongues in trees, books in the proofs upon which it is founded. Not running brooks, sermons in stones, content with an occasional brick from and good in every thing.” That Lord the poetical edifices of Messieurs Scott Byron, in some few parts of his works, and Southey, (whom he has alternately displays greater powers than Wordscomplimented and abused) his Lord-worth, I readily admit; but, at the ship has sometimes carried away huge same time, I assert, that in Wordsfragments of the building, cement and worth there is a longer continuance of all, pillars and cornices; and, on one those beauties than in Byron. The or two occasions, an entire wing ; this beautiful passages in Byron are like sort of freemasonry is inconsistent | the northern lights, not often seen, with that generous indignation which but when seen, the more admired for the noble artificer has indulged, upon the grandeur of the light; while the imputed depredations of Lord Wordsworth's are like the starry firElgin, at Athens. It is one of the in-mament, present to our view, “soon numerable instances in which Lord as the evening shades prevail," a Byron's theory differs essentially from number not to be easily enumerated; his practice.” And then they go on to these shed a steady, unvaried light, establish their assertions, by pointing while the others blaze for a while only out plagiarisms as direct and pointed to leave us in a greater darkness! I as possibly can be seen; to which I very well know that Wordsworth's must refer your readers. This very works are comparatively little known circumstance will be sufficient to sink to the public, but I likewise know that his Lordship in the estimation of those the beauties that have lain so long hid, who have a regard to “originality of are now rapidly displaying themgenius,” and who do not wish to see selves; and it only remains for time one Poet borrowing from another, and to decide, whether at no distant period endeavouring, at the same time, to he will not be as generally read, and lessen that Poet in the estimation of as greatly admired, as the noble fathe public, by whose labours he is vourite of “ Aristarchus.” raising himself, with all the impudence I will not occupy your columns with and shamelessness that ever fell to

many extracts from this Poet, when the lot of one individual to possess. the works themselves can so easily be

It is not so with Wordsworth; there procured; but I cannot resist the is nothing in his writings that can temptation of asking “ Aristarchus," offend the most delicate ear, nothing how far the following lines merit the that can corrupt the heart: they may appellation of " childish rhymes," and

other similar epithets, which he has Such are the epithets applied to these gentlemen by Lord Byron, in his “ English Bards” | so liberally applied to the writings of and “ Don Juan."

this author:

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• As, ou a sunny bank, a tender lamb,

of January last, before a PhilosophiLurk, in safe shelter from the winds of March, Screened by its parent, so that little mound Lies guarded by its neighbour;---the small heap principal towns in the kingdom. As Speaks for itself;-an infant there doth rest; The sheltering hillock is the mother's grave.

red the Society, at which strangers are if mild discourse, and manners that conferr'd A natural dignity on humblest rank;

present, both the matter and style of if gladsome spirits and benignant looks,

it are easy and popular. If you think That for a face not beautifal did more Than beauty for the fairost face can do; | it will meet the taste of your numerous And if religious tenderness of heart,

readers, it is humbly at your service. Grieving for sin, and penitential tears Shed when the clouds bad gather'd and distain'd

AMICUS SCIENTIÆ. The spotless ether of a maiden life ;If these may make a hallow'd spot of earth More holy in the sight of God or man; Then, on that mould a sanctity shall brood, Philosophy, next to religion, is the Till the stars sicken at the day of dvom!"

| distinguished honour and happiness Let me likewise refer him to the of mankind. The researches and inconclusion of the Poem, called the vestigations of philosophy, are an “ Cumberland Beggar," and there he employment worthy of the human will see whether the writer of it does mind; worthy of its noblest grasp, not display a head and heart worthy and acutest penetration. It is philoof the patronage of the people of sophy, especially as refined, and imEngland, in this enlightened age. proved, and elevated by the discove* Then let him pass,-a blessing on his head ! ries of modern science, which forms And long as he can wander let him breathe | the great boast and ornament of sociThe freshness of the valleys; let his blood

ety, the zest, and charm, and elegance Struggle with frosty air and winter snowe: And let the charter'd wind that sweeps the of the most rational intercourse and heath

conversation. If there be a person Beat his grey locks against his withered face. Reverence the hope whose vital anxiousness

| who has no taste at all for pbilosophie Gives the last human interest to his heart.

inquiry, I should say of that person, May never house, mishamed of industry,

that he is come into the world out of Make him a captive!-for that pent-up din, Those life-consuming sounds that clog the air, due time; that he has mistaken his Be his the natural silence of old age!

stars; and that the planetary conjuncLet bim be free of mountain solitudes: And have around him, whether heard or not, tion, to which he belongs, occurred The pleasant melody of woodland birds.

some centuries ago. Few are his pleasures; if his eyes have now Been doom'd so long to settle on the earth,

In the whole circle of science, perThat not without some effort they behold haps there is not a subject more deThe countenance of the horizontal sun,

serving of inquiry, than that of LIGHT; Rising or setting, let the light at least Find a free entrance to their languid orbs, and perhaps I may add, that there Aud let him, where and when he will sit down are few subjects, whose investigation Peneath the trees, or by the grassy bank

is so calculated to interest and please. Of bighway 'side, and with the little birds Share his chance-gather'd meal; and, finally, The information I wish to communiAs in the eye of nature he has lived,

cate on this subject, professes to be So in the eye of nature let him die!”

rather comprehensive and general, Iconclude these remarks, by quoting than abstruse and scientific; rather two stanzas from Bernard Barton's | adapted to a popular assembly, than Address to Wordsworth, in which I to lead on the researches of the expemost cordially agree :

rienced philosopher. " Continue still to cultivate

Men of science have been greatly In thy sequester'd solitude,

divided, as to the nature of Light; the Those high conceptions that await The musings of the wise and good:

substance by which objects are renConceptions lofty, pure, and bright,

dered visible unto us. The two preWhicb fill thy soul with heavenly light.

vailing opinions may be denominated Betake thee to thy groves and fields,

Thy rocky vales, and mountains bare, the Cartesian and Newtonian. Ac. And give us all that nature yields

cording to the former of these, light is Of manners, feelings, habits there;

an extremely rare, and subtil, and Please and instruct the present age, And live in history's latest page!"

elastic fluid, pervading all nature, all Acton-Place.

M. M. the space in the planetary system, and

the mighty range of the fixed stars. OBSERVATIONS ON LIGHT.

According to this hypothesis, when MR. EDITOR.

vision is produced, i, e. when we see,

this elastic fluid is put in motion, by SIR, -The following paper on the sub- the action of some luminous body, as ject of Light, was read in the month its undulating impulses, falling upuu

ree of mount of old age: the air,

985

Observations on Light.

986

the retina, the nerve expanded on the in the deeper chamber of the eye. In back part of the eye to receive those an extended landscape, what an imimpulses, the sensation of light is the mense number and variety of objects result. That sound, however harmo- enter into the view ; hills, valleys, nious, or however terrible, is nothing rivers, woods, fields, villages, animals, inore than undulations of the air, act- clouds, &c. Yet light from every one ing upon the ear, is a fact well of those objects, is transmitted to, and known; and of this experimental ana-actually falls upon the retina of the logy, the Cartesian philosophers have eye: the picture can be shown there; availed themselves to very great ad- the picture of a landscape, of five or vantage.

six square leagues, with all the objects The Newtonian theory, however, is which enter into it, discriminated in that which most obtains in the scien- their magnitudes, positions, figures, tific world; and is said to be that colours; such a picture lies delineated which more perfectly reconciles itself on a space a quarter of an inch in with the facts, and experiments, and diameter! How exquisite the colours ! laws, of optics. According to this how delicate the pencil! how quick theory, light consists of particles of the execution! how matchless the matter of inconceivable minuteness, artist employed in the production of projected from luminous bodies, with such a painting! à velocity as inconceivable ; and vision The velocity with which light travels, is produced, when these projected is not less wonderful, than the minuteparticles strike upon the retina of the ness of its particles. No experiments eye. It would not comport with the on the velocity of light, which are conbrevity and design of this paper, to fined to objects on the surface of our enter into the reasonings and experi- own globe, can, I believe, give any ments by which this theory has been other result than that its transmission so ably supported; but, from the little is instantaneous. But astronomers I understand of the subject, I think it have discovered, that in crossing the is evident, that, while the balance of regions of the planetary system, light argument appears in favour of the is not instantaneous, but requires time. Newtonian scheme, it must be con- By observations made upon the eclipfessed, that the subtile element of light ses of Jupiter's satellites, it appears, is as yet but little understood. There that when the earth is in that point of are not wanting some very plausible its orbit nearest to Jupiter, those eclipreasons, to support the conjecture, ses occur, orrather become visible to us, that latent caloric, and the electric several minutes sooner than when the fluid, and light, are one and the same earth is in that point of its orbit, the substance in different states and modes farthest from Jupiter. From this, and of operation ; a substance diffused to similar modes of calculation, it is an extent, and possessed of powers, found, that light proceeds with a veloand answering purposes in nature, city amounting to near two hundred which even the prying research of thousand miles in one second of time! modern philosophy has not yet disco- A cannon ball travelling at the greatest vered. .

rate any gun could give it, would Whether we rank ourselves among require twenty-five years to come from the Newtonians, or Cartesians ; whe- the Sun to our globe-a particle of ther we suppose vision to be effected light performs that journey in seven by the vibrations of an elastic fluid, minutes! or the striking of particles propelled In the velocity of light is found a from the luminous, or reflected from reason for its minuteness, and in its the opaque body; we must be equally minuteness a reason for its velocity. lost in admiration, of the surprising Were light only as dense as the air, rarity, and minuteness, and delicacy, in coming from the Sun it would form of that agent which is employed. It a blast, which must sweep the solar is well known that before an object can system, and carry the planets to a disbecome visible to us, a ray, or pencil, tance, “ where thought can't follow, or impulse of light, must be transmit and bold fancy dies." And on the ted from that object, and act upon other hand, if, with its present rarity, the surprisingly delicate and sensitive it were to proceed at no greater rate membrane which is spread out to than the swiftest wind; for aught I receive the images of things, situate know, it would require all the light No. 33.-Vol. III.

3 R

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