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Answer to a Query on Departed Spirits.
the sun can give, to illuminate a single not in reality different; but the diffetown. Who it is, that has adjusted rence lies, not in colours inhering in the velocity of light to its density, or those substances, but in the various its density to its velocity, and the arrangement of the particles of matter visual tablet in the eye to both,-our composing their surface, reflecting the reason and our heart will not hesitate various rays of light. There have to say. The fool, indeed, “hath said been instances of blind persons, who in his heart, that there is no God.” have served ribbons in a mercer's Why hath he said so? Because he is a shop, and distinguished their colours, fool!
to a surprising accuracy, with their It was reserved for the immortal fingers. But what did those persons Newton to discover, that light is not feel the colour of the ribbons ? Assusimple, but compounded. A stream of redly not!-they felt the different surlight, flowing from a luminous, or re- faces of them, and determined by the flected from an opake substance, is roughness or smoothness, hardness or called a ray of light : this ray appears softness, of those surfaces. Colour to the eye to be white, and a collection does not come in at the finger-ends, of such rays to any extent, appears but at the eye. the same. But by innumerable expe- The reflection of light is a subject riments, it has been demonstrated, that which has much exercised the reasonthis ray of light, which to the eye ings of optical philosophers; princiappears white, is actually a compound pally to account for it. At first it was of seven other rays, none of which are supposed that the particles actually white. A ray of light when divided by fall upon and touch the reflecting the prism, gives the seven primitive body, and so rebound from it. But it colours ; red, orange, yellow, green, is now believed, that reflected light blue, indigo, and violet; none of does, by no means, come in actual which, by any power of refraction yet contact with the object which reflects discovered, can be further divided it; but at a given distance, a distance These seven rays, mixed and com- indeed imperceptible to our senses, pounded, form the absence of all co-meets with a power of repulsion, by Jour, or white. This may be illustrat- which it is driven back, altered in its ed by a very easy experiment: if a course, but not, I believe, diminished circular piece of board, with the seven in its velocity. Allowing that a repulprimitive colours painted upon it, be sive power is the cause of the reflection turned round its centre with great velo- of light; why is it that a polished sureity, it will appear perfectly white. face reflects so much more powerfully
The discovery of the composition, than a rough one? why is it, that or what in optics is termed the diffe- while some rays are reflected, others rent refrangibility of light, has produ- are transmitted or absorbed ? and ced a total revolution in the philosophy why is it that light is reflected at all?of colour. It is only in accommoda these are questions which have much tion to ordinary conception, and the perplexed philosophers; and into established modes of speech, that a which I cannot presume to enter. philosopher says of one thing that it is
(To be concluded in our next.) red, and of another that it is blue; the fact is, that neither blue, nor red, nor yellow, nor any other colour, is in the Answer to a Query on Departed Spirits. objects we view, but in the light ;that the exclusion of all light is the exclusion of all colour ;-that the rose
SIR,-In answer to the Query, (col. is red, because it absorbs the rays
863) Have the spirits of the dead made which are orange, yellow, green, and
perfect any knowledge of what passes blue, and reflects the red ray ;-that
on in this world? I submit the followthe primrose is yellow, because it ab
ing remarks. sorbs the red, orange, blue, and other
Your's, respectfully, rays, and reflects the yellow ;--and
SPRIGG. the violet is violet, because it absorbs all but the ray to which it has given | I consider the affirmative idea to be name, and which it reflects. It is not neither scriptural nor philosophical; meant to be said, that substances though there are many, who, having which appear of different colours are lost their godly friends, have rate
On Soundness of Mind.
been disposed to wish, that their we behold the fields and meadows, friends might know what is taking covered with a profusion of flowers, place among their connections on and perceive the surface of the earth earth, that they might carry on a kind teeming with vegetation, and, in those of mental converse with them. But beauties of nature, not behold our we little think how new, how strange, Great Creator who formed them; for how absorbing, must the things of the " In fruitful fields his bounty grows, eternal state be, to those entering And runs in every rill; upon them. Is it possible that the Each tinted leaf, and flower that blows, heaven-bound pilgrim, who bas been Displays his matchless skill.” conducted by the Shepherd of the flock Sir, I remain your constant reader, through the valley that lies between,
and admirer, who approaches the gate of heaven,
J. H. B. and realizes the end of his faith, could
Southwell, Aug. 16, 1821. be attracted by the trifling scenes on earth? Can the soul present with the Lord, ever look off from him, to con
ON SOUNDNESS OF MIND. verse with those below? No: it is best to suppose, that spirits departed have
( Continued from col. 828.) no concern about the trifles passing here.
Mr. Editor. The soul reaping the sad reward of
Sir,-The simple act of memory and its unrighteousness, may desire to
perception does not appear materially look out of its burning lake towards
to differ in man and animals. There the earth again, but its intense pain
are many interesting facts, which will not grant permission; whereas,
would induce us to suppose, that, if those who die in the Lord rest from
these faculties are identical in their their labours; while of all it may be
nature, the endowments of the latter said, as to this world,
are more excellent than the former. “ Their memory and their sense is gone, This supposition is founded on the Alike unknowing and unknown.
observation, that many of the organs Their hatred and their love is lost,
of sense in some animals, are more Their envy buried in the dust; They have no share in all that's done,
susceptible of impression than they Beneath thc circuit of the sun.”
are in man; and every one must have noticed their wonderful recollection
of tracks which they have traversed. A REQUEST FOR BOTANICAL INFOR horse, for instance, having travelled MATION.
40 miles on a road, where he had never been before, would, on his
second journey, after the lapse of MR. EDITOR.
several years, demonstrate by his Sir,—The monthly “ Catalogue of all actions, that he perfectly recollected really British plants, as they come into the former route. flower," with which you have favoured In exploring the various phenomena us in the present volume of the Impe- of memory, we meet with two occurrial Magazine, is highly pleasing to rences that have hitherto proved inexmyself, and, I make no doubt, is like- plicable : 1st, Many of the transactions wise so to many others. As the year of our early years, appear to be wholly is drawing towards a close, when this obliterated from the recollection; they article must terminate, I should be have never been presented to the greatly obliged if any of your Botani- mind, as the subject of our thoughts, cal correspondents would favour us, but after the lapse of several years, during the ensuing year, with the they have been accidently revived by Elements or Principles of Botany, our being placed in the situation through the medium of your Magazine, which originally gave them birth. to which publication I have been a 2dly, A person in a state of comparasubscriber from its commencement. tive childhood, has been known to This pleasing science, which now be- learn a language, which, through disgins to be cultivated by the youth of use in mature years, has been forgotboth sexes, is well calculated to fur- ten, so that when it has been spoken nish us with instruction ; for how can by others, it has not been understood;
ourron yet, during the delirium of fever, &c. , absent; yet, under this acknowledged the former and forgotten language has inability, mankind have framed a been revived, and spoken with fluen- language, expressive of these powers, cy:--but after a restoration to health, and of their operations. The different no traces of its recollection remained. terms employed, have originated in the
That man is pre-eminent, in the numberless hypotheses which have prerange of creation, is very evident, and, vailed on this subject. Language is figuon a deliberate survey, it will be rative, etymology and authority are the found, that this pre-eminence arises, only two modes to which we can rein a great measure, from his exclusive sort for the definite meaning of words. possession of the powers of speech, Language is the circulating medium and the use of the hand.
of our thoughts, furnishing the terms · Man is capable of transmitting his which designate the objects of percepacquirements to posterity, and of tion. communicating his ideas, for the in There is no faculty of the human struction of his fellow-creatures : but, mind of more importance than will or the acquirements of the brute creation volition. There are voluntary and perish with them : they do not enjoy involuntary actions, both of the body the appropriate organs for communi and the mind: in the infant we discating instruction.
cern a necessity for mental advanceSpeech is generally acquired by the ment, before it can direct any of the ear, and the sound communicated motions of its body; in this state, volithrough that again, is imitated by the tion would be superfluous; voluntary voice, which is the proper modification exertions are the result of experience. of sound in the cavity of the mouth The will, when not perverted, is geneand nostrils. But had man been fur- , rally, if not always, guided by reason. nished merely with the powers of The direction of the several organs speech, without the means of record of sense, to the examination of an ing either his actions or his reflections, object, is an act of the mind which is although he might have retained the called attention. The soundest mind names of Homer, Virgil, Milton, New-may be attributed to him who posseston, &c. &c. he must have remained ses the most enduring control over nearly ignorant of their genius, and the organs of sepse, in order to exahe would not have been much the mine objects accurately, and thereby wiser for the improvements which to acquire a full and complete percepthey made. This contrivance, above tion of them. That memory is the all other blessings, has transmitted, best, which can voluntarily, and imin the sacred volume, the command mediately, produce that which has nients of the living God.
been committed to its custody; and The anatomy of the hand, has not that reflection is the most perfect, been so minutely investigated, as to which is exclusively occupied with demonstrate the origin of its innume- the subject of consideration. The will rable actions. The organ of touch to act, is governed and directed by resides at the end of the fingers; but reason, the highest of our attainments. no perception, from whatever organ of The will of man is as free as his expesense it may be derived, can be com- rience dictates; and his reason urges municated to another except through to action. the medium of language. Though the
Your's, respectfully, hand is, strictly speaking, the servant
LEO. LEDBROOK, of the mind, yet we must admit, that! Wolverhampton. Sentr. 12. 1821. without it we should have been strangers to “ the cloud-cap'd towers,” &c. &c. and to very many of the conveniences which we enjoy.
TO REMOVE WARTS. It is probable, that we shall never fully know the nature and operations. TAKE the nitrate of silver, (lunar of our intellectual faculties; or, at caustic) and dipping the end of the least, that we shall not be able to caustic in a little water, rub it over comprehend the manner in which we these troublesome excrescences, and perceive the objects that surround us; after a few times using they will disneither shall we be able to explain appear. This process is quite simple Low we recollect them when they are and harmless. The muriate of amnio
Observations on the Author of Waverley.
nia (sal ammoniac) is likewise a very never has occurred a circumstance so useful remedy. These applications extraordinary as that the author of have been tried with constant success, Waverley shonld have still remained during a practice of twenty years. undiscovered; or that, after such un
bounded applause as his works have WORDSWORTH.
met with in all quarters, the writer
should continue to publish anonyMR. EDITOR.
mously, instead of avowing his name, SIR,- In the Imperial Magazine for
and enjoying the fame which his works July, 1821, (col. 598) there is an Essay
have acquired him. Many have been on the Genius and Writings of Words
the conjectures respecting his indiviworth; in the course of which, a Son
duality, but the most general, perhaps net on the Battle of Waterloo is intro
too, the best founded opinion, is, that duced as an admired specimen of his
Walter Scott is the author. Poetry; the five concluding lines are
Mr Constable, the publisher, has the following :
stated in company, the sum of money
he has paid Mr. Scott, which, from « Ile only, if such breathe, in strains devout Sball comprehend this victory gubliine ;
the amount, it can only be inferred And worthily rebearse the hideous rolit, as including the price of these popular Which the blest angels, from their peaceful
works. Still, however, a part of that clime, Beholding, welcom'd with a choral shout.” money might have been paid on ac
This impious passage I should brand count of the anonymous writer, and with little less than blasphemy; if Mr. S. might have been the receiver such be the pleasures of Wordsworth's general. supposed heaven, no real Christian Mr. Scott, too, when Waverley first would wish to join him there.
acquired fame, was passenger in one • Source of all guilt, and all distress,
of the Leith smacks, and expressed Detested war; whate'er thy plea,
his opinion of these works to a person The votaries of the Prince of Peace No fellowship can have with thee.”
unknown to him, in such terms of ap
probation, as were somewhat inconDid the angels of heaven raise a loud choral | sistent with the idea of his being the shout,
author of them himself. Besides When they saw that the Frenchmen were all put to rout?
which, it is very likely, from his wellAnd could they rejoice in the midst of suclı woe? known liberality of sentiment, that he Ah no-saith my soul-it could never be so.
may, from some motive or other, have, Far, far other subjects of mercy and joy, For ever have been, and will be, their employ: in the first instance, become the vehiSuch songs as were beard at a Saviour's birth,
cle of their publication. Of good will to men, and of peace upon earth.
A Mr. Mc. F. an episcopal bishop, When the demons of war spread their wings on the blast,
in Scotland, has also been pointed at And wither the harvest, or shatter the mast, as their author with much appearance Aud scatter the dead o'er the desolate plain, Or tinge with their blood the green waves of of probability, partly from the conspithe main ;
cuous talents he is allowed to possess, When widows must suffer with many a tear,
| but more particularly by having been A sad separation from all they hold dear; When orphans behold their support and their
ort and their heard to relate the leading stories, stay,
long before they were given to the By wars cruel arm snatch'd for ever away; "l'he fiende may rejoice in their horrible lake, And shouts of infernal applauses may make. Whoever the eminent man may But tie angels of beaven, if permitted to see Such scenes, which I hope that they never will
prove to be, the works are of that be,
character, as to form a prominent Iustead of applause or delight, they will find
feature in the literature of the present A sad source of sorrow and grief for mankind. We hope in that place, where the blessed age, and the author must be acknowremain,
| ledged a person of most extraordinary No sorrow can enter, no grief, and no pain :
| talents, with an equal proportion But that songs of thanksgiving, of peace, love, and joy,
both of modesty and self-denial. It Shall be through all ages their happy employ. is certainly of rare occurrence, that
the same writer should excel, both in
prose and poetical composition: many OBSERVATIONS ON THE AUTHOR OF of our best poets have acquired but WAVERLEY.
little fame out of the sphere of poetry;
perhaps Goldsmith is the one that In the annals of literature of the lighter succeeded most, in both kinds of order, I incan novels, perhaps there i composition.
Rev. James Hervey.
Dr. Johnson has written more in rian. The author, too, possesses such the spirit of poetry, in the Rambler dramatic power in the creation, supand Rasselas, than will be found in port, and contrast of his characters, the fettered verse of Irene; in proof that had he chosen the real drama for of which, I will only instance the his work, instead of the imitative form opening address in his beautiful work of the novel, there seems every reason of Rasselas, though many other pas- to suppose he would only have classed sages might be quoted more apt and in the rear of Shakspeare. striking to justify the preceding obser- In reading these fine works, one vation.
circumstance bears strongly against “Ye who listen with credulity to the whis
the common opinion of their being pers of fancy, and pursue with eagerness the
Walter Scott's; namely, that all the phantoms of hope, who expect that age will poetry interspersed in the text, is any perform the promises of youth, and that the thing but resembling that great poet's deficiencies of the present day will be supplied works, being entirely of the plaintive by the morrow, attend to the history of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia !”
pathetic kind, whereas Mr. Scott's
principal feature and excellence is Here you have a harmony in the on the descriptive lyrical style. words, and an expression so purely! In making this observation, I do poetical, that verse might perhaps not allude to the introductory quotashackle, but could scarcely improve tions at the commencement of each the sentence. But if Walter Scott be chapter, which are as various as the the real author of the works in ques- author's own genius; but to the poetry tion, how much then has he excelled of the work itself. In fine, whoever every predecessor who has written in the writer may be, no author in that both kinds of composition; it may species has excelled him, in exciting then, indeed, be said of him, as the interest, in producing effect, or in great colossus of literature wrote in the practising that maxim, of mixing the epitaph of his friend Goldsmith, “that “ utile dulci.” ke bas left no species of writing untouched, or unadorned, by his pen," for these works embrace almost every
Rev. JAMES HERVEY. subject and mode of writing.
The author of these histories, more! MR. EDITOR. properly than novels, is evidently one SIR-I have taken the liberty of scndthat is eminently versed in the living ing you the annexed extract, from a and dead languages; Greek and Latin small book of a local nature ; but as it seem as familiar to him as his own relates to that eminent servant of God, tongue, French, Spanish, Italian, the Rev. James Hervey, I doubt not German, Gaelic, indeed all the lan- | that it will meet with your approbaguages of Europe, are not only known tion. An early insertion will much to him, but his quotations indicate a oblige perfect acquisition of them ; whilst
FREDERICUS. history and science display the lights
Northampton, Nov. 2, 1820. of a mind beyond measure comprehensive, and refined from the dross, both of pedantry and prejudice.
About two miles from Northampton, These works will certainly be read is the pleasant little village of Weston and admired, when the poetry of Favel, which once boasted of three Walter Scott will have become obso- | mansion houses, belonging to the falete, and his materials forgotten : they milies of Ekins, Holman, and Hervey, possess the advantage over these all of which are gone to decay. In this poems, of describing events of more | village lived and died the pious and recent date, of manners more genuine learned James Hervey, author of the and authentic, and they abound with | Meditations, and otherworks.—Hewa many minute circumstances of charac instructed in the free grammar school ter,(national, religious, and political,) | at Northampton, where he made great which, by reflecting the image of the
progress in his studies : and, in the times they describe, render them | year 1731, he became a studen more amusing in some respects, and Lincoln College, Oxford, where og more instructive in this particular. I took only the degree of Bachelor than the works of the general histo- | Arts, and entered into holy orders.