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COMPARATIVE VALUE OF SHEEP HUSBANDRY AND WOOL

MANUFACTURING.

WOOL MANUFACTURING.

SHEEP HUSBANDRY IN 1892.

The census of 1890 gives statis- The following statistics are tics of wool manufacturing thus: given: Wages paid to operatives... $77,581, 525 Capital in sheep.

$120,000,000 Cost of materials used. 208, 971, 024 Capital in farms and barns Value of product...

345, 942, 822
for sheep..

400,000,000 Capital invested.

320, 417, 304 Number of flocks and flock Hands eroployed :

masters

1,000,000 Males

99, 318

Number of men employed a
Females

106, 057
portion of the year.

100,000 Youths

15, 657

Wool product, pounds. 320, 410, 542

Value.
This is 21.8 cents for labor and Number of sheep

$80,000,000

45,000,000 51 cents for stock for every dollar's Value of sheep sold for pelt worth of goods. The cost of mate

and food

$30,000,000 rials includes the wool imported and

Amount paid in wages.

25, 000, 000

Value of services of flock produced by our woolgrowers. masters

50,000,000 (See Senate Mis. Doc. No. 35, Fifty- Cost of washing and shearthird Congress, second session, pp.

ing sheep...

5,000,000 103-105.)

Totalamount paid for labor. 80,000,000 The secretary of the National Here is capital invested $520,Association of Wool Manufacturers 000,000, giving partial employment says:

to more than 1,000,000 people, with We have in this country enough woolen

wages and value of services $80,machinery to manufacture all the woolen 000,000, and with a total product goods our people can consume.

But we

in 1892 of $110,000,000. And this, have no use for it under the present tariff. under the most ample protection," (See Quarterly Bulletin of the association, September, 1896. Boston.)

can be much more than doubled, and even then not supply the whole American demand. (See Senate Mis. Doc. No. 35, Fifty-third Congress, second session, p. 5; Mis. Doc. No. 77, same Congress and session, p. 44.)

The value of the wool clip is estimated from the following, taken from the December 1, 1896, wool circular of Justice, Bateman & Co.:

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And the Secretary of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, in the September, 1896, bulletin of the association, says:

In the bulletin of this association appear the monthly quotations of the prices of 60 different varieties and growths of domestic wools in the Boston markets. Taking these quotations by groups, as they are there arranged, and comparing the prices in April, 1890, with the prices in April, 1896, we have the following results, by groups:

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The average decline in the whole group is 42 per cent.

No other commodity, raw or manufactured, has suffered a decline in value which approximates this. Its extent and significance may be shown in the specific case of Ohio xx wool. It has dropped in value, in the face of equal competition, from 29 cents in 1892 to 184 cents per pound in 1896. The 1892 price on the scoured basis was about 28 cents above the value per scoured pound of the London price of the corresponding grade of Australian wool, while the 1896 price is about 41 cents below the London scoured price of the like grade of Australian wool. This drop of 42 per cent in value represents the loss to the far er from the repeal of the duty

ked by the McKinley act. It is not in any sense due to a general decline in the world's wool markets; for a comparison of the London prices of various grades of wool, at the same dates, shows an average advance of about 9 per cent in 1896 as compared with 1892.

ALLIED INDUSTRIES.

Woolgrowing and wool manufacturing are allied industries. The American wool manufacturers furnish to our woolgrowers their only arailable market for wool. The WOOLGROWERS STAND READY FOR CONFERENCE WITH THE WOOL MANUFACTURERS to CONSIDER THE MUTUAL INTERESTS of BOTH; to aid in securing "the most ample protection” for both. They are ready to aid in securing for all industries protective benefits equal to those asked for their own industry, and to this end they invite the cooperation of all engaged in other industries, the wool manufacturers especially included (see Senate Doc. No. 17, Fifty-fourth Congress, first session, Chap. IV, pp. 129-134; Senate Mis. Doc. No. 35, Fifty-third Congress, second session, p. 227).

SINCERE RESPECT FOR OPINIONS OF OTHERSNO DISCOURTESY

INTENDED.

It is deemed proper to say that nothing herein, or in the MEMORIAL or CHAPTERS appended, or footnotes, is intended to reflect on the good faith, honesty of purpose, or courtesy of those entertaining different views or purposes. If any section of the country or locality of interests is referred to, it is only to describe existing conditions. No one will more earnestly condemn any sectional feeling than the writer of this. No personal disrespect is felt or intended to be cast against any of the many persons referred to.

THE RESULTS OF AMERICAN ENTERPRISE AND LEGISLATION.

Edward Atkinson, one of the best informed men in the country, has made an estimate of the annual productions of the various countries, as follows: United States: Population approximately 70,000,000-producing

within its own area an excess of food, fuel, timber, ores, and fibers-annual product computed at $225 per head..

$15, 750,000,000 Great Britain and Ireland: Population approximately 40,000,000

deficient within its own area in food, ores, and ti bers-annual product computed at $170 per head..

6, 800,000,000 Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands: Population approximately

64,000,000---food barely adequate, often deficient; deficient in fuel,

timber, and fibers-annual product computed at $125 per head.... 8,000,000,000 France: Population approximately 40,000,000—deficient in fuel, ores,

and fibers; rich in agriculture-annual product computed at $150 per head.

6,000,000,000 Total production..

36,550,000,000 These are approximate estimates only, which may serve to give a

slight comprehension of the problem. Let it be assumed that one-fourth of this product is consumed where it is produced, without purchase or sale....

9, 137,500,000 Remainder..

27, 412,500,000 He significantly remarks that without doubt in the transformation of the ores into mechanism and tools, of the timber into buildings, furniture, etc., of the grain into bread, dairy products, and meats, and of the fibers into clothing, not less than three times this vast sum of $27,412,500,000, or the incomprehensible amount of $82,237,500,000 of property has passed from man to man.

RESOLUTIONS OF THE FARMERS' CONGRESS.

Resolutions adopted at the session of the congress at Indianapolis accompany the memorial. On some of these there were differences of opinion by members of the congress.

COMMITTEE TO PRESENT THE MEMORIAL AND RESOLUTIONS TO THE

CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES.

On the last day of the session of the Farmers' National Congress the following committee was appointed to present to Congress the memorial of the Farmers' Congress under course of preparation: Messrs. B. F. Clayton, of Iowa; T. J. Clardy, of Kentucky; W. B. Powell, of Pennsylvania, and William Lawrence, of Ohio.

THIS INTRODUCTION.

This INTRODUCTION and the footnotes appended to the memorial have been prepared since the Farmers' National Congress adjourned. They are deemed appropriate by way of illustrations, and as supporting the views and purposes of the MEMORIAL.

NO PARTY POLITICS IN THE MEMORIAL,

The only purpose of this INTRODUCTION of the memorial, and the notes thereto is to secure to farmers equally with others the full benefit of the political policy settled for a time by the recent Presidential election.

If the Democratic party had been successful, the Farmers' National Congress would have acquiesced, and would have presented to the Congress of the United States a MEMORIAL asking for benefits equally for farmers with those engaged in other industries under the Democratic policy.

CHAPTER I.

A MEMORIAL TO THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, ADOPTED

BY THE SIXTEENTH ANNUAL SESSION OF THE FARMERS' NA. TIONAL CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, HELD AT INDIANAPOLIS, IND., NOVEMBER 10-13, 1896.

SYNOPSIS OF THE MEMORIAL.

I. ADDRESS OF HON. B. F. CLAYTON, PRESIDENT.

18 1. Imports of farm products

19 2. Exports of farm products.

19 3. Protective duties asked for.

20 II. CONSIDERATIONS IN FAVOR OF PROTECTION FOR AGRICULTURE PECULIAR TO THAT INDUSTRY..

20 III. FARM PRODUCTS ON WHICH PROHIBITORY DUTIES ARE ASKED

21 1. Nineteen products specified...

21 2. Considerations as to cotton, footnote 2.

21 3. As to sugar, rice, oranges, etc. Bounties, etc.

22 IV. THE WOOL INDUSTRY

24 1. Effect of tariff legislation..

24 2. Effect of tariff on prices of wools, footnote 6 ; and see introduction to this chapter..

25 V. DEFECTS IN THE WOOL TARIFF ACT OF 1890.

27 1. The “skirting clause"-Its effect. See footnotes 7, 12, 16; see also Chapter II, of this document, footnote 25....

63 2. American wool growers can supply all needed wools, footnote 8. 28 VI. THE RATES OF PROTECTIVE DUTIES ASKED FOR..

28 1. They are shown to be just, footnote 9, 16..

30 2. The gold premium considered, footnote 9..

30 3. Footnote 9, subdivision 9, shows the necessity for an increase

of the rates of duty by reason of the decline in the world's
prices of wools since 1891.

31 VII. EXTRA SESSION OF CONGRESS

31, 68 1. Reasons in support of it, footnote 10..

31 2. A solution of the mode of dealing with the wool tariff by the

Boston American Wool and Cotton Reporter, footnote 10.. 31 VIII. THE DINGLEY TARIFF BILL-Objection to it..

33 I. It will only give to merino wool a protective benefit of about 2.6 cents per pound. (See footnote 11.).

33 1. Six reasons given in footnote 11

33 2. A threatened danger, footnote 11..

33 3. The measure of protection suggested by Justice Bateman & Co., footnote 11.

33 IX. AD VALOREM DUTIES INSUFFICIENT.

34 1. Discussed, footnote 11a; see also Chapter II, post

35 2. Third-class wools used to manufacture clothing goods, footnote 11a X. FOUR AMENDMENTS TO THE DINGLEY BILL ASKED FOR..

35 1.—“That the óskirting clause’ of the act of 1890 shall not apply to it. 36

II.-Strike out the pledge thereon that it shall continue in operation ‘until August 1, 1898',

36 III.—That the duties on woolen rags, shoddy, mungo, flocks, noils, wastes, and other adulterants be made prohibitory..

36 IV.—That wool and wool manufactures shall not remain in bond warehouses more than 10 days”.

36 S. Doc. 17-2

17

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