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profits, and furnish remunerative employment for many thousands, because here, owing to the superior climatic conditions, they can be worked to advantage the year round, but my idea is that the big money and your future prosperity hinges largely upon sheep and wool growing enterprises. These mountain ranges, covered with succulent grasses, can furnish the sweetest mutton in the world. Two clips of wool per year are always to be had, and with proper grading of flocks, reasonable tariff, and ordinary good business methods no country should yield a greater revenue to the sheep husbandry than New Mexico."

II. UTAH SWINGS INTO LINE.

A LOCAL ASSOCIATION ORGANIZED TO PLACE ITSELF IN TOUCH WITH

THE NATIONAL WOOL GROWERS' ASSOCIATION-SEVERE ARRAIGNMENT OF THE BOLTERS, AND SUPPORT DEMANDED FOR THE PARTY OF PROTECTION.

[From the Monthly Sheep Edition of the Boston Americau Wool and Cotton Reporter for August, 1896.]

Official announcement of the executive committee.

HEADQUARTERS UTAH WOOL

GROWERS ASSOCIATION,

Salt Lake City, August 8, 1896. To the Woolgrowers of Utah:

We desire to call your attention to the absolute necessity of a more thorough and complete organization of the woolgrowers of Utah. The absence of such organization has been one great source of all our ills. Our industry has been looked upon as worthy of but little consideration, and when measures affecting it have been presented to the public, it bas been treated with the injustice born of prejudice.

We ourselves are greatly to blame for these existing conditions, and so long as we remain indifferent to our interests, just so long will injustice prevail. We need a full and complete membership in our association of every woolgrower and dealer in the state, in order that it may be made strong and capable of wielding that influence which its prominence demands. We must place ourselves in touch with the National Wool Growers' Association, and be in a position to render them assistance in all measures calculated to restore a just and equitable tariff on wool. We should be willing to contribute our portion of the expense of such agitation, for if we do not work for ourselves, others will not work for us. We can not impress too strongly upon every woolgrower the absolute necessity of taking a more active interest in our state affairs, attending our primaries, to the end that such persons as are friendly to our interests inay be sent to our county and state conventions; that good, true men and protectionists may be elected to the legislature and executive offices in our state, that we may not be discriminated against in the future as we have been in the past; that our representatives in Congress and in the Senate of the United States may be honest men and protectionists, who will never compromise or cooperate with our political opponents.

BOLTERS JUSTLY CRITICISED.

We know what we want, and when we honor a man and delegate him to perform a work for us we expect him to do it. We have no use for men who bolt our conventions without authority, and we want them to

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know it. It is the acme of idiocy to suppose that the judgment of twenty-five is paramount to the judgment of nine hundred equally as intelligent and honorable men. We do not believe that any honest, loyal protectionist can support such a policy. Let us announce at the ballot box our disapproval of such men and methods.

We have facing us to-day a political problem that, we are told, will need careful thought and good business judgment to solve. Fellow woolgrowers, the questions at issue are very easy of solution. They are free trade, coupled with the free and unlimited coinage of silver without the cooperation of other nations, on one side, and protection to American industries and American men and women by wise and sufficient tariff laws, coupled with the free coinage of silver by international agreement, on the other. The attempt to lay aside the two great issues of our last national campaign and substitute therefor the controversy over silver we regard as a trick of politicians to divert our attention from the real issue that will give us the relief we desire.

We know that our country is so paralyzed with foreign competition in every branch of business that every channel of enterprise is closed, and in consequence, the money we now have is leaving us to pay the balance of trade between us and foreign countries, interest on bonds held by foreign capital, or is being taken from the industrial interests of the country and invested in Government bonds. How will more money help us, if it continues to circulate in the same channels ?

THE BARS OF PROTECTION DOWN.

So long as the bars of protection are down, and foreign competition renders our own industrial interests unprofitable, the free coinage of silver can do us but little good. The field of operation must be transferred from foreign to American enterprise before our country and its people can enjoy any great degree of prosperity. As long as our present tariff laws are in force, just so long will our country be paralyzed, and the channels of circulation be closed. The free coinage of silver will not open them until the conditions are removed, and our people are protected from the poorly paid labor of other countries.

We want to hear the busy hum of the factories and the happy song of the farmer in the land, as well as the strike of the miner's pick. We want to see good prices for wool, mutton, and cattle, as well as good prices for silver. We want our farming and stock interests to prosper as well as those of the miners and capitalists. We believe that protection and free silver should go hand in hand, each supporting the other, and to accomplish this end we pledge our earnest support. Free trade and "go-it-alone-free-silver” are adverse principles and can never act in harmony and bring us the relief we desire. Our money would continue to go abroad, as our gold did in the “fifties” under the free trade Walker tariff. Disappointment and distress, continued paralysis, and ruined business would be the fruit of such a policy.

66

ASSERTIONS OF POLITICAL DEMAGOGUES.

We cannot afford to be carried away by the reckless assertions of political demagogues and place hunters. We all remember the predictions and promises made four years ago, and we know the results. Our past experience should be a rudder to guide us in the future. Let the motto of every woolgrower be “protection and free silver.” Let us vote only for its trusted advocates, indorsed by the national convention. Be not swerved from your single purpose, neither by those who

66

have ever been our open yet honest opponents, nor by those who have betrayed the people and party who have honored them in the past. By order of the executive committee.

JESSE M. SMITH, President. The constitution of the association provides as follows: The following-named persons shall be the officers of this association until the next regular meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah: Jesse M. Smith, president; J. S. Houtz, vice-president; R. E. Miller, secretary; W. L. Pickard, treasurer, and they, together with J.C. Mackay, W. H. Haight, James Metcalf, shall form the executive comuuittee.

III. PROTECTION FOR WOOL.

MORE IMPORTANT TO THE FARMERS THAN THE FINANCIAL QUES

TION, SAYS JUDGE LAWRENCE—THE OHIO WOOLGROWERS-DEMAND AN IMMEDIATE RESTORATION OF THE DUTIES ON WOOL AND INDICATE SCHEDULE-ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT AND RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED.

[From the Ohio State Journal, Columbus.] The meeting of the Ohio Woolgrowers Association at the State fair grounds yesterday afternoon was without doubt the most interesting and successful ever held in the State. Representative men were present from nearly every county in the State and there prevailed a unanimity of opinion in the resolutions adopted that speaks in no uncertain way in regard to the stand of the woolgrowers on the tariff question. It was remarked by Judge Lawrence, Senator Hogg, and others that the old idea that free trade would be a good thing for the wool industry which prevailed to some extent in past years has almost entirely disappeared from the ranks of the association. The sentiment among woolgrowers to-day is practically unanimous for protection. The meeting yesterday was the thirty-third annual convention of the association, and convened in the woolgrowers' hall on the fair grounds at 1 o'clock p. m.

The officers of the association are Judge William Lawrence, of Bellefontaine, president, and W. N. Cowden, of Quaker City, Guernsey County, secretary. Judge Lawrence presided, and, with the exception of his address and that by Hon. George H. Wallace, ex-United States consul to Australia, the programme was informal. Judge Lawrence's address was one of the best ever delivered before the association.

Following Judge Lawrence, Hon. George H. Wallace delivered an entertaining and instructive address on the WOOL INDUSTRY IN AUSTRALIA. The object of the address was for the enlightenment of the woolgrowers of this country upon the manner in which it is conducted in Australia. The address was highly appreciated by the association.

The next speaker was Senator C. M. Hogg, of Harrison County, who said he thought with ex-President Harrison that the battle for protection was won, but for the benefit of those who were not quite convinced he would repeat the following from the lamented Lincoln: “If you pay England $50 for a ton of iron England gets the money and you get the iron, but if you manufacture that ton of iron in this country you have both."

Col. J. D. Taylor, of Cambridge, made a few remarks favoring protection. He was followed by J. D. Stevens, of Kenton, who thought it was to the interests of the country to look after the financial question as well as that of tariff.

President Canfield, of the Ohio State University, was present and made a few remarks on the proposition to establish at the university a branch for technical instruction in textile fabrics. He also spoke of the great interest the institution is taking in agricultural matters. The address was very much appreciated by the association. The following resolutions were adopted, after which the association adjourned:

The severest blow ever delivered to agriculture in the United States was the placing of wool on the free list by the present tariff law; and with only harm to other interests. Speaking in. round numbers, it has reduced the flocks of 1892 from 47,000,000 head to 35,000,000 head in 1896; it has reduced their value from $125,000,000 to $65,000,000; it has cut the value of wool in two; it has increased the imports of shoddy from 321,000 pounds in 1892 to 18,000,000 pounds in 1895; and it has greatly contributed to the general depression and distress of the times. It has been a besom of destruction whose havoc will be felt for a generation. Therefore be it

Resolved, That the immediate restoration of wool to the duty list at figures of full adequate protection is the imperative duty of Congress and the Executive, accompanied with such adequate protection to woolens as will secure our wool to be manufactured at home, and not sent abroad to be manufactured into cloth, as is now being done, we paying two ocean freights, while American labor stands in enforced idleness witnessing the operation.

Resolved, That, in our judgment, combing wools should have a duty of 12 cents a pound, the fine merino grades 15 cents a pound, carpet wools 8 cents; and these figures are respectfully submitted to the favorable consideration of Ohio's Senators and Representatives.

Resolved, That this year, above all others, business is involved in politics; and that it is due the great farming interests that they should know, and it is their right to demand, what are the views and what is to be expected of the various candidates for President, Vice-President, the Senate, and House of Representatives on this great and vital question. And we therefore recommend the farmers of the country, where the attitude of any such candidate is not known and declared, to take immediate steps to ascertain it. This is no time for skulking on this question. Free traders in disguise should not be elected. If they are to be elected, let it be openly done, that the people may know what to expect.

While this resolution, of course, pertains especially to Ohio, we most respectfully commend its suggestions to farmers of other States and ask them this year, without regard to party lines, to cast their ballots, as we are resolved to cast ours, in such way as will save this great agricultural industry from complete overthrow and destruction:

Resolved, That we favor the establishment in the Ohio State university of a department for instruction in textile industries, and an increase of the taxes on dogs, the surplus after paying for sheep killed or damaged in any county, to be applied to aid of textile education.

Committee: T. L. Morris, Greene county; Daniel Rexroth, Crawford county; C. R. Fowler, Wyandot county.

The following resolution was also adopted:

Resolved, That imported woolen manufactures, in which shoddy or other adulterants form a component part, should be forfeited to the Government if not stamped to indicate their character.

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CHAPTER V.

THE EFFECTS OF THE FREE WOOL ACT OF AUGUST 27, 1894.

By JUSTICE, BATEMAN & Co., of Philadelphia. [The following article was published as a supplement to Traffic for May, 1896, a monthly Philadelphia publication by Burk & McFetridge Company, and by them copyrighted. It is now used in this document by their permission.]

98

99

SYNOPSIS OF CHAPTER.

Page. I. THE MARKETS OF THE WORLD FOR AMERICAN WOOL MANUFACTURE AND THE WILSON-GORMAN TARIFF LAW OF AUGUST 27, 1894..

97 1. It did (1) neither enlarge the American market for American wool

nor (2) for woolen goods, but (3) it enlarged the foreigu manu-
factures, and (4) diminished ours and thus (5) reduced the Amer-

ican market for both
II. THE LOSS TO AMERICAN WOOLGROWERS

98 III. THE LOSS TO WAGE EARNERS IN WOOLEN FACTORIES

98 IV. IMPORTS OF Raw WOOL.. V. THE USE OF SHODDY INCREASED.

100 VI. IMPORTSOF WooL, INCLUDING WOOL IN IMPORTED WOOLEN MANUFACTURES

100 VII. INCREASE IN THE WORLD'S SUPPLY OF WOOL. DECLINE IN WORLD'S PRICES OF WOOL...

100, 102 VIII. EFFECT OF FREE WOOL IN REDUCING AMERICAN PRICES OF WOOL 102 IX. EFFECT OF LOW DUTIES AND OF FREE WOOL IN REDUCING THE NUMBER OF AMERICAN SHEEP.

102 X. EFFECT ON WooL PRICES

103, 104 EFFECTS OF FREE WOOL—IMPORTATION OF WOOLEN TEXTILES

INCREASED 242 PER CENT-A LOSS OF $100,000,000 IN THE PURCHASING POWER OF THE AMERICAN NATION CAUSED BY THE WILSON-GORMAN LAW_THE MARKETS OF THE WORLD FOR AMERICAN WOOL MANUFACTURERS AND THE WILSON LAW.

The statesmen who outlined the policy of the present Administration in passing the Wilson bill [took effect as a law August 27, 1894) claimed that free wool would give American manufacturers the markets of the world, and instead of being limited in the sale of their production to the American market, as heretofore, they could invade foreign markets. We are now nearly half way through the second year of actual experience with free wool. Have the predictions made by the eminent statesmen who shaped the policy of the present Administration been realized? In the following table (Schedule B):

B.-Imports of manufactures of wool in textiles.

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