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works, where Bean remained until the British retreated. He subsequently returned to Mexico, where his adventures recommenced and continued. His Memoirs were published in 1816.

The news of Nolan's death must have reached Natchez shortly. after the death of his wife.

The scholar, Mr. William Dunbar, writing to Thomas Jefferson, 22 August, 1801, says:

“Mr. Nolan has formerly given me some information of parts of New Mexico; but we have lately been cut off from our usual communications with that country by the imprudence of Mr. Nolan, who persisted in hunting wild horses without a regular permission, the consequence of which has been that a party being sent against him, he was the only man of his company who was killed. I am much concerned for the loss of this man. Although his eccentricities were many and great, he was not destitute of romantic principles of honor united to the highest personal courage with energy of mind, which under guidance of a little more prudence might have conducted him to enterprises of the first magnitude.”

We meet with two of Nolan's company in the report of Captain Zebulon Pike's expedition to the sources of the Mississippi, 1807. Intercepted and detained in Santa Fé, Pike writes that he there met two white men who had been taken prisoners, still living there. And he writes :

"The diary of Nolan and many of his letters, which are in my possession, show conclusively that he was not only a gallant gentleman, but an accomplished scholar. He was thoroughly acquainted with astronomy and geography. He made the first map of Texas, which he presented to the Baron de Carondelet on his return from his first trip to Texas in 1797.

At a later period, Jan. 2d, 1808, Andrew Ellicott wrote to Wilkinson:

“I do not recollect to have ever received a hint that the late P. Nolan was concerned in any plans or intrigues injurious to the United States. On the contrary, in all our private and confidential communications he appeared strongly attached to the interests and welfare of our country.”

GRACE KING.

MEETING OF DECEMBER, 1917. The regular monthly meeting of the Louisiana Historical Society took place on Tuesday evening, December 18th, in the Cabildo, at the usual hour. The attendance of members was not large, but the President and most of the officers were present.

After the reading of the minutes the following members were added to the Society:

Miss Delphine Points, 930 Elysian Fields Street.
Mr. Adolpho E. Hegewish, Wolvine Line, Whitney Bldg.
Mr. W. H. Anderson, 5212 Coliseum Street.

Mrs. Marie Mioton, 1219 North Rampart Street. A letter was read from Mr. Isaac C. Sutton, of Philadelphia, telling of two old miniatures of Wm. E. Hulings, M. D., and wife, bearing the date of 1789. Dr. Hulings was at that time Consul from the United States to New Orleans. The miniatures belonged to an old lady who wanted to sell them. There was no answer to the letter.

Mr. Cusachs then introduced the subject of the paper written by the Rev. Clarence Bishpam, entitled “The Contest for Ecclesiastical Supremacy in the Mississippi Valley.”

Miss Grace King stated that she had read the paper and heartily admired the spirit in which it was written, and valued its historical importance.

Mr. William Beer, who had also read the paper, endorsed it in warm terms of praise.

Miss King offered the resolution that Mr. Bishpam be requested to read the paper at the next meeting of the Society.

Mr. Beer seconded the resolution. It was passed unanimously and cordially.

Mr. W. 0. Hart read the paper of the evening, “The History of the Protestant Church in Louisiana,” a compilation of interesting facts and details, which was listened to with attention. At the close of his paper Mr. Hart read a contribution from Mr. Waldo, a printed leaflet, on the “Unitarian Church in New Orleans,” which gave many interesting and pleasant reminiscences of the brilliant preacher and writer, the Rev. Theodore Clapp, who passed from Presbyterianism to Unitarianism in this city.

Mr. Kent, of the Unitarian Church, made a few appropriate remarks. Mr. Dymond contributed also to the discussion.

The Society adjourned to meet in January.

SOME OBSERVATIONS REGARDING THE CARNIVAL.

(Read by MR. W. 0. HART.) (Times-Picayune, Monday, January 28, 1918.) Mardi is only three weeks off. Usually at this time of the year New Orleans is well advanced in the gaieties of the Carnival and with balls and entertainments of various kinds following each other in rapid succession ; indeed, they have sometimes come so fast that it has been a difficult matter to prevent conflicts of dates. So changed are conditions to-day and so fully is the public mind turned in other directions that it is doubtful whether one in a hundred Orleanians realize that Mardi Gras, the greatest holiday in this city and section, fully recognized and authorized by the law, falls on February 12.

A year ago the celebration had been looked forward to as likely to be one of the grandest of New Orleans' Carnivals. The city celebrates this year the second century of its existence, and it so happened that the centennial falls during the Carnival. The city had invited and arranged to entertain distinguished visitors from all parts of this continent and Europe, and our holiday was to have assumed an international importance, chronicling the restoration of the bonds of union and affection that bind New Orleans with France and Canada, whence came the men who two centuries laid the foundation of this metropolis at the mouth of the world's greatest river.

The war, however, has changed all this, as it has changed many other conditions. New Orleans was one of the first cities to make the sacrifice. It recognized that it was not right nor patriotic to devote itself to mere pleasures and frivolities when the country was in danger, when the whole world is suffering and our own people were victims of a bloody and brutal war. The prompt action of New Orleans in decreeing the suspension of the Carnival showed how thoroughly it can be counted on to do whatever it should do to concentrate its efforts to win the war.

It was suggested by many that some of the features of the day which has been celebrated here for nearly two centuries might be preserved; that some of the incidents of our bicentennial might be given ; that one day might be set aside for general masking, with balls cut out. But all of these promises will have been “cut out”' and Mardi Gras will be suspended from

the New Orleans calendar for 1918. Even the minor balls have been reduced to a minimum.

Everyone will realize the wisdom of this policy. It is what New Orleans has always done in the past. The people of this city are social and hospitable, and believe that life should be made as agreeable as possible, but that the serious things of life should not be sacrificed for pleasure. Whenever conditions, therefore, have been bad; whenever the community has been in danger, they have acted promptly in shutting down on Mardi Gras. We did so when Farragut's fleet was lying before the forts threatening New Orleans, and the Carnival remained suspended during the Civil War. Again, during the disturbed days of reconstruction and dual government in Louisiana, in 1875, there was no Mardi Gras. But it has been noted that when the disturbances that have caused this suspension were over New Orleans has returned to its Carnival with zeal, and reorganized and greatly improved the celebration. The Carnival of 1876 was one of the most brilliant this city has ever known, when the city awoke from its sleep. New features about it came to life, which we have ever since followed. We can be reasonably sure that we will follow this precedent when our great war is over and Americans celebrate the return to peace; but festivities of this kind are not to be thought of when we face so many dangers and difficulties and so many duties and responsibilties are thrust upon us.

TRIBUTE TO MRS. RUTH McENERY STUART. (Read by Mr. William Beer at memorial meeting held in honor

of Ruth McEnery Stuart at Tulane University.) I esteem it a privilege to be delegated by the Louisiana Historical Society to present to this meeting its tribute of admiration and respect for one of its members, the well-known Louisiana authoress, Ruth McEnery Stuart.

I had the pleasure of being present on one of the first occasions where was recognized her talent for reading in public, adding the charm of her voice and manner to the interest of the stories themselves. This was nearly thirty years ago. She received great encouragement in her work from the kindly sym

pathy of that ripe scholar, William Preston Johnston, president of Tulane University. Early in the '90s accident called her to New York to occupy temporarily the editorial chair of what was then the leading and most popular weekly organ appealing to women. In this position she not only made good as an editor, but by her social talents won the friendship of many of the brightest spirits of the literary world of that great city with whom she was assisted in the creation of a literary resort, Onteora on the Hudson.

There can be but little doubt that the association with men and women actively engaged in the production of literature was an incentive to the writings of that long series of successful fiction and light poetry which has won for her lasting fame and popularity. A bereavement, from the effects of which she never fully recovered, saddened her later years.

Four noble women are particularly noteworthy in the history of Louisiana literature, Mary Ashley Townsend, who contributed stately verse; Mollie Moore Davis, who gave us fiction and poetry of great beauty; these two have passed away; Grace King, who is still with us, has made valuable contributions to local history and fiction, and Ruth McEnery Stuart in whose works the present generation finds interest and amusement. These volumes will always furnish to the student of Southern history a true transcript of the manners, traditions and language of a race which forms one-half of the population of her native State. It has been my pleasant duty to collect in the Howard Memorial Library all procurable writings of these authors.

(From the New Orleans States.)

RUTH McENERY STUART. The South is the poorer for the passing of Mrs. Ruth. McEnery Stuart, whose death is announced in New York. Few writers have portrayed more accurately, more sympathetically and more delightfully certain phases of Southern life. Her negro and rural types were sketched with extraordinary fidelity, and she was a mistress of negro and backwoods dialect.

Born in Louisiana fifty-seven years ago, her first story was printed in 1888. Three years later she moved to New York, for the advantage she hoped it would give her in her literary career, and except for occasional visits to New Orleans she spent the rest of her life there. But change of residence made no difference

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