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and others, the original proposition was lost sight of until it was rescued by Mr. Gill, who made the motion that Mr. Thompson's suggestion be approved by the Society, and a memorial embodying it, be sent to the proper congressional authorities for action upon it. This was unanimously adopted.

Mr. Wilkinson then introduced the following resolution, which was also adopted unanimously:

“Be it resolved, That the Historical Society of the State of Louisiana desires to express its earnest and cordial support of the President and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of the United States in the war now being waged by this country for the cause of civilization, humanity and liberty. It strongly endorses the earnest efforts now being made in this State to furnish soldiers, build vessels and provide large food crops for our own people and for the brave soldiers now battling for the right in Europe; and trusts that there will be such large attendance in the fields of labor and harvest, and such small attendance of idlers in the fields of sport as the call of duty and gravity of the occasion requires. . “Be it further resolved, That the Congress of the United States be requested to pass the necessary legislation to carry on this war with promptness and energy that will bring it to a victorious conclusion, as the greater the delay the more will such a conflict cost in lives and property.”

A motion to adjourn was made, but Mrs. Friedrichs begged the favor of a few minutes in which to call the attention of the members to the memorial meeting to be held Thursday at Tulane University in honor of Mrs. Ruth McEnery Stuart, the distinguished writer, and an honorary member of the Society. She proposed that the Society be officially represented at this meeting. The President designated Mr. William Beer, who graciously accepted. . • Mrs. Friedrichs then introduced the subject of the erection of a monument to Bienville as a feature of the approaching celebration, and asked that a subscription be started to collect funds for this end.

Miss Dymond protested warmly against a collection of funds for any such purpose as long as our American Red Cross was in such dire need of money. She spoke bitterly of the poor response made by New Orleans to the appeal for membership, in comparison with cities of the same size in other parts of the country.

Miss King warmly endorsed Miss Dymond's remarks, and the subject of the Bienville monument was dropped.

The motion to adjourn being pressed, the meeting was finally brought to an end.


AS A CODE. (Paper read by T. P. Thompson before the Louisiana Historical

Society, at New Orleans, May 15, 1917.) It would seem, at this time, when we are called upon to stand by the Flag, that any information concerning “Old Glory” will be in order. This has led to the securing of some intimate data concerning the flag which should be of interest to every American.

The Congress of the United States first gave status to our colors by the act of June 14, 1777, which reads as follows:

“Resolved, That the Flag of the Thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the ‘union' be thirteen stars on a blue field representing a new constellation.”

Thus, within one year after the Declaration of Independence the stars and stripes were adopted.

The coat of arms of Washington's family bore the stars and bars,” hence, by the enactment, Congress perpetuates the · lofty spirit that controlled the patriot father in the insignia of our nation, which he had so much a part in founding.

Nearly one hundred years ago, April 4, 1818, when the Union reached twenty States, a resolution was passed by Congress and approved, reading: :

"That from and after the 4th of July next, the flag of the. United States shall be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that the union shall be twenty stars on a blue field, and that on the admission of a new State into the Union one star shall be added to the union of the flag, and that such addition shall take effect on the 4th of July next succeeding such admission.'

The stripes were thereafter fixed at thirteen in number, commemorating the thirteen original colonies which struck for freedom. The colonies adopted in rapid sequence the Constitution

of the American Union, thereby becoming States, the last, Rhode Island, qualifying May 29, 1790, completing the original “constellation” of thirteen stars.

Then çame Vermont (14), Kentucky (15), Tennessee (16), Ohio (17), Louisiana (18), Indiana (19), and Mississippi (20), each at intervals was received into the sisterhood of States, and finally the flag, as we know it to-day, began its official career, “A star for a State on field of blue.”

To-day we are rested on 48, six rows of eight, and for each State a star. .

It has been my great pleasure to identify these stars, and there is herewith submitted a chronology of their sequence.

The original thirteen acquired their position by the right of the dates on which they voted their allegiance to the Constitution of the United States. Delaware was the first to appear, December 3, 1787, as a completed State. Then followed in quick succession Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, and on through the thirteen birthright States.

Louisiana's place is the second star on the third row, and its number is 18. The object of locating on the “union” the position of each State, is to identify by priority of entry its place on the flag, and to endear to us, all the more, our nation's beautiful banner.

Love begins in the home, and logically extends through the State to the nation. Westerner and Southerner both like to be known as such, individually and collectively they will follow their star, and your star, all the stars together, and stand behind the stars and stripes in time of trouble shoulder to shoulder.

Let us not forget the doctrines of Jefferson now that we have so complete a solidarity of commonwealths. The present generation should know its share and group proprietorship in the building up of our great nation. We each have our star on the country's standard, and it should guide us on to a higher patriotism for this the greatest liberty-loving nation of all the world.

Should the War Department desire to indicate the regimental divisions, it could by enlarging to a greater magnitude that particular regiment's State star, form a code of recognition easily taught and understood, and in no way disturbing the uniformity of army regulations as to flags and star arrangement. One large

star would easily stand out among forty-eight others, at once identifying that regiment as a certain State in the Union, ·

Whatever the army man may think, the lay-private will, no doubt, be glad to know his own bright, particular star in this great American constellation, and his soul should thrill to the song: “Long may it wave o'er the land of the Free and the home of the Brave.

MEETING OF JUNE, 1917. The regular monthly meeting of the Louisiana Historical Society took place Tuesday, June 19, with President Cusachs presiding.

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved.

The following persons applied for membership in the Society and were unanimously elected:

E. W. Burgis, 222 Elmira Avenue.
Rev. Raymond Carra, St. Patrick's Church.
Mr. J. R. Wells, 211 St. Charles Street.
Mr. Bertrand Beer, 4035 St. Charles Avenue.
Miss Florence E. O'Neal, 215 Macheca Building.
Mr. J. L. Rice, 2326 Robert Street.
Hon. H. D. Wilson, Com. of Agriculture, Baton Rouge, La.
Mr. J. A. Wherry, 132 Carondelet Street,

Mrs. Wyndham A. Lewin, 2110 Bayou Road. Mr. Dymond reported that the first number of the Louisiana Historical Quarterly had just been issued and was now being sent out to members not in arrears by the Corresponding Secretary.

There being no reports of committees, Major Allison Owen was introduced and read his well-prepared and very interesting paper on the “History of the Washington Artillery.”

A unanimous vote of thanks was tendered to Major Owen for his splendid contribution to local history, and the paper was ordered printed in the proceedings of the Society.

Mr. Watson, one of the oldest surviving members of the Washington Artillery, was present, and was asked by Mr. Hart to make a few remarks, which he gracefully did..

Mr. Hart suggested that in view of the urgent need of the Red Cross for funds with which to carry on the work, the Society appropriate fifty dollars in aid of the organization of the Red

on asked to

old Glory paper prove

Cross work. This suggestion was put in the form of a resolution and was unanimously carried..

Mr. Thompson asked to present a short paper on the subject of the American Flag, entitled “Old Glory, the Flag of Prophecy.” The permission was granted, and the paper proved to be a very charming contribution to the history of the United States. Mr. Thompson was thanked for the paper.

Mr. Hart told of his visit to Philadelphia on Flag Day, June 14th, and stated that he had been asked by Mayor Smith to raise the State flag of Louisiana on Independence Hall on that day at the same time that the United States flag was raised, the band playing “The Star-Spangled Banner” and “Dixie.”

Mr. Thompson stated that the American flag is now the oldest national flag in existence.

General Booth called attention to the fact that the Washington Artillery had done good service in the field in Louisiana and Mississippi, during the flood of 1912, looking after the refugees and hospitals, Major Owen being in active charge.

General Booth also called attention to the fact that the cannon resting on the pedestal in front of Memorial Hall was used in active service during the Civil War, and was christened the Lady Slocomb by the Washington Artillery.

Mr. Cusachs stated that he had represented the Louisiana Historical Society at the reception of the Italian Commission at the dinner which was given on the same day. The meeting then adjourned.

ROBERT GLENK, Secretary Pro Tempore.


By MAJOR ALLISON OWEN. It is indeed a rare privilege which impresses me very much to be asked to speak to your distinguished society within these venerable walls, wherein so many episodes of our history have taken place, and which for many years was the scene of the labors of my predecessor in the command of the Washington Artillery; and to speak on the history of that old command which for the fifth time goes forth to serve a command, the personal call of

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