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DEGREE, in music, the difference of position the beginning of the seventeenth century. It has or elevation of the notes on the lines and spaces. also been used by monarchs, having in their When notes are on the same line or space they | minds a special significance as expressing the are on the same degree, even though one of the idea of the “divine right of kings. notes should be raised by a sharp or lowered by DEJAZET, PAULINE VIRGINIE, a French ac
When two notes follow diatonically, so tress, from whom the Théâtre Dejazet, in Paris, that one of them is on a line and the other on a receives its name; born, Aug. 30, 1797, in Paris; space adjoining, the interval is of one degree. died there, Dec. 1, 1875. She began her stageSubtracting one from an interval gives the degrees | life while a child, and remained active in the prowhich separate the two notes; thus a third is fession for over seventy-five years. She was exseparated by two degrees, a fourth by three, etc. tremely popular while in her prime.
. At the time DEGREES, ACADEMICAL. See ExAMINATIONS, of her death she owned the Théâtre Dejazet. . Vol. VIII, p. 777.
DE KALB, a city in the northern part of IlliDE HAAS, MAURICE FREDERICK HENDRICK, a nois, the capital of De Kalb County, about 60 Dutch-American artist; born in Rotterdam, Hol- miles W. of Chicago, on the Chicago Great Westland, in 1832, the brother of William F. De Haas, ern and Chicago and North-Western railroads. and, like him, a marine-painter. He studied art It has manufactories of plows and other farming in his native country, made sketches of Dutch and tools, furniture, gloves, mittens, barbed wire, English coasts, and was appointed artist of the iron wire, , shoes and machinery. Population Dutch navy In 1859 he came to New York, 1880,
1880, 1,598; 1890, 2,579. The increase where he became an associate of the National due to the location of several large new factories Academy and one of the original members of the in the city. American Water-Colors Society.
, works are Storm off the Isle of Jersey; After the who entered the French army, and, accompanying Wreck; Off the Coast of France; Sunset at Sea; Lafayette to America, fought under Washington Drifting Ashore in a Fog; Early Morning off the and Gates; born July 29, 1721, in Hüttendorf, Coast; and Farragut Passing the Forts. His Bavaria; killed in battle at Camden, South Carobrother, William FREDERICK DE HAAS, was born | lina, Aug. 19, 1780. He was induced by Silas in Rotterdam, Holland, in 1830; died in Fayal, Deane to join the American forces, and upon his Azores, July 16, 1880. He was a marine-painter; arrival in America was made a major-general by studied in his native city and under Bosboom, at Congress. He was under Washington at Valley the Hague. He emigrated to America in 1854. Forge and in New Jersey until 1780, when he was Some of his paintings are Sunrise on the Susque- sent to aid General Gates in the South. hanna; Fishing-Boats off Mt. Desert; Boon Island; mortally wounded, Aug. 16, 1780, while heading Coast of Maine; and Narragansett Pier.
his forces in resisting an attack by Cornwallis. DE HAVEN, EDWIN J., an American Arctic A statue has been erected to his memory in Anexplorer; born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in napolis, Maryland. 1819; died there, Oct. 2, 1865. At the age of ten DE KAY, CHARLES, an American novelist and he entered the marine service, continuing in it for journalist; born July 25, 1848, at Washington, Disthirty-six years. From 1839 to 1842 he was with trict of Columbia, a grandson of the poet, Joseph Wilkes's exploring expedition, and for sixteen Rodman Drake. He became literary editor of months he was in command of the first expedition the New York Times in 1877, and held that posisent by Henry Grinnell in search of Sir John tion until 1894, when he was appointed United Franklin.
States consul to Berlin. He has published The DEIANIRA, daughter of Eneus; she poisoned Bohemian (1878); Hesperus, and Other Poems the tunic of Hercules with blood of the centaur (1880); Love Poems of Louis Barnaval (1883); and Nessus, preserved under the impression of its Barye: Life and Works (1889). being a love-charm. See HERCULES, Vol. XI, p. DE KAY, JAMES ELLSWORTH, an American 726. DEI GRATIA (Lat., “by the favor of God,') a \ 1851.
naturalist; born in Lisbon, Portugal, in 1792; died formula taken from several apostolical expres
He studied for the medical profession in sions in the New Testament. It is believed to Edinburgh; visited Turkey with his father-in-law, have been first formally used by the bishops at Henry Eckford; was sent by the latter on business the Council of Ephesus, A.D. 431. Afterward it connected with the navy to the South American came to be appended by archbishops, bishops, countries, and on his return settled at Oyster Bay. abbots, abbesses, deans, monks, and even chap- During the cholera outbreak in New York he gave lains, to their titles, in letters and other docu- his services to the victims. He wrote for the press, ments, as an humble expression of dependence on was engaged in a state survey, the departments the Most High. After the middle of the thir- of botany and zoology being assigned him. His teenth century, the higher clergy wrote Dei et researches are in five volumes of the New York Apostolicæ Sedis gratia, "By the favor of God and State Survey (1842–49). He also published Travels the Apostolic See." In the British Islands this in Turkey (1833). style was generally dropped about the time of the DEKKER, EDWARD Douwes, a Dutch author; Reformation, but it was occasionally given to the born in Amsterdam, March 2, 1820; died in Niearchbishops of Canterbury and York, even after der-Ingelheim, Feb. 19, 1887. He published two
He was 1016
DE KOVEN-DE LANCEY
dramas, several works on the Dutch Indies, and the Revue des Deux Mondes, and his published various other popular books, the best known be. works include Studies of the Fine Arts in France ing Max Havelar (1860). He wrote under the and Italy (1864); The Collections of Engravings in pseudonym "Multatuli.
the National Library (1875); and A Compendium of DE KOVEN, JAMES, an American clergyman; the Origin, History and Processes of Engraving born in Middletown, Connecticut, Sept. 19, 1831; (1882). died in Racine, Wisconsin, March 9, 1879. He was DELAFIELD, EDWARD, an American physia graduate of Columbia and the General Theo- cian and surgeon; born at New York, May 17, logical Seminary, and was made rector at Dela- 1812; died there, Feb. 13, 1875. He graduated at field, Wisconsin, of the Church of St. John Yale in 1812, and studied medicine in New York, Chrysostom. The care of the school, St. John's London and Paris. He assisted in founding the Hall, was placed in his hands, and in 1859 he was New York Eye and Ear Infirmary in 1820, and elected warden of Racine College, and introduced the New York Ophthalmological Society in 1865, various innovations, such as the wearing of the of which he afterward became president; and Oxford cap and gown by teachers and pupils, and was president of Roosevelt Hospital and of the the first surpliced choir west of New York. He New York College of Physicians and Surgeons at did much for the upbuilding of this college, by the time of his death.-His son, FRANCIS DELAthe extension of its grounds and the erection of FIELD, was born in New York, Aug. 13, 1841; a new chapel and other buildings. He declined educated at Yale and in the New York College of the call to be the assistant rector of Trinity Physicians and Surgeons. He has been surgeon Church, New York, and a little while before his in the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, physideath he was chosen rector of St. Mark's, Phila- cian to Bellevue Hospital, professor of pathology delphia. He was a brilliant conversationalist and practical medicine in the New York College and a powerful pulpit orator.
of Physicians and Surgeons, and, among other DE KOVEN, REGINALD, an American musical medical works, has published a Handbook of Postcomposer; born in Middletown, Connecticut, April Mortem Examination (1872) and Handbook of 30, 1859. After several years spent in study at Pathological Anatomy (1885). Stuttgart under Speidl, and at Paris under Mathias DELAFIELD, RICHARD, an American military and Durand, he attended King's College, Oxford, engineer; born in New York City, Sept. 1, 1798; and was graduated in 1879. He again went to died in Washington, District of Columbia, Nov. 5, Stuttgart and studied under Lebert and Pruch- 1873. After graduating at West Point in 1818 he
His original idea had been to become a became a military engineer, and was appointed to professional pianist, but he gave this up and de- duty on the northern boundary survey of the voted himself to composition, in which he United States, under the Ghent treaty. Subse. took a front rank among opera and song writ- quently he was employed on the defenses of
His first composition was a song, Margery Hampton Roads, the Mississippi, Delaware and Daw (1882). He afterward published over one Hudson rivers. He was twice superintendent of hundred songs; among them, Oh, Promise Me; West Point. He was one of the military commisWinter's Lullaby; Indian Love Song; Ask What sion sent to Europe in 1855, during the Crimean Thou Wilt; etc. But it is perhaps for his operas War, to study the warfare of the times. From that Mr. De Koven is best known. Among them 1861 to 1863 he served on the staff of Governor are Robin Hood (1890); Don Quixote (1889); The Morgan of New York; from 1864 to 1866 had Fencing-Master (1892); Rob Roy (1894); and the charge of the bureau of engineers of the War Mandarin (1896). He became musical critic for Department, was inspector of the Military Acadthe New York World.
emy, and in 1866 was retired from service with DE KROYFT, SARAH HELEN ALDRICH, an the rank of brigadier-general. American authoress; born at Rochester, New DELAGOA BAY. For over half a century there York, Oct. 29, 1818. She received an excellent have been intermittent attempts to establish comeducation, and graduated at the Lima Seminary, munication between the Transvaal and Delagoa in New York. In 1845 she was married, but her Bay. All failed, however, till 1887, when a comhusband was accidentally killed on the wedding pany was formed in London to work a concession day. Later she became totally blind, but never- from the Portuguese government for the constructheless became a successful writer for the period- tion of a railway from Delagoa Bay to the Transicals. She has lectured on Darwin and Moses. Her vaal frontier. The line was partly opened in 1888, only published book is A Place in Thy Memory and in July, 1895, was finished to Pretoria, in the (1850).
Transvaal, a distance of 350 miles, and to JohanDELABORDE, HENRI, a French historical nesburg, four hundred miles from the bay. See painter; born at Rennes, May 2, 1811; a pupil of DELAGOA BAY, Vol. VII, p. 40. Delaroche; a member of the Institute, an officer DE LANCEY, JAMES, an American jurist; born of the Legion of Honor, and perpetual secretary in New York City, Nov. 27, 1703; died there, July of the Academy of Fine Arts, and gained a high 30, 1760.
30, 1760. He was educated in England, where reputation as a writer and art critic. Among his he studied law. He took a prominent part in the paintings are The Confessions of St. Augustine early organization of the city of New York, and (1853); The Death of St. Monica (1838); and The was mainly responsible for the “Montgomery Taking of Damietta (1841). He contributed to Charter" of 1730. He became chief justice of the
supreme court in New York in 1733, lieutenant- conventions of 1860 and 1864 which nominated governor of the state, presided over the first Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency. President Congress held in the colonies, and was the first Grant appointed him Commissioner of Internal person on whom the freedom of the city of New Revenue in 1869. From 1870 to 1875 he was York was conferred. He was one of the founders Secretary of the Interior. He died at his home of King's College. The De Lancey family was near Mount Vernon, Ohio, Oct. 23, 1896. prominent in Revolutionary times, and several of DE LA RAMÈE, Louisa (“Ouida''), an Engits members were men of remarkable talent. lish novelist; born in 1840, at Bury St. Edmunds,
DE LANCEY, WILLIAM HEATHCOTE, an Ameri- England. She began can Protestant Episcopal bishop, nephew of the at a very early age to preceding; born Oct. 8, 1797, in Mamaroneck, write. for the London New York; died in Geneva, New York, April 5, periodicals, especially 1865. He was ordained deacon in 1819, and priest Colburn's New Monthly in 1822. From 1828 to 1833 he was provost of Magazine. The childish the University of Pennsylvania. In 1835 he be- mispronunciation of her came rector of St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia, name, Louisa, suggested having been assistant for the two previous years. her pseudonym,“Ouida.” He was chosen bishop of western New York in Since gaining a reputa1839, and in 1852 was a delegate to the one hundred tion she has spent the and fiftieth anniversary of the London Missionary greater part of her time Society, this being the first occasion on which in Italy. She was a very the American church was formally represented in prolific writer; over 25 England.
novels are accredited to DELAND, a city and the capital of Volusia her. Her best-known LOUISA DE LA RAMÈE. County, central eastern Florida, 41 miles N.W. works are Strathmore (1865); Under Two Flags of Titusville, on a branch of the Jacksonville, (1867); Pascarel (1873); Two Little Wooden Shoes Tampa and Key West railroad. It is the seat of (1874); and Moths (1880). Stetson University. It is also popular as a health- DELATOR, an informer or accuser. The resort. Its industries are machine-shops, refrige- original use of the term was for any kind of a carrator factories and the handling of the great rier, but soon it was applied only to those who quantities of oranges raised in the vicinity. Pop- brought evil reports. In Rome the delatores held ulation 1890, 1,113.
sway for a time and were paid for their services DELAND, MARGARET WADE (CAMPBELL), an by the government. They apprehended assassins American novelist and writer; born Feb. 23, 1857, and accused persons of crimes. They brought
in Allegheny, Pennsylva- accusations against various public officials, a great nia. Her school days many times wrongfully. They became such an were spent at the Pelham evil under Domitian that the next emperor, Priory, in New
Nerva, ordered them to be driven out. chelle, New York, and at DELAUNAY, CHARLES EUGENE, a French Cooper Union, New York mathematician; born at Lusigny, Aube, France, City. Upon the comple- | April 9, 1816; drowned Aug. 5, 1872, at Chertion of her studies she bourg, France. His work in mathematics and engaged in teaching. She astronomy is treated in full in Moon, Vol. XVI, has written and published pp. 801, 802; and GEOLOGY, Vol. X, p. 225. a number of delightful DELAUNAY, EMANUEL. See ANTRAIGUES, poems and stories. Among COMTE D' in these Supplements. her writings are The Old DELAUNAY, Louis ARSÈNE, a French actor,
Garden, and Other Verses probably the greatest of the French actors of his (1886); John Ward, Preacher (1888); Philip and day. He was born in Paris, March 21, 1826. He His Wife (1894); and Sidney (1890). She was began his stage life in 1846, at the Odéon. He married to L. F. Deland of Boston in 1880. was chosen by many of the French playwrights
DELANE, John THADEUS, a British editor; for the first presentation of their work. He born in London, Oct. 11, 1817; died there, Nov. created the part of Hernani, in Hugo's play of 22, 1879. He was graduated at Oxford in 1839. that name, and the part of Télémaque, in Ulysse. He made starts in several professions, and finally was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor, drifted into journalism. He became a member and in 1877 professor of dramatic oratory at the of the staff of the London Times, and in 1841 its Conservatory. He retired in 1887. editor. His connection with that paper and his DELAVAN, a railroad town of Tazewell influence are given under NewSPAPERS, Vol. XVII, County, northern central Illinois, about 157 miles p. 418.
S.W. of Chicago, on the Chicago and Alton and DELANO, COLUMBUS, an American statesman; the Peoria, Decatur and Evansville railroads. born in Shoreham, Vermont, June 5, 1809. He It has a variety of manufactories and a popubecame an eminent criminal lawyer in Ohio, was lation (1890) of 1,171. elected to the legislature and to Congress in DELAVAN, a village in Walworth County, 1844, 1864 and 1866. He was a delegate to the southwestern Wisconsin, on
southwestern Wisconsin, on Turtle Creek, 58
MARGARET W. DELAND.
miles S.W. of Milwaukee, on the Chicago, Mil- yield large crops and find a ready market in New waukee and St. Paul railroad. It is the seat
York and Philadelphia. In 1893 the peach crop of the State Institute for the Deaf and Dumb; was a large one, over two million baskets being has foundries and extensive dairies. Population shipped to points outside the state.
Immense 1895, 2,238.
quantities are canned, this industry being one of DELAVAN, EDWARD CORNELIUS, an Ameri-Delaware's most profitable lines of export. The can temperance reformer; born in Schenectady strawberry crop also adds largely to the aggreCounty, New York, in 1793; died in Schenectady, gate of the annual value of agricultural products. Jan. 15, 1871. He acquired a large fortune in the The census returns show Delaware to have over wine business and owned considerable real estate 1,000 specified manufacturing industries, with an in Albany, including the Delavan House, which aggregate invested capital of $33,695,400, employ. was erected by him. He became interested in the
He became interested in the ing 21,906 hands, paying in wages, $9,892, 387, temperance cause, and, with the assistance of Dr. Eliphalet Nott, he organized, in Schenectady, a state temperance society; he lectured, wrote and gave largely for the cause. In 1835 he charged an Albany brewing company with using filthy water for malting Suit for libel and other suits were brought against him, but he won the first and the others were dropped. He published a temperance periodical, which became later the Journal of the American Temperance Union.
DELAWARE. For general account and history up to 1870, see Vol. VII, pp. 44, 45. The
STATE CAPITOL, DOVER, DELAWARE. climate of Delaware is mild and healthful, except in the extreme south, where some fever is occa
and producing $37,571,848 worth of goods. The sioned by the swamps. The temperature ranges
principal industries were the manufacture of cotfrom 30° to 38° in winter, and from 69° to 74° in ton goods, car-building, the manufacture of chemsummer. The average rainfall is about fifty icals and fertilizers, foundries and machine-shops, inches. Agriculture is the chief industry in the flouring-mills, iron and steel works, leather goods, middle and southern portions of the state, while
etc. Over eighteen hundred hands were emmanufacturing is the prevailing occupation of the ployed in ship-building, the shipyards at Wilinhabitants in the northern part. The census re
mington being especially extensive. In sea-fishports of 1890 give the following facts relative to
eries large capital is invested and many persons the principal agricultural products of Delaware.
engaged. The oyster industry alone has some Total number of acres in cereals, 289,650.
five hundred vessels and boats constantly em
ployed throughout the season. Acres. Bushels.
The number of miles of railroad in operation Indian corn
in 1891 was 333, with a capital of more than Oats
382,900 $7,000,000, and $112,347,873 representing the Rye.
6,625 cost of equipment. Buckwheat
At the beginning of 1895 the total state assets The total number of farms is given as 9.381, were $1,031,842, the total liabilities $684,750. their acreage as 1,055,692, with a total valuation The school fund was $115,442, having been much of $39,586,080. The farm implements and ma- depleted during the three years preceding by the chinery were valued at $1,385,570, and the live expenditure of $42,187 for the purchase of free stock at $4,198,810. The estimated value of textbooks for the schools of the state. In 1895 farm products was $6,481,590. In 1893 the num- there were six thousand colored children of school ber of farm-animals, with their value, was as fol-age in the state, who had never had the privileges lows: Horses, 25,553, value $2,049,814; mules, of attending a public school. The total number of 4,826, value $491,549; milch cows, 31,330, value children within the school age (5 to 18 years) was, $757,246; oxen, 27,941, value $635, 396; sheep, at the time of the enumeration in 1893, 13,551, value $48,987; swine, 521,167, value 40,400; enrolled in the schools, 19,340; average $365,167. The soil, climate and proximity to daily attendance, 12,200. The state college at market all combine to make fruit-growing profit Newark is conducted at an expense of about forty able, and peaches, apples and the small fruits all thousand dollars per year. The agricultural exDELAWARE BAY-DELBRÜCK
periment station, in connection with the college, re- and the following year he arrived at Jamestown. ceives government aid to the amount of about The colonists were discouraged and on the point thirty-five thousand dollars annually. There is of sailing for England, but his coming and pru. also a college at Wilmington, and a separate in- dent measures inspired them with hopes of better stitution for colored students.
times. The colony flourished under his manageAmong the state institutions are the Delaware ment. He built and named the forts Charles and State Hospital for the Insane, at Farnhurst, with Henry, established the settlement where Hampan average of about 250 patients, the Delaware ton now is, and discovered the river called, in his Industrial School for Girls, and the Delaware In-honor, the Delaware. Illness obliged him to go dustrial School for Boys. The deaf and dumb, back to England, but so much was he respected the blind, and feeble-minded children are main- that the colonists petitioned him to return. While tained in institutions outside the state, their sup- attempting to do so, he died, and was buried at port being provided for by annual appropriations. sea, June 7, 1618.
There are about three hundred churches in the DELAWARE CITY, a village in the northern state, the Methodist denominations leading in part of Delaware, situated in Newcastle County, point of numbers. Of the 37 newspapers pub- on the Delaware River, 40 miles below Philadellished in the state at the beginning of 1896, 5 are phia, on the Bay Ridge and Annapolis railroad. daily, 29 weekly, 2 semimonthly and 1 monthly. It is at the eastern terminus of the canal which
Wilmington, the principal city of Delaware, has connects the Chesapeake and Delaware bays. It a population of 61,431; Dover, the capital, 3,061; has an academy and flouring-mills. Population New Castle, 4,010. Important towns and vil- 1890, 969. lages are Smyrna, North Milford, Seaford, Lewes, DELAWARE INDIANS. For history, see Laurel, Delaware City and Newark. The popu- INDIANS, Vol. XII, p. 831. The Delawares, with lation of the state in 1880 was 146,608; in 1890, the exception of a scattered remnant in Ontario, 168,493, of which 140,066 were white, 28,427 col-Canada, are a part of the Cherokee Nation, in the ored, 37 Chinese and 4 Indians.
Indian Territory, and number about 1,700. The following is the list of the governors of DELAWARE RIVER, a river which rises in Delaware from 1789: Joshua Clayton, 1789-96; Delaware County, southern New York, flows westGunning Bedford, 1796-97; Daniel Rogers, 1797- ward till it reaches Pennsylvania, when it becomes 98; Richard Bassett, 1798-1801; James Sykes, the eastern boundary of that state. Its general 1801-02; David Hall, 1802-05; Nathaniel Mitchell, course is southward, though it makes several turns 1805-08; George Truett, 1808–11; Joseph Has- toward the east and west. Near Shroudsburg, lett, 1811-14; Daniel Rodney, 1814-17; John Pennsylvania, it breaks through the Kittatinny Clarke, 1817-20; Jacob Stout, 1820–21; John Col- Mountains, at the Delaware Water Gap (9.v.), a lins, 1821–22; Caleb Rodney, 1822–23; Joseph place of remarkable beauty of scenery. Trenton Haslett, 1823–24; Samuel Paynter, 1824-27; and Philadelphia are the most important points ou Charles Polk, 1827-30; David Hazzard, 1830–33; the river, Trenton being the head of navigation. Caleb P. Bennett, 1833–36; Charles Polk, 1836- DELAWARE RIVER OR GRASSHOPPER 37; Cornelius P. Comegys, 1837-40; William B.CREEK, a river of northeastern Kansas, rises in Cooper, 1840-44; Thomas Stockton, 1844-46; Nemaha County, flows south-southeast and Joseph Maul, 1846; William Temple, 1846-47; empties into the Kansas, 12 miles above Lawrence. William Thorp, 1847–51; William H. Ross, 1851- | Its length is about 75 miles. Its valley is very fer. 55; Peter F. Cansey, 1855-59; William Burton, tile and coal is found in the vicinity. 1859-63; William Cannon, 1863-67; Gove Sauls- DELAWARE WATER GAP, a village of Monbury, 1867–71; James Ponder, 1871-75; John P. roe County, Pennsylvania, 92 miles N.W. of New Cochran, 1875-79; John W. Hall, 1879-83; Charles York and 57 miles S. E. of Scranton.
It is a sumC. Stockley, 1883-87; Benjamin T. Biggs, 1887-91; mer resort, famous for the beauty of its scenery. R. J. Reynolds, 1891-95; J. H. Marvil (died April 8), The Delaware River, at this point, breaks through 1895; W. P. Watson, 1895-97; E. W. Tunnell, 1897. a gorge in the Kittatinny Mountains, and the steep,
DELAWARE BAY, an estuary of the Atlantic rocky banks rise nearly 1, 300 feet above the water. Ocean, 28 miles wide and 38 long, inclosed by DE LA WARR, EARLS OF, a family of the BritCape May, New Jersey, and Delaware. The Delish nobility, whose family name is West. The De aware River empties into it, and is here about four la Warrs succeeded the Gresleys in the manorial miles in width. The bay receives, also, the waters rights of the town of Manchester, England. The of the Maurice River and several smaller tributa- title of Baron De la Warr was first given Sir Regiries. Its entrance is between Cape Henlopen and nald West in the thirteenth century. The title Cape May, where it is about thirteen miles wide. A was changed to Baron West in 1343, but reverted breakwater extending from the former point, built to De la Warr in 1579. The present (1896) Earl by the Federal government, makes the bay an of De la Warr is Reginald Windsor Sackville. His excellent harbor, with from four to six fathoms eldest son and heir, bears the courtesy title of of water.
Viscount Cantelupe. DELAWARE OR DE LA WARR (THOMAS DELBRÜCK, MARTIN FRIEDRICH RUDOLPH, WEST), LORD, an American colonial governor. He a German statesman; born in Berlin, April 16, became, in 1602, third Lord Delaware, and seven 1817.
1817. He practiced law at the bar of Halle in years later was appointed governor of Virginia, | 1839-40, and later entered the civil service, be