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THOMAS A. EDISON.
Oct. 23, 1642, between the Royalist forces under Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony, he Charles and the Parliamentarians under the Earl of succeeded to the duchy and took the oath of loyEssex. The Roundheads were victorious, and after alty to the German Empire. He was given the the battle 4,000 men lay slain at the foot of Edge- rank of general of infantry in the German army. hill, most of whom were Royalists.
He married, in 1874, Marie Alexandrova, only EDGERTON, a city of Rock County, southeast daughter of Alexander II of Russia. See GREECE, ern Wisconsin, on the Rock River, and on the Chi- Vol. XI, p. 126, for the circumstances of his eleccago, Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad, 25 miles S.E. tion to the throne of that kingdom and the reasons of Madison. From this point is shipped nearly half for his declination. the tobacco raised in the state. Population 1895, EDINBURGH REVIEW. See PERIODICALS, 1,972.
Vol. XVIII, p. 536. EDGEWATER, a village of Richmond County, EDINBURGH, UNIVERSITY OF. See EDINBURGH, southern New York, five miles N.E. of Richmond. Vol. VII, pp. 664, 665; and UNIVERSITIES, Vol. It is chiefly a residence town for New York business XXIII, pp. 846, 854, 855. men. Population 1890, 14,265.
EDISON, THOMAS ALVA, an American inventor; EDHEM PASHA, a Turkish statesman; born in born in Milan, Ohio, Feb. 11, 1847. His education 1823. He was a native of Greece, but was sold into was limited though it was slavery when a boy. He was educated by his mas- supplemented by instructer in the School of Mines at Paris. Upon his re- tion from his mother and turn to Turkey in 1839, he was appointed a captain | by his own reading. He in the army. He was aide-de-camp to the Sultan became particularly interin 1849, and made a general of division.
ested in the study of chemappointed Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1867; istry. At the age of 12 he President of the Council of State; and, in the diplo- became a newsboy on the matic service, ambassador to Berlin and other courts. Grand Trunk railroad, and He was Grand Vizier in 1877, and has been ambas- later printed the Grand sador to Paris since 1885.
Trunk Herald in the bagEDICT OF NANTES. See FRANCE, Vol. IX, gage-car of the train on P. 579.
which he soid his wares, EDIRA, the capital of Knox County, northeastern disposing of it with his Missouri, on the Fabius River, and on the Quincy, other papers. Becoming interested in telegraphy, Omaha and Kansas City railroad, 45 miles W.N.W. | he studied it late at nights in a railway station, and of Quincy. It has a Catholic academy, and also a soon became an expert operator. He was embroom factory, a carriage factory, and a creamery. ployed as an operator in several Canadian offices, Population 1890, 1,456.
and at Adrian, Michigan. At this last place he fitted EDINBURG, a village of Erie County, northwest- a small shop for repairing telegraph instruments and ern Pennsylvania, on the French Creek and on the the making of new machinery. He then went to New York, Lake Erie and Western railroad. It has Indianapolis, where he invented his automatic rea state normal school. Population 1890, 1,107. peater. "After brief stops at other places, he went to
EDINBURGH, a village of Johnson County, Cincinnati with the acquired reputation of a successsoutheastern central Indiana, on Blue River, and on ful inventor. From there he was called to Boston, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis | where he perfected his duplex telegraph. Not long railroad. It has good water-power, hominy-mills afterward Edison was made superintendent of the and a starch factory. Population 1890, 2,031. New York Gold Indicator Company, and transferred
EDINBURGH, a small village of Grundy Coun- his shops to Newark, New Jersey. In 1876 he rety, central northern Missouri. It contains Grand signed this last engagement, in order to devote his River College.
entire time to research and invention, and located EDINBURGH, ALFRED ALEXANDER WILLIAM himself permanently at Menlo Park, New Jersey. ERNEST ALBERT, DUKE OF, and Prince of Saxe- Mr. Edison's inventions are many, and some of exCoburg and Gotha, second son of Victoria, Queen traordinary value; among them are the phonograph, of England; born at Windsor Castle, Aug. 6, 1844. improvement in the electric light and the telephone, He entered the royal navy in 1858 as a cadet, and the microphone, the electric pen, the quadruplex and was in service afloat in the Mediterranean, West In- sextuplex transmitter, and the kinetoscope. dies and America. December, 1862, he was offered EDISTO, a river and island of South Carolina. the throne of Greece, but declined. In 1866 he | The river flows through the southwest part of the was created first Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Kent state, being formed near Branchville in Barnwell and Earl of Ulster. He was appointed to the com- County, by the confluence of the North Edisto and mand of a frigate in 1867, and proceeded to Austra- the South Edisto, and entering the Atlantic by two lia, where, at Clontarf, New South Wales, he was arms, respectively named from the two confluents. wounded by an Irishman, O'Farrell, who was sub- Edisto also designates the island which separates sequently tried and executed. He continued his those two arms. The stream is navigable for over voyage, visiting China and Japan. In 1882 he was one hundred miles, and its mouth is about twenty promoted to the rank of vice-admiral, and given miles to the southwest of Charleston. command of the Mediterranean squadron. Aug. EDMONDS, FRANCIS W., an American artist; 22,1893, by the death of his uncle, the Prince of born in Hudson, New York, Nov. 22, 1806. He
EDMONDS-- EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES
was a bank cashier in Hudson and New York until three years as speaker; a member of the state sen1855, studying in the mean time at the National ate, and its presiding officer pro tem. in 1861–62, Academy of Design. He was elected an associate was active in the Andrew Johnson impeachment, in 1838, then a trustee, and in 1840 he became an favored the reconstruction laws, and appointed to the academician. He studied in Europe, and later was United States Senate as a Republican to fill the instrumental in the establishment of the New York vacancy caused by the death of Solomon Foot, Gallery of Fine Arts. Among his productions are and took his seat April 5, 1866; elected by the Barnyard; Sewing-Girl; The City and Country Beaux; legislature for the remainder of the term ending The Penny Paper; Vesuvius and Florence; and The March 4, 1869, and was re-elected successively Sleepy Student. He died in Bronxville, New York, four times. He was a member of the ElecFeb. 7, 1863.
toral Commission of 1877. He was president pro EDMONDS, John WORTH, an American jurist; tem. of the Senate after Arthur was elevated to born in Hudson, New York, March 13, 1799. He the Presidency, and was the author of the act for the began the practice of law in Hudson, New York, in suppression of polygamy in Utah, known by his 1820, and later became state recorder. In 1831 he
He retired from the Senate in November, was a member of the state assembly, and in 1832–36 1891, owing to impaired health. of the state senate. In 1836–38 he was on a special EDOM, Country. See IDUMEA, Vol. XII, p. 699. mission among the Indians for the government, and EDRED OR EADRED, King. See ENGLAND, on his return resumed the practice of law. In 1843 Vol. VIII, pp. 284, 286. he became one of the state prison inspectors, and EDRIOPHTHALMIA. See CRUSTACEA, Vol. subsequently was instrumental in many important | VI, pp. 661 et seq. reforms in prison discipline. He was made a circuit * EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES, court judge in 1845, a judge of the state supreme HIGHER. The subject may be treated under three court in 1847, and judge of the court of appeals in heads - I. The period of college-planting, 1636– 1852. He was converted to the doctrines of spirit- | 1776; II. The period of expansion, 1776-1865; III. ualism in 1851, and later published books on this The period of university development, 1865-96. subject as well as on law." He died in New York In part, this division is artificial. The multiplication City, April 5, 1874.
of colleges has continued until the present time, EDMONSTONE ISLAND, an outpost, as it while the beginnings of university development must were, of the delta of the Ganges, toward the Bay of be sought before 1865. Still, as college expansion Bengal, situated at the mouth of the Hoogly, the is not the characteristic feature of the third period, most westerly arm of the great river above men- or university development of the second one, the tioned, in lat. 21° 32' N., and long. 88° 20' E. division answers to the general facts of the case, and
EDMONTON, a town of Alberta, western Canada, will serve a useful purpose. on the Saskatchewan River, a terminus of the Ca- I. THE PERIOD OF COLLEGE-PLANTING, 1636–1776. nadian Pacific railroad, about lat. 53° 30' E., long. The history of higher education in the United States
It is of interest because daily reports begins with the following order or enactment, made are sent hence to the Weather Bureau at Wash
by the general court of Massachusetts, Sept. 8, 1636: ington, and severe winter storms often make their “The court agreed to give £400 toward a school first appearance here. Population 1891, 3,875. or college, whereof £200 should be paid next year,
EDMONTON, a large village in the northeast of and £200 when the work is finished, and the next Middlesex, southeast England, near the Ken, seven court to appoint where, and what building." miles N.N.E. of London. Population of parish At subsequent meetings of the court it was ordered 1871, 13,859. It contains many villas of London that the school should be located at Newtown, the merchants, etc. Charles Lamb is buried in the name of which was afterward changed to Cambridge, churchyard here. Edmonton is connected with and that it should be called Harvard College. The
Cowper's humorous poem name of the town was changed, as President Quincy of John Gilpin.
has explained, as “a grateful tribute to the TransatEDMORE, a railroad lantic literary parent of many of the first emigrants, junction and shipping and indicative of the high destiny to which they inpoint in Montcalm Coun- tended the institution should aspire.” It was called ty, east-central southern Harvard because the Rev. John Harvard, a dissentMichigan, 33 miles N. ofing clergyman of England, resident of Charlestown, Ionia. Population 1896, who died in 1638, bequeathed one half of his whole nearly 1,000.
property, and his entire library, to the college. The EDMUNDS, GEORGE act creating a board of overseers was passed in 1642, FRANKLIN, an American but teaching began in 1638. This was an humble statesman; born in Rich- beginning, but it was made within ten years of the mond, Vermont, Feb. 1, "great emigration” to the shores of Massachusetts 1828. He received a pub- Bay. An attempt was made to concentrate upon the lic school education and college the support of all the New England colonies, the instruction of a pri- thus making it not merely a Massachusetts, but a New
vate tutor; studied and England institution; but the plan did not, in the end, practiced law; was a member of the Vermont legis- succeed. lature in 1854, 1855, 1857, 1858 and 1859, serving Eight other colleges were founded, in seven differ
113° 25' W.
* Copyright, 1897, by The Werner Company.
GEORGE F. EDMUNDS.
EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES
ent colonies, before the Revolutionary War: William their proficiency and experience in practical and and Mary, Virginia, 1693; Yale, Connecticut, 1701; spiritual truths, accompanied by theoretical obserNassau Hall, now Princeton, New Jersey, 1746;vations on the language or logic of the sacred writKings, now Columbia, New York, 1754; Philadel- They were careful to attend to God's ordiphia, now the University of Pennsylvania, 1755; nances and be examined on their profiting, comRhode Island, now Brown University, 1764; Queens, monplacing sermons and reporting them publicly now Rutgers, New Jersey, 1770; Dartmouth, New in the hall. “Such,” says President Quincy, “ were Hampshire, 1769. Some of these colleges grew out the principles of education established in the colof older schools, and some had their rise at places lege under the authority of Dunster. Nor does it apother than those with which they have now long pear that they were materially changed during the been identified. “Some future poet, or mytholo- whole of the seventeenth century.” All things were gist,” President Gilman observes, "may personify done according to the academical custom in Engthese as the nine colonial muses. These colleges land. The government was rectorial, the instrucall had a common character. This was not so much tion tutorial. The scholars were not permitted to because the eight later ones copied Harvard, as be- use the vernacular language within the college limits cause they all copied a common original. The on any pretext. The freshmen were servitors, or founders were Englishmen by birth or descent, and fags, to the whole college, out of study hours, to go had little knowledge of institutions of higher learn- on errands. Still, we must not lay too much stress ing except those of England. The founders of Har- on the ecclesiastical side of the early American colvard, many of whom were bred at Oxford and Cam- leges. In those days church and state were but bridge, called their institution a college and a uni- different sides of the same society, and the conception versity indifferently, which shows that their minds of secular or neutral education had not yet dawned had been deeply impressed by both sides of those upon men's minds; certainly not in the American great seats of learning. Wisely, however, they mod. Colonies or in England. This explains why goveled it after the English college, and not after the ernments, as that of Massachusetts, contributed English university. Moreover, all other American freely from the public treasury to establish and supcolleges and universities for 200 years conforined in port what we can hardly regard otherwise than as general to the same model.
denominational institutions. Furthermore, these With a single exception, these colleges were vir- colleges looked to furnishing able servants for the tually church schools. The Congregationalists con- state, as well as learned and godly ministers for the trolled Harvard, Yale and Dartmouth; the Episcopa- church, and how well they performed both offices is lians, William and Mary and Kings; the Presbyterians, shown by the ability of the public men whom they Princeton; the Dutch Reformed, Queens; the Bap- trained, particularly at the time of the Revolution, tists, Rhode Island. Philadelphia alone was non- and by the strength of the American pulpit. sectarian, but even that partook largely of the eccle- We have an official account of the course of study siastical character of the times. Christo et Ecclesia at Harvard in 1726, as follows: might have been the motto of any one of them, as “1. While the students are freshmen they comwell as of Harvard, with the possible exception of monly recite the grammars, and with them a reciPhiladelphia Church influence is seen in the tation in Tully, Virgil and the Greek Testament, make-up of the faculties, in the destination of the on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays, students, in the studies and discipline, and in the in the morning and forenoon; on Friday morning, spirit of the schools. The presidents, and probably Dugard's or Farnaby's Rhetoric, and on Saturday a majority of the professors and tutors, were clergy- morning the Greek Catechism; and, towards the men; while one half of the 531 graduates sent out by latter end of the year, they dispute on Rainus's DefiHarvard previous to the year 1707 became clergymen. nitions, Mondays and Tuesdays, in the forenoon. In her first period, so much Latin as was sufficient "2. The sophomores recite Burgersdicius's Logic, to understand Tully, or any like classical author, and and a manuscript called New Logic, in the mornings to make and speak true Latin in prose and verse, and and forenoons, and, towards the latter end of the so much Greek as was included in declining per- year, Heereboord's Meletemate, and dispute, Monfectly the paradigms of the Greek nouns and verbs, days and Tuesdays, in the forenoon, continuing, also, were required for admission to Harvard. The first to recite the classic authors, with logic and natural year the studies were logic, physics, etymology, philosophy; on Saturday morning they recite Wolsyntax, and practice on the principles of grammar; lebius's divinity. the second year, ethics, politics, prosody, and dia- "3. The junior sophisters recite Heereboord's Melelect practice of poesy and Chaldee; the third year, temata, Mr. Morton's Physics, More's Ethics, Geogarithmetic, geometry, astronomy, exercises in style, raphy, Metaphysics, in the morning and forenoon composition, epitome, both in prose and verse, Hebrew Wollebius on Saturday morning, and dispute, Monand Syriac.
Besides these studies, all the students days and Tuesdays, in the forenoons. were practiced throughout the course in the Bible 4. The senior sophisters, besides arithmetic, and the catechetical divinity. History was taught recite Allsted's Geometry, Gassendus's Astronomy, in in the winter and botany in the summer; rhetoric the morning; go over the arts towards the latter end was taught by lectures every year, and declamations of the year, Ames's Medulla on Saturdays, and diswere required of the students once a month. Still pute once a week.” * more, the students were practiced twice a day in
* Wadsworth's Diary, p. 27, in History of Harvard Unireading the Scriptures and giving an account of versity, by Josiah Quincy, vol. 1, p. 441.
EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES
“ This extraordinary training in the ancient lan- son admitted the inferiority of American education guages,” says Professor Tyler, “ led to forms of pro- in medicine, but insisted that law could be studied ficiency that have no parallel now in American col- as well in Virginia as in England. A recent hisleges.” He relates, further, that in 1649 some of the torian of the Thirteen Colonies, H. C. Lodge, says, students at Harvard could with ease dextrously trans- Harvard College, “at the period of the Revolulate Hebrew and Chaldee into Greek. There was at tion, probably afforded, in theology, philosophy the same institution, in 1678, an Indian student who and the classics, as good an education as could wrote Latin and Greek poetry, and those arts con
be obtained in Europe, for the professors were tinued a common accomplishment down to the men of character and learning, and some of them Revolution, while the facile use of Latin for both eminent." conversation and oratory by Harvard and Yale Previous to the Revolution it was very common scholars excited no remark. In the early history of for wealthy families in the Colonies to send their several colleges much is heard of Christianizing the children, both sons and daughters, to Europe to be Indians. Dartmouth grew directly out of an attempt educated. This was especially the case in Maryland, to accomplish that end; studies were prescribed for Virginia and South Carolina. It is also to be obIndian students, that, in later opinion, reflected served, as marking the connection between the motherseverely upon the good sense of those who pre- country and the Colonies in that period, that conscribed them; but the results of the efforts, wherever siderable sums, and sometimes large sums, of money made, were miserably disappointing. Still, the name were obtained in England for American colleges, of one Indian stands among the Harvard alumni. just as has since been done in the old states of the
So much space has been given to Harvard College East for the new ones of the West. because, in dealing with that institution, we II. THE PERIOD OF EXPANSION, 1776-1865. The dealing with the highest type of American educa- Revolution stimulated the planting of colleges much tion. At some other colleges, the theological fea- more than it stimulated the extension of public tures and influence may have been less prominent, schools. From the close of the war to the close of the and even at Cambridge they yielded somewhat, as century, new colleges were founded more rapidly time wore on. It must be remembered that, in Eng. than one a year; namely, St. Johns, Washington, and land contemporary liberal education was quite as Frederick in Maryland; Dickinson, in Pennsylvania; theological as in America. Besides natural philos- Union, in New York; Hampden-Sydney and Lexingophy, no great stress was attached to modern studies. ton, now Washington and Lee, in Virginia; GeorgeThe demand for surveyors, particularly in Virginia, town, in the District of Columbia; the University of tended to emphasize mathematics. French North Carolina and the University of Vermont; taught for a few months at Cambridge in 1735, and Bowdoin College, in Maine; Williams, in Massachuagain for a brief period at the close of the Revolu- setts, and Middlebury, in Vermont. Nor was this tion, when the alliance with France tended to bring all: higher education was at once carried beyond the French arts and science, as well as Frenchmen, into Appalachian ranges and planted in the great valley the country. French is also found at William and of the West. When Tennessee was still a part of Mary at the same time. Franklin made a gallant North Carolina, the legislature of that state passed struggle for an English school in the institution at an act incorporating the president and trustees of Philadelphia, but he was in advance of his time, and Davidson Academy, which, in time, became the so failed, much to his mortification. German studies University of Nashville. At one time this instituthrived at Philadelphia for a time, and then declined. tion exerted a widespread influence in the SouthNo permanent provision for teaching modern lan- west; then it declined, and is now reviving again. guages and literatures was made at Cambridge until Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky, charGeorge Ticknor entered on the duties of the Smith tered in 1798, was the first institution of higher chair in 1819, and no instruction was given there learning in the West to open its doors to students. in German until the day of Charles Follen, the Ger- After a period of prosperity it, too, declined, and man exile, who taught his first class in 1825.
years ago ceased to exist. The foregoing is an outline view of higher educa- It will be seen that state universities have already tion in the Colonies previous to the Revolution. appeared among the colleges. It is a probable conWhat was done should not be estimated too lightly. jecture that they were prompted, in part at least, by Mr. Jefferson demanded of his correspondent, Mr. the Congressional land grants for universities in Bannister, in 1785, on his return from France, Ohio, which, it was understood, would be repeated “Why send an American youth to Europe for edu- in the case of other public land states. In all, there cation?” And then, after enumerating the objects were about thirty college foundations in the country of a useful American education, declared, “It is in 1801, as compared with nine in 1776. Moreover, true that the habit of speaking the modern languages from that day to this the number has continued cannot be so well acquired in America; but every steadily to increase. The statistics, unfortunately, other article can be as well acquired at William and are in a confused state, partly owing to inattention Mary College as at any place in Europe.” Mr. Jef- to collecting them, partly to carelessness, and partly ferson, it is to be observed, had made a particular to the difficulties of the subject itself. The Censusstudy of contemporary education, not only on the Office first collected educational statistics in 1840. Continent, but in England and Scotland. The re- The following table sums up the results then obtained, mark just quoted was no doubt intended to apply by states, so far as colleges and universities are conmainly or only to undergraduate study. Mr. Jeffer cerned:
EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES
+ 5 IO 12 12
2 12 3 2
STATISTICS OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES | life, and the augmentation of this impulse by the
growth and prosperity of the country.
In general, the old type of study, instruction and
discipline remained unchanged throughout this pe-
be the principal studies. Studies were organized in Alabama
prescribed courses, and the degree of A.B. was given Arkansas. Connecticut
832 to all graduates. A majority of the old institutions District of Columbia
224 continued to hold their former leadership, but two Delaware..
23 or three fell behind new institutions. The differFlorida Georgia
ences in what passed for higher education were quite Iowa
as marked as the differences of culture in the several Indiana
322 regions or districts in which they were found. In Illinois
this respect the statistics of 1840, showing the relaKentucky
1,419 tive numbers of college students in different states, Louisiana Maryland
813 are very significant. One of the most important Massachusetts
769 facts was the founding of the state universities, Maine--
most of which grew out of the Congressional land Michigan. Mississippi
(See Schools, Public, IN THE UNITED Missouri
495 States, in these Supplements.) The establishment New Hampshire
433 of these institutions involved ultimately, if not at New York
once, the assumption, by the states, of a definite posiNew Jersey
443 North Carolina
tion in the field of higher education, which carried Ohio
1,717 with it state supervision and support, and so a disPennsylvania
2,034 tinct secular influence. Upon the whole, church Rhode Island..
324 influence considerably declined; still, the higher inSouth Carolina.
stitutions, including the state universities, remained
1,097 mainly in the hands of clergymen. When Josiah Vermont
233 Quincy, a layman, was made president of Harvard Wisconsin
in 1829, it was thought a clear invasion of clerical Totals
How far the multiplication of colleges has been In 1850 the Census-Office reported 234 colleges an evil is a question of judgment. It is common to and universities; in 1860 it reported 467; and in hear scholars, especially those at the great seats of 1870, as many as 579. Since 1870 no college statis- learning, lament this multiplication, with the contics are found in the census reports. More discrim-sequent dispersion of funds, teaching-power and inating inquiry has been made by the Commissioner students. “How much better,” they say, "it would of Education, who reported 337 colleges in 1869–70, have been if the funds, professors and students had and 451 in 1892-93. These numbers, however, do been brought together at a few great institutions, as not include many so-called colleges contained in in Germany, France and England." These forget other tables. It is next to an impossibility to ascer- that, to a great extent, such a concentration never tain how many degree-conferring institutions there could have been effected, and that the policy of disare in the country, and quite impossible to ascertain persion has tended very considerably to augment all how many institutions there are bearing the name of the factors. No doubt there has been much waste; "college” or “university.” It is clear that a col- no doubt, owing to the increase of wealth, the elevalege-planting movement set in at the close of the tion of the standard of living, and especially the Revolution, which has been sustained until the pres-greatly improved means of transportation, the time ent time, and that this movement was marked by a has come for more concentration, such, in fact, as we distinct lowering of the old college ideal. For many are now seeing: but there is a great deal of truth years the former distinction between a college and a contained in the notable words of Mr. Bryce: university was practically forgotten, and to a large
“ The European observer conceives that his Ameriextent it is overlooked to-day. The principal causes
can friends may not duly realize the services which these that have led to the constant multiplication of col- small colleges perform in the rural districts of the counleges appear to be these: 1. The territorial growth try. They get hold of a multitude of poor men who of the country; 2. The increase and wider dispersion might never resort to a distant place of education. They of population; 3. The Congressional land grants to
set learning in a visible form, plain, indeed, and humble,
but dignified even in her humility, before the eyes of a the states for universities and colleges of agriculture rustic people, in whom the love for knowledge, naturally and mechanic arts; 4. Religious zeal and sectarian strong, might never break from the bud into the flower rivalry; 5. Local interests, sometimes embracing but for the care of some zealous gardener. They give the commercial interest; 6. The ambition of individuals
chance of rising in some intellectual walk of life to many
a strong and earnest nature, who might otherwise have to give their names as founders to institutions of remained an artisan or storekeeper, and perhaps failed in learning; 7. Desire to commemorate the names of those avocations. They light up, in many a country town, relatives; 8. The lowering of the college ideal. At
what is at first only a farthing rushlight, but which, when
the town swells to a city, or when endowments flow in, or tention should also be drawn to the impulse which
when some able teacher is placed in charge, becomes a the formation of the republic gave to the national | lamp of glowing flame, which may finally throw its rays