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CONTRIBUTIONS FROM SPECIAL WRITERS

IN THIS VOLUME.

CABLE RAILWAYS. CALCULATING-MACHINES. CALORIMETER. CAN-MANUFACTURE AND CANNERS' TOOLS. CANNING INDUSTRY. CANOE, MODERN AND PLEASURING. Car-CONSTRUCTION, ELECTRIC. CARBURETER. CARPENTRY. Chess, CHANGE OF STYLE IN MODERN PLAY. Clock, ELECTRIC. COLOR-PRINTING. COLOR-WHEEL. COMMUTATOR. CRANES. CREMATION. CURRENT-METER. DENSIMETER. DEPHLEGMATOR. DILATOMETER. DYNAMITE-GUN. EIDOLOSCOPE. EIDOSCOPE. ENUCLEATOR. FIRE-ALARMS. FISHWAY. FLUORESCENT LAMP. FLUOROSCOPE CHARLES HENRY COCHRANE, M.E., author of Artistic

Homes, and How to Decorate Them; The Wonders of

Modern Mechanism (1896); etc. CAMERAS.

EDWARD L. Wilson, Editor Wilson's Photographic Mag

azine; author of Quarter-Century in Photography.
CANADA.
Cross, Mrs. MARY ANN.
COTES, EVERARD.
Dawson, Sir J. WILLIAM.
EMERSON, Ralph Waldo.

G. MERCER ADAM, founder of The Canadian Monthly;

formerly Editor of The Canada Educational Monthly; author of Life of Sir John A. Macdonald, etc.; and

Editor Self Culture, Chicago, Ill. CANADIAN LITERATURE.

CERAMIC Art.

W. D. WILLES, Press Club, New York. CHEESE.

HENRY C. WALLACE, Editor The Creamery Gazette, Des

Moines, Iowa. CHEMISTRY. ELECTROLYSIS.

ALEXANDER SMITH, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of

General Chemistry, University of Chicago.
CHRISTOLOGY.
CONSUBSTANTIATION.
CRITICISM, HIGHER.
EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITY.

FRANKLIN JOHNSON, D.D., Professor, Divinity De

partment, University of Chicago. CLUBS, WOMEN's.

ELLEN M. HENROTIN, President General Federation

of Women's Clubs. COAL-MINING IN THE UNITED STATES.

Baird HALBERSTADT, Mining neer and Geologist;

member of Pennsylvania Board of Examiners; etc. Coast DEFENSES OF THE UNITED STATES.

Nelson A. Miles (Maj.-Gen.), commanding the Army

of the United States, Washington, D.C.
COINAGE LAWS.
Debt, UNITED STATES NATIONAL.
FINANCES OF THE UNITED STATES.

JOHN SHERMAN, Ex-Secretary of the Treasury; United

States Senator from Ohio; etc.
Coins OF THE UNITED STATES.
COPPER-MINING IN THE UNITED STATES.

John F. Cargill, formerly U. S. Deputy Mineral

Surveyor; author of A Freak in Finance; etc. CONGRESS, AND THE LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE UNITED

STATES.
THOMAS B. Reed, Speaker Fifty-first and Fifty-fourth

Congresses, etc., Washington, D.C.
DEMOCRATIC PARTY.
FEDERALIST PARTY.

John Bach MCMASTER, C.E., Ph.D., Professor of

American History, University of Pennsylvania; author of A History of the People of the United States

from the Revolution to the Civil War, etc. EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES, HIGHER.

B. A. HINSDALE, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of the Art

and Science of Teaching, University of Michigan. ELEVATORS, OR LIFTS.

W. E. Hale, inventor of the Hale Elevator, etc. ELECTRICITY.

S. W. STRATTON, Ph.D., Ryerson Physical Laboratory,

University of Chicago. EMBRYOLOGY.

WILLIAM ALBERT Locy, Ph.D., Professor of Zoölogy,

Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. ENGRAVING.

ALBERT G. GLOVER, Editor Engraver and Printer, Bos

ton, Mass. FIRE INSURANCE IN THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1879.

A. H. HULING, Editor The Argus. FOOTBALL

WALTER CAMP, author of Football, Facts and figures;

FRED LEWIS PATTEE, M.A., Professor of English

and Rhetoric, Pennsylvania State College; author

of A History of American Literature; etc. CANAL.

LYMAN E. Cooley, C.E., Engineer United States

Deep Waterways Commission; formerly Chief
Engineer and member Board of Trustees of the

Sanitary District of Chicago; etc.
CAPRIFICATION.
CLASSIFICATIOX.
DIMORPHISM.
ECOLOGY.

John M. CoulTER, LL.D., Head Professor of Botany,

University of Chicago.
CARDINAL.
CONCLAVE.
CONGREGATIONS, ROMAN.
CONSISTORY.

Rev. P. A. BAART, A.M., of the Diocese of Detroit.
CASTING-VOTE.
CHARITY ORGANIZATION.
CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, or SOUTHERN CON-

FEDERACY.
COPYRIGHT.

Day Otis KellogG, D.D., Editor New Supplement to

the ninth edition of the ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA;
formerly Professor of English Literature and His-
tory, Kansas State University.

etc.

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-(Globicephalus melas)one of seen hovering over the cabbage turnip beds to the Cetacea, in the dolphin family, belonging deposit their eggs; these are yellow, conical in shape to a genus common in all seas, and oftener stranded and are deposited on the under side of the leaves than any other “whale." The length varies from 16 in clusters of 20 or 30. They hatch in a week, and to 24 feet; the maximum girth is about 10 feet. It the resulting caterpillars grow to a length of one or feeds chiefly on cuttle-fish. Many names are given one and a half inches. They suspend themselves by to these common cetaceans; among the most popu- their tails, and are transformed into shining pale lar are pilot whale, blackfish, social whale and grind green chrysalids, spotted with black, from which the hoal. (See WHALE, Vol. XXIV, p. 525.) The word perfect insect emerges, either the same season or caaing is not the Scottish form of calling, as has after the lapse of a winter, no longer to devour cabbeen supposed, but is a totally different Scotch word, bage leaves, but to subsist delicately upon honey. which signifies driving. Caaing-whale appears to To the same genus belong the rape-butterfly (Pieris be originally an Orkney or Zetland name. Another rape) and the Southern cabbage-butterfly (Pieris species of the same genus (G. rissoanus), 9 or 10 protodice). feet long, the male of a bluish white color, the female CABBAGE-FLY (Anthomyia brassica), a fly of brown, both sexes marked with irregular white lines the same family as the house-fly, whose larvæ often and brown spots, is found in the Mediterranean, do great injury to the roots of cabbages and similar

CAB, a carriage with either two or four wheels, plants. They are found in America and Europe. and drawn by one horse. The name is derived from CABBAGE-MOTH, a moth or butterfly (Mathe cabriolet-de-place, introduced into England from mestra brassica). The wings are brown, marked with France at the beginning of the present century. pairs of darker spots. The greenish black caterpillar (See CARRIAGE, Vol. V, p. 136.) In Paris the cabri- feeds upon the leaves of the cabbage and allied olet-de-place was introduced about the middle of the plants. The name is also applied to the white or seventeenth century by Nicholas Sauvage, whose yellow butterflies of the genus Pieris, which have residence in the Rue St. Martin, at the Hotel St. been introduced into America from Europe. The Fiacre, has given the name of fiacres to the public larvæ of the various species vary in color from green carriages of that city. The cabs of foreign coun- to black. They are known as “cabbage-worms," tries and of our own chief towns have their peculiar and are similar to the larvæ of Mamestra in habits. features, and are governed by police or municipal CABBAGE-PALM OR CABBAGE TREE, a regulations. The name is also applied to the cov- name given to several palms whose great terminal ered part of a locomotive which shelters the engineer buds are eaten like cabbage. The Oreodoxa (forand fireman and shields the gauges and levers. merly called Areca oleracea, or Euterpe oleracea) is

CABAL, a term now employed to denote a small, the cabbage-palm of the West Indies. The Sabal intriguing, factious party, united for political or per- palmetto, otherwise called the palmetto, is the cabsonal ends. It had been previously used to denote age-palm of the Southern states. See Palm, Vol. a secret committee or cabinet, when, during 1667- XVIII, pp. 189–191. 73, it was especially applied to Charles II's infamous CABER, TOSSING THE, a Scottish athletic exerministry. (See CABINET, Vol. IV, p. 619.) The cise or feat, in which a long, peeled sapling or derivation goes back to the Hebrew Kabalah. undressed stem of a young tree, heavier at one end

CABALLERO, FERNAN, pseudonym of a Span- than the other, is held perpendicularly balanced ish novelist. See FABER, CECILIA, Vol. VIII, p. 833. against the chest, small end downward, and tossed

CABANEL, ALEXANDER, artist; born in Mont- so as to fall on the heavy end and turn over, the pellier, France, Nov. 28, 1823; died in Paris, June 23, farthest toss and straightest fall winning. The thin 1889; first exhibited in 1844 at the Salon of Paris, end, held in the hand, should be not more than three and afterward produced many paintings, the finest inches in diameter; the average length of a good of which are in the Luxembourg collection. He was larch caber is about 21 feet. elected to the Académie des Beaux Arts in succes- CABES OR KHABS, GULF OF, an inlet of the sion to Horace Vernet in 1863, and was an officer of Mediterranean Sea, lying between the islands of the Legion of Honor. Among his principal works Kerkenna and Jerba, on the northeast coast of are The Death of Moses (now in the Corcoran Art Africa, in lat. 34° N., and long. from 10° to 11° E. Gallery at Washington); The Lost Paradise; John The town of Cabes stands at the head of the gulf. the Baptist; Venus; and Lucretia and Tarquin.

CABEZON DE LA SAL, a town of north-cenCABBAGE-BUTTERFLY, a name applied to tral Spain, in the province of Valladolid, 7 miles several species of butterfly, especially to Pieris bras. N.E. of Valladolid City. It is situated on the sica, the larvæ of which devour the leaves of plants Pisuerga, and is celebrated as the scene of one of of the cabbage tribe. Their wings are white with the first battles of the Peninsular campaign in 1808, little black marks; their antenna short; their flight in which the Spaniards were defeated by the French. lazy and lumbering. In May and June they may be Population, 2,000.

644

CABINDA-CABLE RAILWAYS

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CABINDA, a small Portuguese territory on the cities the cable railway has been introduced to carry west coast of Africa, delimited in 1886, bounded on the street-car traffic because it was cheaper than the east by the Congo State, which on the south horse-cars, and because, for some reason, electricity separates it from the mouth of the Congo. The

was not available. Its installation and maintenance capital, Cabinda, was formerly a noted slave port. are more costly than that of the trolley road, and See CABENDA, Vol. IV, p. 618.

yet it has advantages that cause its continuance in CABINET, a body of advisers to the executive of many cases. The extensive lines in New York City, a government. For European history and usage of, on Broadway, on Third Avenue, and on One Hun. see CABINET, Vol. IV, pp. 618 et seq. In the United dred and Twenty-fifth Street, have been operated States the President's Cabinet exists as such simply satisfactorily for several years. Philadelphia, after by custom or precedent. The President is under no some years' use, abandoned them for the trolley. legal obligation to summon a Cabinet meeting, or to San Francisco has maintained a line for many years. ask for an opinion, or to accept same if given, The average cost of installing a cable railway system although no President has ever failed to call or to has been placed at $350,000 a mile, and the average seek counsel from his Cabinet. The decisions of the of available horse-power at the cars at 40 per cent Cabinet have no binding force. In 1886 it was pro- of the indicated horse-power of the engines used. vided by Congress that in case of vacancy of the This is not a remarkable showing, and the opinion offices of President and Vice-President by death, prevails among engineers that the cable roads for removal, resignation or disability, the members of city surface travel will be superseded within a few the Cabinet should succeed to the office of President years by the underground or conduit-trolley system. in the order of the dates of the original creation of The cable railway seems destined, however, to find their departments, beginning with the Secretary of a permanent employment on mountain lines, or State, then of the Treasury, of War, Attorney-Gen- where there are severe grades to be overcome. It eral, Postmaster-General, Navy and Interior. The is peculiarly adapted to such work, and is now emSecretary of Agriculture, whose department was cre- ployed on most of the mountain railways of the ated three years after the passage of this provision, world, often in conjunction with electricity. Three is not affected by it. The successor is to act as chief of these interesting roads have been built in the executive until the disability is removed or a new Alpine region, in close proximity to each other, President duly elected. See also UNITED STATES, since 1890; the Burgenstock railway, the Monte SalVol, XXIII, p. 748.

vatore railway, and the Stanserhorn railway. They CABLE, GEORGE WASHINGTON, novelist; born were at first fitted with wire cables having hempen in New Orleans, Louisiana, Oct. 12, 1844. Obliged cores, which prevented the breaking of the wire

by the death of his father, strands by internal friction; but latterly the hempen
in 1859, to leave school, cores have been subject to rot before the cables wore
he became a clerk, and in out, and it has been found possible to construct them
1863 enlisted in the Con- wholly of steel wires, tightly packed, and of gradu-
federate army, fought gal ated section, without cross-winding. This arrange-
lantly, was wounded, and ment almost wholly overcomes the tendency to wear
at the end of the war, find out by internal rubbing of the wires in bending.
ing himself destitute, be- The Burgenstock railway, opposite Lucerne, is
came an errand-boy. He half a mile long, and has an inclination of 45
studied civil-engineering, degrees. A rack is used as a safety factor. The
and was for a time attached cable speed is 2.5 miles an hour. The Monte Salva-
to a surveying expedition. tore railway is almost a duplicate of this, both
During a period of ill roads being driven by dynamos that obtain power
health he began writing from waterfalls.

poems and humorous The Stanserhorn railway is the most remarkable of sketches for the New Orleans Picayune, and soon the Alpine trio, having a grade of 60 per cent, and after was regularly attached to the editorial staff. attaining an altitude of 6,233 feet, and dispensing On severing his connection with this paper, he be- altogether with the rack, depending upon a safetycame a contributor to Scribner's Monthly, now the brake for clutching the rails in case of accident to Century Magazine. His stories deal with Creole life the cable. The power is brought from an electricas found in the city of his birth. His published power station several miles away, the price paid books include Old Creole Days; The Grandissimes; being only $20 per horse-power per annum.

A fall Dr. Sevier; Madame Delphine; The Creoles of Loui- of the river Aa furnishes power for the dynamos. siana; The Silent South; and Bonaventure. The The road cost only $300,000, notwithstanding the author has introduced a new field to the attention tremendous grade, and that a part of its route had of readers. His stories are gracefully told, the char- to be tunneled out of a loose mass of fallen boulacters are delicately drawn, and a sunny humor ders. traces its way through them all. He is a popular The Otis elevated cable railway at Catskill, New lecturer, and gives most enjoyable readings from his York, built in 1892, is 7,005 feet long, and has a rise own works.

He is greatly interested in Sunday of 1,60272 feet. Trains are made up of two cars school work, and is a favorite writer and lecturer on each, and run on a double track, so that they balthe International Lessons.

ance each other by the ascent of one while the other CABLE RAILWAYS. In a number of large descends. The cable is supported by pulleys at 30

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GEORGE W. CABLE.

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