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foot distances. The machinery is all controlled | minor orders, when the civil war broke out at the from an operating-tower by means of levers, one set death of Ferdinand in 1833. Heat once joined the admitting steam to the Hamilton-Corliss engines, partisans of Don Carlos, and by his energy and pitianother set reversing the engines, and another set less cruelty made his name a household word throughoperating the brakes. The passenger-cars seat 90 out Aragon and Valencia. Defeated and wounded persons, and the speed made is nine miles


hour. at Rancon, he escaped with difficulty, but soon reThe cost of equipping the road was $260,000. appeared at the head of a formidable force, defeated

A projected road at the Jungfrau, in the Alps, will the royal army in two engagements, and for a time be, perhaps, the most novel of any of the cable rail-threatened Madrid itself. In 1839 Don Carlos creways. Its grade is 45 degrees, and the entire route ated him count of Morella, and governor-general of is to be tunneled, so that it will present the appear-Aragon, Valencia and Murcia. He strongly opposed ance of an inclined well. The tunnel is to be made Don Carlos's abdication in 1845, and in 1848 renewed circular, and the cars are surrounded by ring-like the struggle for absolutism in Spain; but the attempt shields which fill the area of the tunnel in such man- proved an utter failure, and he was obliged to take ner that they may serve to compress the air in the refuge in France. tunnel. In case of a break to the cable, a powerful CACAO-BUTTER, a fixed oil expressed by heat air-tight door at the bottom is closed automatically, and pressure from the fruit of Theobroma cacao, and and thus a cushion of air is introduced to break the largely used in pharmacy and in the preparation of force of the fall, which could not result in serious cosmetics. The raw cacao-nut contains over 50 per damage to the occupants of a car.

cent of fat, or cacao-butter. See Cocoa, Vol. VI, pp. Much inventive ingenuity has been expended 100 et seq. upon the mechanism of grips for cable-cars, the con- CÁCERES, ANDRÉS AVELINO, Peruvian soldier; ditionsunder which they operate being very exacting. born in Huanta, April 12, 1838. He joined the The supporting piece that goes through the slot army as second lieutenant in 1852. He assisted in must be very strong, though but five eighths of an the abolition of slavery under Castilla; won the rank inch thick. The hold must be taken on the cable of colonel; distinguished himself in the war with gradually, and in such a manner as not to wear the Chile; was made brigadier-general; and was instruouter strands, so that loose wires will project and mental in the overthrow of the Peruvian General catch the grips of cars that it is desired to stop. | Iglesias, who had established a government of his This last requirement is not wholly met, and run- own at Cajamarca. Cáceres entered the capital in aways of cable-cars will continue until some im- | March, 1885, was elected President in December, proved device overcomes the difficulty.

and inaugurated in July, 1886. In 1891 he was sent CHARLES H. COCHRANE. as Peruvian minister to Spain and France. CABLE-WAYS. See ROPEWAYS, in these Sup- CACERES, NUEVA, a town of the Philippines, in plements.

the province of South Camarines, on the island of CABOT, GEORGE, statesman; born in Salem, Mas- Luzon. It is situated on the river Naga, or Santa sachusetts, Dec. 3, 1751; died in Boston, April 18, Cruz, between the Bay of San Miguel and the Gulf 1823. At the age of 25 he was a member of the of Rogay, about 175 miles S.E. of Manila. PopulaMassachusetts provincial congress, and in 1790 was tion, 12,500. elected to the United States Senate from Massa- CACHALOT OR SPERM-WHALE. See WHALE, chusetts. In 1814 he was president of the Hartford Vol. XXIV, p. 525. convention. He was assistant of Alexander CACHE, a name given by travelers in Canada and Hamilton in his financial schemes, and an authority the western part of the United States to places for on political economy.

concealing provisions and other articles for present CABOT, JAMES ELLIOTE, writer and editor; born convenience or future use. Usually the place of in Boston, Massachusetts, June 18, 1821; in 1844 concealment is in the ground or under a cairn. The began writing for The Dial; in 1848-50 was editor characteristic mounds of heaped-up stones in the of Massachusetts Quarterly; since then has written arctic regions, along the lines of navigation, are also for the Atlantic Monthly, North American Review, known by this name. They are constructed to leave and edited Emerson's works and Audubon's Birds of a permanent deposit of food for navigators. America. He published in 1887 a Memoir of Ralph CACHET, LETTRES DE. See LETTRES DE CAWaldo Emerson.

CHET, Vol. XIV, p. 484. CABRAL, PEDRO ALVAREZ, Portuguese explorer; CACHEXIA, a name applied by physicians born probably about 1460, and died about 1526; sometimes to a group of diseases, and sometimes to appointed by the king of Portugal to command a the constitutional state accompanying a particular fleet for the East Indies, it was carried by currents disease, as the cancerous cachexia, gouty cachexia, to Brazil. An account of his landing there is given etc.

Cachexia has come to be chiefly employed in BRAZIL, Vol. IV, pp. 227, 228. He set sail again with reference to diseases in which the general and arrived in Calicut, India, with the loss of seven nutrition of the body is at fault, and in which the vessels. The last mention of him is in the account local disorders are supposed to be the result of a of his arrival home at Lisbon in 1501.

constitutional cause. CABRERA, DON RAMON, Carlist leader; born at CACHICAMA OR TATOUPEBA, the nineTortosa, Catalonia, Spain, in 1810; died at Went- banded armadillo. See MAMMALIA, Vol. XV, p. worth, near Staines, England, May 24, 1876. He was 387. intended for the church, and had already received the CACHOLONG, a mineral, regarded as a variety




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of opal, and sometimes called pearl opal, or mother- the third day some houses were plundered, and that of-pearl opal. (See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 390.) night the citizens held London Bridge against the It has a flat, conchoidal fracture, and it is found insurgents. Dissensions arose among Cade's men; united with common chalcedony.

they dispersed, and a price was set upon his head. CACIQUE OR CAZIQUE, the designation given He attempted to escape, but was overtaken and to the chiefs of Indian tribes in the central and killed on July 11th, near Heathfield, Sussex. southern parts of Am

ca. The title was first ap- CADELLE, a name given in France to the larva plied by Spanish discoverers to the native princes of a beetle of the family Trogositida. It commits whom they found reigning in Mexico, Peru, Haiti great ravages in granaries, and is often imported and Cuba, and was formed from a native Haitian with grain into countries where it is not indigenous. word.

CADENCE, a musical term used to denote the CACODYL, the fuming liquor of Cadet. See finish of a phrase of which there are three principal CHEMISTRY, Vol. V, p. 577.

species; namely, the whole, the half, and the interCACOUNA, a village of Temiscouata County, rupted cadence. The whole cadence, which finishes northeast Quebec, beautifully situated on the right on the harmony of the tonic, is always used at the bank of the St. Lawrence, about 130 miles below end of a composition, and is frequently called the the city of Quebec, on the Grand Trunk railroad. final cadence. In its most perfect use it consists of It is a favorite summer resort for fishing and hunt- three chords, the one before the final being always ing and for salt-water bathing. Population, 900. dominant. The half-cadence is used to mark the

CACTUS WREN, one of the wrens of the genus termination of an idea or phrase, like the colon and Campylorhynchus, which lives among the cactus in semicolon, showing a considerable division, but, the southwestern United States, Mexico and Central at the same time, that a continuation is necessary. America.

The harmony of the half-cadence is the reverse of CADASTRAL SURVEYS, any large and com- the whole cadence, as it falls from the tonic to the plete land survey which includes the making of dominant. In the interrupted cadence another har

Used in surveying property for the mony quite strange is introduced, so that the ear is assessment of taxes. The usual scale for a cadas- deceived. The more particular the preparation for tral map is two feet to the mile. The survey usu

the usual cadence is made, the more strange and ally includes descriptive books, giving areas and unexpected is the interruption, which can be made names of property owners. Cadastral surveys were in so many ways, that Reicha, in his Traité de Haute used in Italy as early as 1677.

Composition Musicale, gives 129 interrupted cadences. CADDIS-FLY OR CADDICE-FLY. See In- | In rhetoric, cadence signifies the sinking or falling SECTS, Vol. XIII, p. 151.

of the voice, and the modulation of the voice in CADDOAN INDIANS, the name of a group of general. North American Indians, for a time thought to be dis- CADER IDRIS (“Chair of Idris," a reputed tinct, but later identified with the Pawnees. When first giant), a picturesque mountain in the county of known, they occupied the Indian Territory, Arkansas, Merioneth (q.v., Vol. XVI, p. 38), Wales, 5 miles S.W. Kansas, Nebraska and North Dakota. At present lo- of Dolgelly. It consists of an immense ridge of cated by tribes as follows: the Pawnees in the north- broken precipices, 10 miles long and i to 3 miles ern part of the Indian Territory and Oklahoma; the broad, the highest peak reaching an elevation of Wichita in the south of the Indian Territory; the 2,914 feet. It is composed of basalt, porphyry and Arikara on St. Berthold reservation, North Dakota; other trap rocks, with beds of slag and pumice. The and several scattering remnants on the Kiowa and view from the summit is very extensive, including the Comanche reservations in western Oklahoma. They | Wrekin, in Shropshire, and St. George's Channel number about 2,100 souls, of whom 530 are still almost to the Irish coast. bearing the name Caddo. See INDIANS, Vol. XII, CADET, a terın applied in a general sense to the

younger son of a noble house, as distinguished from CADE, JACK, leader of the insurrection of 1450, the elder. The military use of the word arose from was by birth an Irishman. For a violation of law the practice of providing for younger sons, or cadets, he was obliged to flee to France, and served for a by making them officers of the army or navy. (See time against England, but subsequently returned and Navy, Vol. XVII, p. 294.) In the United States a settled in Kent as a physician. In June, 1450, as military cadet is one who is receiving instruction and suming the name of Mortimer, and the title of military discipline at the military or naval acadeCaptain of Kent, he placed himself at the head of mies (q.v., in these Supplements). As to British about 16,000 followers and marched on London, en- military cadets, see ARMY, Vol. II, p. 585; for naval camping on Blackheath, from which place he sent a cadets, see Navy, Vol. XVII, p. 294. paper to the king, demanding redress of certain CADI OR KÁDI, an Arabic word signifying a grievances, and change of counselors. This demand judge or person learned in the law. See MOHAMwas met by an army, before which Cade retreated to MEDANISM, Vol. XVI, pp. 590, 591. Sevenoaks; there he defeated a detachment and CADILLAC, ANTOINE DE LA MOTHE, French killed its two leaders. He entered London on July colonial governor in America; born in Gascony, 2d, and for two days maintained strict order, | France, about 1660; died about 1717. He was a though he forced the Lord Mayor to pass judgment descendant of a noble family, and was ordered by on Lord Say, one of the king's detested favorites, Louis XIV to examine the coast defenses of the and he was promptly executed by Cade's men. On French territory in America. He was granted Mount

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Desert island, off the coast of Maine, in 1691. He in New Haven, Connecticut, was brevetted brigadierfounded Detroit, Michigan, in 1701 (calling it Fort general, and was soon after retired from service. Pontchartrain), established trading-forts, discovered CÆCILIA, a genus of serpent-like amphibians a silver-mine, which was named “ La Mothe," and (see AMPHIBIA, Vol. I, p. 751), the typical genus of in 1711 became governor of Louisiana.

the family Cæciliida. These are worm-like, without CADILLAC, a city, capital of Wexford County, limbs and with small eyes, in correspondence with northwest lower Michigan; on Clam River, about a subterranean mode of life. The cæcilians live in 100 miles N. of Grand Rapids, on the Ann Arbor South America and the East Indies. Their food and the Grand Rapids and Indiana railroads. It is consists of worms and insect larvæ. the seat of an extensive trade in lumber, and con- CÆCILIUS STATIUS, a Roman comic poet; tains numerous lumber-mills, machine-shops and date of birth unknown; died about 168 B.C.; a foundries, and manufactories of bricks, cigars, car- native of Milan. He was given the name Statius riages and wagons. Population 1894, 5,105. on account of his being a slave. His works that

CADIZ, a town, the capital of Trigg County, are preserved consist of but a few fragments. They southwest Kentucky, 9 miles froin the Cumberland were mainly free translations of Greek writers. He River, 55 miles S.E. of Paducah. It has manufac- was classed by the Romans with Terence and Plautures of wagons, plows and furniture. Population See DRAMA, Vol. VII, p. 411. 1890, 890.

CÆCUM OR “BLIND” INTESTINE. See DiCADIZ, a town, the capital of Harrison County, GESTIVE ORGANS, Vol. VII, p. 228. central east Ohio, in a fertile, hilly district, about 20 CAEN STONE, a fine oölite stone for which the miles N.W. of Wheeling, on the Pittsburg, Cincin- neighborhood of Caen, in Normandy, France, has nati, Chicago and St. Louis railroad. It is the center long been celebrated. The quarries are subterraof an important wool-growing industry. In the nean, and the stone is brought up in blocks eight or vicinity are valuable mines of bituminous coal. Pop- nine feet long and two thick, through vertical shafts. ulation, 1,716.

CÆSALPINIA, a genus of trees of the family CADOUDAL, GEORGES, a Chouan leader; born | Leguminosa, the type of the suborder Cæsalpinieæ. in Auray, Brittany, Jan. 1, 1771; executed in Paris, This suborder contains about 1,500 known species, June 25, 1804; the son of a miller; joined the roy. among which many are notable for their purgative alist peasants and became their leader; was taken properties, as senna; some produce eatable fruits, prisoner in 1794, but escaped from Brest; Bonaparte as the tamarind; some yield resinous and balsamic offered to make him lieutenant-general, which offer products, some produce important dyewoods, and he refused; he entered into a conspiracy against some are trees of great size and very valuable for Bonaparte, was taken prisoner, and executed. See

See their timber. They are natives of the warm parts CHOUANS, Vol. V, p. 687.

of Asia and America, although the “ redbud” CADWALADER, GEORGE, soldier; born in Phil. (Cercis Canadensis) and “honey-locust” (Gleditschia adelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1804; died there, Feb. 3, triacantha) are familiar representatives in the tem1879. He practiced law; served in the Mexican perate parts of the United States. Tropical species War as brigadier-general of volunteers; rose to be of Cæsalpinia yield “sappan-wood,” “Brazil-wood," major-general on account of gallantry at Chapul "algarovilla," etc., used as dyewoods and in tantepec, served as major-general of volunteers in 1862, ning. See DividiDI, Vol. VII, p. 292. and was a member of a commission appointed to CÆSAR, the title of the Roman emperors and revise the United States military laws and regula- of the heirs to the throne, was originally the name tions.

of a patrician family of the Julia Gens, one of the CADWALADER, John, an American general; oldest in the Roman state, claiming to be descended born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Jan. 17, 1742; from Iulus, the son of Æneas.

from Iulus, the son of Æneas. Octavian bore the died in Shrewsbury, Pennsylvania, Feb. II, 1786. name as the adopted son of the great Julius Cæsar, He was interested in public affairs prior to the Rev- and handed it down to his own adopted son, Tibelutionary War; was captain of a military company, rius, after whom it was borne by Caligula, Claudius and when the city battalions were formed, was placed and Nero. Although the Cæsarean family proper in command of the “Silk Stocking Company.” became extinct with Nero, the word Cæsar was part of Promoted brigadier-general, he was placed in com- the style of the succeeding emperors; usually between mand of the Pennsylvania militia, assisted in the imperator and the personal name, as, “Imperator capture of the Hessians at Trenton, and was present Cæsar Vespasianus Augustus.” When the Emperor at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Mon- Hadrian adopted Ælius Verus (136), the latter was mouth. He wounded Thomas Conway in a duel, permitted to take the title of Cæsar; and from this brought about by the attacks of Conway on Wash- time in the Western, and afterwards also in the Eastington. After the close of the war he removed to ern, Empire it was borne by the heir apparent to Maryland, and was elected to the state legislature. the throne, while Augustus continued to be the ex

CADY, Albemarle, officer; born in New Hampclusive name of the reigning emperor. The name shire about 1809, and graduated from West Point in reappears in the Czar (or Tsar) of Russia, in the 1829. He served chiefly at frontier posts until | Kaiser of the “ Holy Roman Empire," and the 1846, fought in the Mexican War from 1846 to modern empire of Germany, and the Kaisar-i- Hind, 1848, and during the early part of the Civil War or Empress of Hindustan. was on Pacific Coast duty. In 1864 he was ap

CÆSAREAN OPERATION OR HYSTERECpointed to the command of the drafting rendezvous ! TOMY, so called from the belief that Julius Cæsar

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was brought into the world in this way. See SUR- near the Red Sea, and his report of a journey to GERY, Vol. XXII, p. 691.

Siwah led to its annexation by Egypt in 1820. In CÆSIUM, a bluish-gray alkali metal. Chemical 182

Chemical 1821–22 he accompanied Ibrahim Pasha's expedisymbol, Cs. See POTASSIUM METALS, Vol. XIX, tion to the White Nile, and his Voyage à Néroé pp. 592, 593.

(4 vols., Paris, 1823-26) contained the first trustCAFFEIN OR THEINE (CH'N'O%), the alka- worthy account of that district. In 1827 he became loid or active principle of coffee and tea. When conservator of the Natural History Museum at isolated it forms beautiful white crystals, with a Nantes. He published a Voyage à Syouah, and two silky luster, which are soluble in water, alcohol and volumes of researches on the life of the ancient ether. It was first discovered in 1820 by Runge in Egyptians, Nubians and Ethiopians. Germany, and by Pelletier and Caventou in France. CAIN, William, civil engineer; born in HillsIt is present in coffee to the extent of about i per boro, North Carolina, May 14, 1847; professor of cent, and in ordinary tea, from 272 to 6 per cent, mathematics and civil engineering at the University and is also found in Paraguayan teas; in the former, of North Carolina; is a graduate of the North Caroabout i per cent, and in the latter, which is a sort lina Military and Polytechnic Institute. Among of chocolate, nearly 5 per cent. Caffein is thought his published writings are Maximum Stresses in to be present also in the beans of the coffee and Framed Bridges, Symbolic Algebra; and Theory of other plants. It is used in medicine as a powerful Solid and Braced Arches. stimulant in case of deficient circulation or respira- CAINE, THOMAS Henry Hall, better known as tion.

“Hall Caine,” British novelist and dramatist, was CAHAWBA, a navigable river of Alabama. It born of Manx parentage rises in the northern central part of the State, at in 1853, and commenced the northeast corner of Jefferson County, flows his career as an architect southward through Jefferson, Shelby, Bibb and in Liverpool. From conPerry counties, extending for about 200 miles, and tributing to both the enters the Alabama at the old village of Cahawba, Builder and the Building 10 miles below Selma, in Dallas County.

News he became conCAHIR, a town in the county of Tipperary, nected with journalism, south-central Ireland, on the Suir, beautifully situ- and joined the staff of the ated on the east end of the valley, between the Liverpool Mercury. He Galtees and Knockmealdown Mountains. Cahir resided with Dante RosCastle, an ancient irregular Norman structure of setti in London until the considerable extent, is situated on a rock on the poet's death in 1882 left bank of the Suir. Cahir has extensive four- later making his home on mills. Population, about 2,500.

the Isle of Man; published Sonnets of Three CenCAHOKIA, a village of St. Clair County, south-turies (1882), and also Recollections of Rossetti, while western Illinois; so named from an extinct tribe of in 1883 Cobwebs of Criticism appeared. During the Indians; situated on the Mississippi, 4 miles from last few years his skill as a novelist has been exemEast St. Louis, on the Cairo and St. Louis rail.plified in The Shadow of a Crime, A Son of Hagar road. It was settled by the French about 1682; (1887); The Deemster, which was dramatized under and its present inhabitants, descendants of the ori- the title of Ben-My-Chree (1887), The Bondman ginal settlers, preserve many of the customs and (1890), and The Scapegoat, which appeared in 1891. traditions of their ancestors. In the neighborhood He published a book on the Manx nation in 1891. are found numerous prehistoric mounds. Some The Manxman, one of his best novels, appeared in coal-mining is carrried on. Population, about 200. 1894. CAICOS, CAYOS OR KEYS, a group of islands CAINOZOIC PERIOD. See GEOLOGY, Vol. X,

zord belonging geographically to the Bahamas, of which pp. 360–365. they form the two southeastern groups; annexed in CAIRD, EDWARD, author and teacher; was born 1874 to Jamaica. The governing power is super- at Greenock, Scotland, in 1835; educated at the vised by the governor of Jamaica, and consists of a University of Glasgow. From Glasgow he passed as commissioner and a legislative board of five, all a Snell exhibitioner to Balliol College, Oxford, and appointed by the British ruler. The group consists became in 1864 fellow and tutor at Merton. In of 30 islands, only 6 of which are inhabited. The 1866 he was appointed professor of moral philosolargest island is Grand Caicos, 6 miles wide by 20 phy at Glasgow University, and in 1893 he accepted long. The capital is on Grand Turk. Together the position of master of Balliol College, Oxford. with Turk's Islands, they have an area of 223 square | Among his works are a Critical Account of the Phimiles. Salt-making, sponge-fishing and cultivation losophy of Kant (1877); an excellent little book on of sisal grass for hemp are the chief industries. Hegel, in Blackwood's “Philosophical Classics;" Population 1891, 4,745,

an examination of The Social Philosophy and ReliCAILLIAND, FREDERIC, a French traveler; gion of Comte (1885); and Evolution of Religion born at Nantes, June 9, 1787; died there, May 1, (1893). 1869. He became a goldsmith and traveled over CAIRD, SIR JAMES, British economist and agriEurope, and in 1815 went to Alexandria.

In ex

culturist; born in Stranraer, Scotland, in 1816; died amining the mineral resources of Egypt he redis- in London, Feb. 10, 1882; graduated from the Unicovered the ancient emerald-mines of Zebal Zobara, versity of Edinburgh; in 1849 made a report on the



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famine in southwest Ireland and suggested measures CAJABAMBA, a town situated 102 miles S. of for the relief of the agriculturists of that district; Quito, Chimborazo province, Ecuador, on the arid was elected to Parliament in 1857; was knighted in plateau of Topi, at an elevation of 9,480 feet. The 1865; became privy councilor to the Board of Agri- first town of Riobamba, founded on this site in 1533, culture in 1889. He published several reports cov- was in 1797 overwhelmed by an earthquake, in which ering agricultural subjects in England, the United 30,000 lives were lost. States and Ireland. He represented the government CAJAMARCA. See CAXAMARCA, Vol. V, p. 279. on many important commissions, among them the CALABASH OR GOURD TREE, a tree of the Indian Famine Commission. He is author of English West Indies and the tropical parts of America, of Agriculture (1852), and India : The Land and the the natural order Bignoniace&, suborder CrescenPeople.

tiacea. In height and size it resembles an apple CAIRD, JOHN, Scottish preacher; born at Gree- tree; it has wedge shaped leaves, large, whitish, nock, Scotland, Dec. 15, 1820. He studied at the fleshy flowers, and a gourd-like fruit, sometimes a University of Glasgow, and was locally well known foot in diameter. The wood of the tree is tough as an able preacher, when a sermon delivered before and flexible, and is well adapted for coach-making, the Queen, in Crathie, in 1855, and published under but the most useful part is the hard shell of the the title of The Religion of Common Life, quickly fruit, which is used instead of bottles, goblets, cups, carried his fame into all parts of the Protestant water-cans, etc. The calabashes are sometimes pol. world. It was pronounced by Dean Stanley to be ished, carved, dyed, and otherwise ornamented. See the greatest single sermon of the century. In 1858 also GOURD, Vol. XI, p. 4. Dr. Caird published a volume of sermons, marked CALAIS, a city, capital of Washington County, by beauty of language, strong thought and intense northeast Maine, at the head of navigation on St. sympathy with the spiritual aspirations of mankind. Croix River, opposite St. Stephen's, New Brunswick, He received the degree of D.D. in 1860, was ap- 12 miles from Passamaquoddy Bay, 82 iniles N.E. pointed professor of divinity in 1862, and in 1873 of Bangor. Its chief industry is ship-building, and principal and vice-chancellor of Glasgow University. there is an extensive export trade in lumber, which In 1880 he published The Philosophy of Religion, is sawn in the vicinity. There are also a number of and in 1888 Spinoza.

machine-shops and foundries, the power for running CAIRD, Mrs. Mona, authoress; born in the Isle which is furnished by the St. Croix River, Calais is of Wight, at Ryde; gained a reputation chiefly by the seat of Calais Academy. Population 1890, 7,290. reason of her writing on marriage. Her published CALAMANDER-WOOD is an exceedingly hard writings include Whom Nature Leadeth; One That and valuable cabinet wood of rich and varied colors, Wins; The Wing of Azraël; contributions on Mar- obtained from Diospyros hirsuta of southern Asia. riage and Ideal Marriage to the Westminster Review; Its near relative, D. Ebeneum, yields the well-known to the Daily Telegraph on Is Marriage a Failure? “ebony.wood,

"ebony.wood,” while the American representative and in the Fortnightly on The Morality of Marriage. is D. Virginiana, the “persimmon.” The genus be

CAIRNS, Hugh MacCALMONT, LORD, statesman longs to the family Ebenaceæ. See Ebony, Vol. VII, and lawyer; born near Belfast, Ireland, in 1819; died p. 619. in Bournemouth, April 2, 1885; elected to Parlia- CALAMARY OR SQUID, a name applied to ment in 1852; appointed Attorney-General in 1866. numerous forms of cuttle-fish, or Cephalopoda. See

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is a very England, first in 1868 and again from 1874 to 1880. durable timber tree of Luzon, somewhat resembling

CAIRO, EGYPT. See Africa, in these Supple- the teak, and much used in ship-building and in the ments.

manufacture of furniture and agricultural impleCAIRO, a city, capital of Alexander County, ments. southwest Illinois; situated on a low point of land CALAMIANES, a group of islands in the Eastat the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, ern Archipelago, in latitude about 11° 25' to 12° and on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. 20' N., and longitude 120° E.; between Palawan Louis, the Illinois Central and the Mobile and Ohio and Mindoro of the Philippines; area, 1,332 square railroads. It was formerly subject to inundations, miles. Calamian is the largest, being 15 miles wide which retarded its growth, but extensive levees that and 35 long. See PhiliPPINES, Vol. XVIII, p. 752. have recently been erected at great expense afford CALAMICHTUS, a genus of ganoid river fishes ample protection against the encroachinents of the found in western Africa. It is called reed-fish berivers, and the city is now rapidly increasing in num

cause of its slender, cylindrical body. bers and wealth. It is the entrepôt for southern CALAMINE, an ore consisting essentially of silimarkets of the products of Illinois, Wisconsin and cate of zinc.

It occurs in small, obtuse-edged crysIowa. More than 4,000 steamboats enter and clear tals, also compact and massive. See Zinc, Vol. from its wharves every year. Population in 1880, XXIV, pp. 784, 785. 9,011; in 1890, 10,422.

CALAMINT, a name given to species of CalaCAITHNESS FLAGSTONES, dark-colored, bitu- mintha, a genus of the family Labiate. Calamintha minous schists, slightly micaceous and calcareous, officinalis is not infrequent in England. It has valuable on account of their great toughness and whorls of flowers on many-flowered stalks, and serdurability for pavements. See GEOLOGY, Vol. X, p. rated leaves, with an agreeable aromatic odor, and 344.

is used to make herb-tea and as

a pectoral medi

House of Lords, and was twice Lord Chancellor of CALAMBUCO OR CALAMBOUR

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