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CALAMITES-CALCEOLARIA

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cine. Common species of the United States are on the protection of the coast of Holland against
C. Clinopodium, “basil”; C. Nepeta,“ basil-thyme”; the sea.
and C. glabella. All are very fragrant herbs or shrubs? CALANDO, in music, an

CALANDO, in music, an Italian expression,
CALAMITES, a group of fossil plants, which meaning diminishing by degrees from forte to piano.
make their first appearance in the Devonian, occur It differs from decrescendo or diminuendo, as the tempo
abundantly in the Carboniferous, and seem to die at the same time is slightly retarded, but not so
out in the Permian strata. (See Botany, Vol. iv, much as in ritardando. The proper performance of
p. 107.) There is some doubt as to the affinities of the calando is purely a matter of good taste and feel-
these plants; but they are generally admitted to be ing, depending on the performer.
allied to the recent Equisetacea, or horsetails, from CALANDRONE, a wind-instrument on which
which, however, they differ in certain points. It Italian peasants play simple melodies, and also
has not yet been fully decided whether they should sometimes accompany their national songs. It has
be considered as a peculiar form of Equisetaceæ, or the holes of a common fute, but the intonation is
classed as a distinct but allied order. The gigantic produced as in the common pipe.
decorticated stem is longitudinally ribbed and trans- CALATRAVA-LA-VIEGA, a ruined city of
versely jointed; in some stems, long, narrow branch- south-central Spain, situated on the Guadiana, 12
lets proceed from the transverse joints, and in others, miles N.W. of Ciudad Real. In the middle ages it
branches bearing whorls of small branchlets or long, was a strongly fortified place, but nothing now re-
narrow, pointed leaves. Some of the species were mains except a single tower. The great battle with
provided with thick and others with thin bark. the Moors, fought here in 1158, gave rise to the
Calamites seem to have grown in dense brakes on formation of the order of Knights of Calatrava.
low, alluvial fats, and perhaps even in water.

CALATRAVA, KNIGHTS OF, members of an CALAMUS, the reed pen which the ancients used order, founded just after the battle of Calatrava-lain writing. It was made of the stem of a reed grow- | Viega in 1158, fought between the Moors and ing in marshy places, of which the best were obtained Spaniards. It was sanctioned by the pope in 1164. from Egypt. The stem was first softened, then The order was in connection with the Cistercian dried, and cut and split with a knife, as quill pens monks at first, but the knights separated from the are made.

Even now the Orientals write with a monks, joining them again later. They were for a reed, which the Arabs call Kalâm. See Pen, Vol. time all-powerful in Spain. Their military power XVIII, p. 483.

was crushed in 1200 and Calatrava taken by the CALAMUS, a name with a variety of botanical Moors. They regained some of their power in 1212. applications: 1. The generic name of certain Asiatic In 1489 the grand-mastership was transferred to the species of Palmacea, or palms, with creeping or crown to prevent too much power falling to any climbing stems, which furnish the commercial other man. The present costume is a white mantle, * cane," used in rattan canes, in bridge-building, for with a red cross cut in the form of lilies upon

the cables, for caning chairs, etc.; 2. The common name left breast. The cross of the order has the same of the highly aromatic root-stock of Acorus Calamus, symbol on a silver ground. Membership in the oror “sweet-flag," of the family Aracer, yielding the der is now conferred as a reward of merit. calamus-oil and acorin used in perfumery; 3. The CALBURGA, a town of the Nizam's dominions common name of one of the sweet-scented grasses in Hindustan, 65 miles S.E. of Solapoor, and conof India used in the manufacture of incense. See nected therewith by railway. It is situated on a Vol. XII, p. 718.

tributary of the Beemah. It has been successively CALANAS, a town of Andalusia, southwest Spain, the capital of Hindu and Mohammedan sovereignsituated about 27 miles N. of Huelva, and 13 miles ties. Population, 6,000. N.E. of Tharsis, with which it was connected by rail CALCAREOUSTUFA OR TUFA, a mineral which in 1887. There is a large copper-mine in the vicin- in its chemical composition is nearly identical with ity. Population, about 10,000.

limestone and marble, but is distinguished by its CALANCHA, ANTONIO DE LA, Peruvian Augus- spongy and cellular structure. It is generally soft, tine monk; born in Chuquisaca, Peru, in 1584; died brittle and friable, but sometimes it is sufficiently in Lima, March 1, 1654; held various offices in the hard to be used in building (see Rome, Vol. XX, p. church, the principal one being the rectorship of the 808). Sometimes it incrusts animal and vegetable college of San Ildefonso, at Lima. He is famous, remains, as in “petrifying springs” (see GEOLOGY, however, on account of his one published writing, Vol. X, p. 270), and it is sometimes used as a filteringCrónica Moralizada del Orden de San Agustin en el stone. The stalactites and stalagmites found in cavPeru, an accurate account of the growth of his order erns are varieties of calcareous tufa. in that district, and which is valued as a history of CALCASIEU, a river of Louisiana, about 230 South America.

miles long and navigable for 100 miles. It rises in CALAND, PIETER, a Dutch engineer; born in the western part of the state, flows south through Zierikzee in 1826; graduated at Breda, at the mili- Lake Calcasieu, and enters the Gulf of Mexico near tary academy; in 1845 became a director of the bu

the village of Cameron, 90 miles from Galveston. reau of dikes and drains; in 1873 became chief An iron lighthouse 53 feet high stands at its inspector of that bureau; is a knight of the Order of mouth. the Netherlands Lion. His great work is the arti- CALCEOLARIA, a South American genus of ficial approach to Rotterdam, rendering that port plants of the natural order Scrophulariacea. The easily accessible. He is the author of several works | calyx in this genus is four-partite, corolla two-lipped,

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CALCIFEROUS EPOCH-CALDERON

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the lower lip remarkably inflated so as to form a born at Chester, March 22, 1846; died in St. Augusbag, and the shape of the whole in some species tine, Florida, Feb. 12, 1886. He was for some time resembles that of a slipper. The art of the gar- employed as clerk in a bank, first at Whitchurch, dener has succeeded in producing varieties and and afterward at Manchester. The success of his hybrids which exhibit many rich and delicate tints. work in the London illustrated papers encouraged Some of the species are used in South America for him to remove to the metropolis, where he soon dyeing. See HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. 262. proved himself without an equal in depicting the

CALCIFEROUS EPOCH, an epoch in the humors of animal life, and the joys of the countryLower Silurian system of North America. The house and the hunting-field. He contributed fredivision is characterized by the presence of calca- quently to Punch and the Graphic, and occasionally reous sandstones and limestones, portions of which exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Dudley and are very hard and silicious, and contain geodes of the Grosvenor galleries. In 1882 he became a quartz crystals. The Calciferous epoch immediately member of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colors. succeeds the Cambrian period.

His health, however, soon gave way, and after vain CALCINATION OR CALCINING, the process attempts to restore it by trips abroad, he died at St. of heating or roasting in furnaces the various metal- | Augustine.

Augustine. Randolph Caldecott will be rememlic ores (see COPPER, Vol. VI, pp. 348–350) and of bered chiefly by the admirable Caldecott's Picture converting rock into cement by roasting. See Books, which began in 1878 with John Gilpin and CEMENTS, Vol. V, p. 328.

The House That Jack Built. He also illustrated CALCITE. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 396. Washington Irving's Old Christmas (1875); Brace

CALCIUM, the metal present in chalk, stucco bridge Hall (1877); Mrs. Comyns Carr's North Italand other compounds of lime. See CHEMISTRY, ian Folk (1878); and several other well-known Vol. V, pp. 525, 526.

works. CALCIUM CARBIDE. See CHEMISTRY, in these CALDERWOOD, HENRY, Scotch theologian and Supplements.

writer; born in Peebles, Scotland, May 10, 1830; CALCULATING-MACHINES. Numerous was graduated at Edinburgh University and United crank-operating calculating machines have been Presbyterian Theological Hall; entered the minplaced on the market for multiplying and dividing, istry of the United Presbyterian Church, being and performing other arithmetical calculations. As chosen pastor at Glasgow of the Greyfriars Church; a rule, they have several series of number-indexes, became professor of moral philosophy in Edinburgh running from o to 9, with some form of pointers, University in 1868. He has written a number of valadjustable by the crank. Among the best known uable works, among which are Handbook of Moral of these are the machines of Thomas of France, Philosophy; Relations of Mind and Brain, and Evowhich is manufactured in an improved form by Tate lution and Man's Place in Nature. of England; Odhner of Poland; Baldwin of St. Louis; CALDIERO, a decayed town of North Italy, and Grant of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Grant's about nine miles E. of Verona. Its thermal springs machine consisted of a cylinder bearing a set of were in repute as early as the first century of the rings on which are the numerals. These he terms Christian era, and continued to enjoy popularity adding-rings. A similar set of rings is placed on a until the sixteenth century, after which they gradshaft below, and these he terms registering-wheels. ually became neglected, and are now little visited. In order to multiply, the adding-rings are set to read | On the heights of Caldiero, in 1805, the Archduke the multiplicand, and the registering-wheels the Charles of Austria repulsed the French under multiplier. If the multiplicand were 387,432, the Messéna, after a desperate engagement lasting nearly crank would be turned three times and a slide shifted, two days. then eight times and a slide shifted, and so on. At CALDER, a river of Yorkshire, West Riding. It the conclusion of the turning the answer could be rises in a marsh on the borders of Lancashire, near read on the recording-wheels.

Burnley, and after a course of 40 miles joins the In 1889 Dorr E. Felt introduced a new form of Aire near Pontefract. It forms a considerable porcalculating machine, which has found large sale, tion of the canal route through Yorkshire and Lanand is used in Cornell University and other scientific cashire, between the east and the west coasts of Eninstitutions. It has a keyboard resembling that of gland. a typewriter. The keys are numbered in two direc- CALDERON, FRANCISCO GARCIA, Peruvian statestions, from left to right and up and down. By man; born in Arequipa, Peru, in 1834; elected to striking the figures to be added, in the proper col- the Congress in 1867; Minister of the Treasury in umns, the answer may be read at once. To multi- | 1868; elected President in 1881; was taken prisoner ply three figures by three figures, the operator has | by Chile; released in 1886, and made president of absolutely nothing else to do but to select three of the Senate. A Dictionary of Peruvian Legislation the keys and strike them. This can be done in three (2 vols.) is his only published work that is known. seconds, as soon as one becomes familiar with the CALDERON, Philip HERMOGENES, painter; keyboard. The machine will also add, subtract, born of Spanish parentage, at Poitiers, France, in divide, square, and extract the cube root.

1833. He studied in London and Paris, and regu

C. H. COCHRANE. larly contributed to the Royal Academy from 1853, CALCULI, or stone in the bladder and gall-stone. his subjects being chiefly historical or imaginative. See VESICAL DISEASES, Vol. XXIV, p. 189.

He exhibited at the Paris international exhibitions CALDECOTT, RANDOLPH, an English artist; 1 of 1867 and 1878, receiving at the foriner the first

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CALDERON-CALEDONIAN CANAL

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medal awarded to English art, and at the latter a gyman; born in Charlotte County, Virginia, in first-class medal and the Legion of Honor. In April, 1734; shot by a sentry, near Elizabeth, 1887 he was appointed keeper of the Royal Acad. New Jersey, Nov. 24, 1781.

New Jersey, Nov. 24, 1781. He was a graduate of emy. He again exhibited in 1891. Among his Princeton in 1759, and became pastor of a Presbypaintings are After the Battle; The Siesta and Day terian church in Elizabeth, three years later. Durof the Massacre of St. Bartholomew.

ing the agitation preceding the Revolution he was CALDERON, SERAFIN ESTEBANEZ DE, a Span- active in arousing the spirit of rebellion, and was ish poet and novelist; born in Malaga in 1801; died subsequently chaplain in the American army. A at Madrid, Feb. 7, 1867. He was educated at the monument commemorating his life and service was University of Granada, and in 1822 appointed as erected at Elizabeth in 1846. He was known as professor of belles-lettres and rhetoric at Granada. the "Fighting Parson,” and to him is credited the In 1837 he was governor of Seville. See Spain, saying, “Now put Watts into them, boys,” as he Vol. XXII, p. 361, for a critique of his writings. had supplied his men with hymnbooks to use for

CALDWELL, a city of Sumner County, southern gun-wadding. Kansas, about 20 miles S. of Wellington, on the CALDWELL, JOSEPH, educator; born in LamingAtchison, Topeka and Santa Fé, the Chicago, Rockton, New Jersey, April 21, 1773; died at Chapel Island and Pacific, and the St. Louis and San Hill, North Carolina, Jan. 24, 1835. He graduated Francisco railroads. It is the trade center of a at Princeton in 1791, taught school in his native fertile agricultural district, and contains a number place and also in Elizabeth, and in 1796 was of grain-elevators and flouring-mills. Population, appointed to the chair of mathematics in the Uni1,448.

versity of North Carolina. Thereafter he devoted CALDWELL OR LAKE GEORGE, a village, his energies to the upbuilding of that institution, the capital of Warren County, central eastern New and to himn is due the merit of having saved it from York, situated near the head of Lake George, ruin. In 1804 Dr. Caldwell became president of about 60 miles from Albany, on the Delaware and the university, which position he occupied until his Hudson railroad. It is a very popular summer death, with the exception of the years 1812–17. resort. Its surroundings are picturesque and roman. CALDWELL, MERRITT, educator; born in Hetic; the lake is studded with numerous beautiful bron, Oxford County, Maine, Nov. 29, 1806; died islets; and in the vicinity are several places of his- in Portland, June 6, 1848. He graduated at Bowtoric interest, including Fort George and Fort doin in 1828, and in the same year became principal William Henry. The name Horicon, commonly of the Maine Wesleyan Seminary. In 1834 he was supposed to be the original Indian name of the elected professor of mathematics at Dickinson Collake, was a fanciful invention of Cooper, the novel lege, Pennsylvania, and in 1837 was transferred to ist. Population 1890, 1,377.

the chair of metaphysics and English literature, CALDWELL, a town, the capital of Noble which position he occupied until his death. Among County, southeast Ohio, situated about 30 miles E. his published works are The Doctrine of the Engof Zanesville and 35 miles N. of Marietta, on the lish Verb; Philosophy of Christian Perfection; and Bellaire, Zanesville and Cincinnati and the Cleve- Christianity Tested by Eminent Men. land and Marietta railroads. It has a sash and CALDWELL, SAMUEL LUNT, educator; born door factory, and in the vicinity are found coal, in Newburyport, Massachusetts, Nov. 13, 1820; iron, oil and salt. Population 1890, 1,248.

died at Providence, Rhode Island, Sept. 26, 1889. CALDWELL, a town, the capital of Burleson He was educated at Colby University, Waterville, County, central Texas; 66 miles N.E. of Austin; | Maine. He subsequently graduated at the Newton on the Gulf, Colorado 'and Santa Fé railroad. A Theological Institute, and became pastor of a BapNormal Institute is located here. Population 1890, tist church at Bangor, Maine, and afterward at 1,250.

Providence, Rhode Island. He held a professorship CALDWELL, CHARLES HENRY BROMEDGE, an ,

in Newton Theological Institue, and in 1878 was American naval officer; born in Hingham, Massa- called to the presidency of Vassar College; this pochusetts, June 11, 1823; died in Waltham, Massa- sition he resigned in 1885. He published sermons, chusetts, Nov. 30, 1877. He entered the navy as orations and lectures, and edited volumes 3 and 4 midshipman in 1838, and became lieutenant in 1852. of Publications of the Narragansett Club. He commanded the Itasca in 1862, when an at- CALEDONIA, a village, the capital of Houston tack was made on Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and County, southeast Minnesota, situated about 32 led a party of men who cleared away the chain ob- miles S. of Winona, on the Chicago, Milwaukee and struction which prevented the Union gunboats from St. Paul railroad. It contains manufactories of passing the forts. Lieutenant Caldwell was in the wagons and sleighs, and is the center of an imporaction at Grand Gulf in 1862, and was soon after- tant local trade, and the seat of Caledonia Academy. ward made commander. He subsequently com- Population 1895, 1,045. manded the Essex, the Glaucus and the R. R. Cuyler, CALEDONIA, a village, the capital of Traill and in 1874 was promoted to the rank of commodore. | County, central eastern North Dakota, situated at

CALDWELL, Howard H., poet; born at New- the confluence of Goose River with the Red River bury, South Carolina, in 1831; has contributed of the North. It is an important shipping-point for largely to periodicals, and published two volumes grain on river steamers. Population 1890, 267, of poems, Oliatta and other Poems and Poems.

CALEDONIAN CANAL. See Canal, Vol. IV, CALDWELL, JAMES, American patriot and cler- | p. 787.

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CALEDONIA SPRINGS-CALIFORNIA

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CALEDONIA SPRINGS, a village of Prescott the most important city in Cauca. It is connected
County, Ontario, Canada, about 10 miles S. of with Buenaventura by rail, and has considerable
L'Original. It contains a number of alkaline me- trade with that port. Population, 13,000.
dicinal springs, noted for their efficacy in the cure CALIANO, a small town of the Austrian Tyrol,
of rheumatic and cutaneous diseases. Population on the left bank of the Adige, about 9 miles S. of
1890, 1oo.

Trent. . It figures in history as the place where the
CALENDER OR KALENDAR, a Persian word Austrian Archduke Sigismund won a signal victory
(meaning “greater”) applied to members of an over the Venetians in 1487. Being a place of con-
order of dervishes founded in the fourteenth cen- siderable military importance, it was also contested
tury. The Calenders are wandering preachers, in the campaigns of 1797 and 1809.
who hold that sin defileş the body only, and can be CALIBER OR CALIBRE, a technical name for
removed by ablutions. The members of the order, the diameter of the bore of a firearın, whether a
even during the lifetime of its founder, were remark- piece of ordnance or a small arm. If the weapon is
able for licentiousness and debauchery. See also rifled, its caliber is measured, not from the bottom
Guild, Vol. XI, p. 260.

of the grooves, but from the smooth surface between CALENDS, the first day of each Roman month. them, technically called the “bands.” In the United See CALENDAR, Vol. IV, p. 665.

States the caliber of a firearm is expressed in deciCALENTURE, an obsolescent term for a species mal parts of an inch; thus what is commonly called of temporary fever occurring on board ship in hot a 44-caliber rifle is one of 44-inch. The caliber of a climates, and probably due to the effect of exposure cannon is expressed either by the diameter of its to the direct rays of the sun.

bore or by the weight of a solid round shot which CALFA, AMBROISE, known to some as INSUF it will carry. In Great Britain caliber is expressed Bey, Armenian historian and scholar; born in as in the United States, with the exception of the Constantinople, March 2, 1830; joined the Mekhi- heavy guns, which are denominated from their tarists and was educated by that order in Venice. weight; as, a 38-ton gun, or a 100-ton gun, Upon the completion of his studies there in 1848, CALICO-BASS, the common grass ass (Pomonys he was sent to the Mekhitarist college, Murat, in sparoides). It is found in the United States from the Paris, being given a position in the faculty. In Great Lakes to the Gulf, and is prized as a game and 1854 he retired to become the organizer of a school food fish. at Grenelle. This he left in 1857, on account of CALIFORNIA, a city, the capital of Moniteau ill health, after which time he devoted himself to County, central Missouri; in the midst of a rich translation and to historical writing. These works agricultural and mineral-producing district; on the include a Universal History, Guide to Conversation, Missouri Pacific railroad. It contains a number of an Armenian-French Dictionary, etc.

mills for the manufacture of four, paper

and woolen CALFA, CORÈNE, Armenian writer and scholar; goods. Population 1890, 1,772. brother of the preceding; born in Constantinople | CALIFORNIA, a borough of Washington County, in 1835; educated by the Mekhitarists in Venice; southwest Pennsylvania; on the Monongahela River, editor-in-chief of the journal Polyhistore; followed 50 miles S.W. of Pittsburg; on the Reading and his brother to Paris and became an instructor at the Southwestern railroad; steamboats ply between it Murat College; soon took a high rank among the and Pittsburg; the Southwestern Normal School is Armenian clergymen; was made bishop, and in located here. Population 1890, 1,024. 1875 archbishop. He published a book of poems CALIFORNIA embraces within the boundary of under the title La Colombe du Massis, and later the state proper an area of 153,600 square miles, published an Armenian Grammar; a History of which confronts the Pacific Ocean along a coast-line Armenia; a treatise on the French Language, for the more than 700 miles in length, and extending Use of Armenians, and Lectures on Religion.

through nine and one half degrees of latitude. The
CALGARY, a town of the Alberta district, North-
west Territory of Canada; on the Canadian Pacific

EUREKA
railway, 840 miles W. of Winnipeg. It stands
3,380 feet above the sea-level, in a broad valley
between the Bow and Elbow rivers, and is a trading
center for a wide district. It dates from 1884.
Population 1891, 3,876.

CALHOUN, a town, the capital of Gordon County,
northwest Georgia; 78 miles N.W. of Atlanta; on the
Western and Atlantic railroad. A rich farming
region surrounds it, and brick manufactories and a state has an average breadth of about two hundred
planing-mill are located here. Population 1890, 680. miles. In addition to this territory of 98,304,000

CALHOUN, a town, capital of McLean County, acres, California also includes 4,760 square miles of western Kentucky, on the Green River, 65 miles lakes, islands, bays, navigable rivers, salt marsh and N.W. of Bowling Green ; the river is navigable the tide-lands, making the total area 158,360 square year around. Population 1890, 637.

miles, or 101,350,400 acres. California is second CALI, SANTIAGO DE, a city of the Cauca state, among the states in size, and comprises 4.4 per cent Colombia, South America, situated on a tributary of the entire area of the United States, and is greater of the Rio Cauca, 3,300 feet above the sea. It is in extent than the combined states of Connecticut,

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STATE SEAL OF CALIFORNIA.

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Delaware, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, lina, furnishing several varieties of marble, valuable
Massachusetts, Maine, Rhode Island, Ohio and Ver- cement rocks and some metalliferous ores.
mont. The state is made up of mountain and valley The principal rivers of the state are the Sacra-
land of great diversity of features.

mento and the San Joaquin, the courses of both
mountain ranges traverse it from northwest to south- of which lie in the great central valley mentioned.
east -the Sierra Nevada, or Snowy Mountains, in the The Sacramento rises in Mt. Shasta and flows south;
eastern and the Coast Range in the western part of the San Joaquin rises in the Tu re Lake, in the south
the state. In the north these two ranges join indis- end of the valley, and Aows north. Near latitude
tinguishably, and in the south again, in the neigh- 38° these rivers unite and flow west into the San
borhood of the Tejon pass, they become united into Francisco Bay. Both have many small tributaries.
one chain, the San Bernardino Range. These two The Sacramento, 370 miles long, is navigable for
ranges have many branches, the most important 120 miles from San Francisco; the San Joaquin, 350
being the San Diablo, Palo Scrito, Santa Lucia, San miles long, is navigable for steamers for about the
Rafael and Santa Inez mountains. Besides the same distance. In the north, the Klamath River,
numerous fertile valleys contained between their which has its source in Oregon, flows west into the
spurs and lateral ranges, their foothills inclose the Pacific. The Colorado, which forms the southeast
great central valley of California. The eastern crest boundary of the state, is navigable for more than
of the Sierras rises from 6,800 to 15,000 feet, and the 500 miles from its mouth. Of the numerous rivers
western crest from one single tide-level gap at of the Coast Range, only one, the Salinas, flowing into
Carquinez Straits to elevations of from 900 to 9,000 the Bay of Monterey, is navigable. California has
feet. The highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada are several large lakes, the principal one of which,
Mt. Whitney, 14,898 feet high, at the south termi- Tulare, is at the southern end of the central valley.
nus, and Mt. Shasta, 14,442 feet high, at the north It receives King, Kern, White and Tule rivers.
terminus. Mt. Whitney is the highest point of Upon the east slope of the Sierra are several large
land within the United States, and within seventy lakes, among them being Klamath, Goose, Honey
miles is Death Valley, the lowest. Between Mt. and Owens, and other small lakes, many of which
Whitney and Mt. Shasta lie, in succession from are alkaline and without outlet. Lake Tahoe, at the
north to south, Lassen's Peak, 10,577 feet; Castle angle in the boundary between California and
Peak, 12,500 feet; Mt. Tyndall, 14,386 feet; Mt. Nevada, is a beautiful body of pure water, about
Brewer, 13,886 feet; and Mt. Dana, 13,227 feet. 20 miles long and averaging 1,500 feet in depth. It
The Coast Range is of much less altitude, varying is one of the most elevated lakes on the continent.
from 4,000 feet in the north to 8,000 in the south In the southeast there are many deep depressions,
end. (See Vol. IV, p. 697.) The northern part of formerly lakes, similar to the noted Death Valley,
the state is entirely covered by the interlocking spurs which is 400 feet below the sea, and is a waterless,
of the two ranges, which gives it a very rugged char- barren desert.
acter. The south part is traversed by numerous California has a great variety of climates, the wide
broken ranges, and is extremely sterile, owing to the range of temperature and climatic variations being
lack of water. A narrow belt along the coast of due to differences in elevation and latitude and dis-
this southern portion is very fertile, greatly favored tance from the sea. These differences extend from
in respect to climate, and possesses much beautiful the arctic temperature of 15,000 feet above to the
scenery. The most of the coast-line of the state is semi-torrid climate of 400 feet below the sea-level.
rocky, and good harbors are few. The Bay of San In 1895 the highest temperature recorded in the state
Francisco forms one of the best and most capacious was 124', the lowest 23° below zero-an absolute
harbors on the west coast of North America, and one range of 147o. The water of the ocean remains very
of the finest in the world, It is nearly fifty miles in equable, as regards temperature, throughout the year,
length, with a breadth averaging nine miles, with varying but little from 52° to 54°. At San Fran-
good anchorage, deep water and perfect shelter on cisco the freezing-point is not reached for entire
all sides. Its entrance is a strait about five miles years at a time, and a record of 17 consecutive
long and one mile wide, inclosed between high cliffs, years shows that but for 6 days of the time did the
and called the Golden Gate. Within the bay are thermometer register 90°. The mean temperature
nuinerous islands, among which is Mare Island, used of the coldest months, December and January, is
as a navy-yard by the government. Humboldt Bay, 1 50°; that of the warmest month, September, 60°;
on the north coast, is the best harbor in that part of the yearly mean, 55o. The normal annual tempera-
the state. Southward from San Francisco are the ture for the state is 60.1°. In the interior the climate
bays of Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, varies indefinitely, every valley having a climate of its
San Pedro and San Diego, of which the last, at the own. Sudden fluctuations of temperature are unknown
extreme south end of the coast, is next to San Fran- throughout the state. The Colorado desert, in the
cisco Bay, both for security and for advantageous southeast corner of the state, has a climate extremely
geographical position. Of the islands off the coast, hot and dry, and Fort Yuma is probably the hottest
the rocky group called the Farallones, opposite the place in the United States. The warm and dry air
Golden Gate, have been the favorite resort for sea- of portions of southern California, where roses
fowl, whose eggs are collected there in great quanti- bloom every month of the year, is healthful and

Off the south coast are several much larger favorable to invalids, particularly consumptives. mountainous islands, occupied as grazing-lands for Monterey, San Diego, San Bernardino, Los Angeles large flocks of sheep; the largest one, Santa Cata- | and Santa Barbara have become winter sanatoriums,

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