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cine. Common species of the United States are on the protection of the coast of Holland against
CALANDO, in music, an Italian expression,
CALATRAVA, KNIGHTS OF, members of an CALAMUS, the reed pen which the ancients used order, founded just after the battle of Calatrava-lain writing. It was made of the stem of a reed grow- | Viega in 1158, fought between the Moors and ing in marshy places, of which the best were obtained Spaniards. It was sanctioned by the pope in 1164. from Egypt. The stem was first softened, then The order was in connection with the Cistercian dried, and cut and split with a knife, as quill pens monks at first, but the knights separated from the are made.
Even now the Orientals write with a monks, joining them again later. They were for a reed, which the Arabs call Kalâm. See Pen, Vol. time all-powerful in Spain. Their military power XVIII, p. 483.
was crushed in 1200 and Calatrava taken by the CALAMUS, a name with a variety of botanical Moors. They regained some of their power in 1212. applications: 1. The generic name of certain Asiatic In 1489 the grand-mastership was transferred to the species of Palmacea, or palms, with creeping or crown to prevent too much power falling to any climbing stems, which furnish the commercial other man. The present costume is a white mantle, * cane," used in rattan canes, in bridge-building, for with a red cross cut in the form of lilies upon
the cables, for caning chairs, etc.; 2. The common name left breast. The cross of the order has the same of the highly aromatic root-stock of Acorus Calamus, symbol on a silver ground. Membership in the oror “sweet-flag," of the family Aracer, yielding the der is now conferred as a reward of merit. calamus-oil and acorin used in perfumery; 3. The CALBURGA, a town of the Nizam's dominions common name of one of the sweet-scented grasses in Hindustan, 65 miles S.E. of Solapoor, and conof India used in the manufacture of incense. See nected therewith by railway. It is situated on a Vol. XII, p. 718.
tributary of the Beemah. It has been successively CALANAS, a town of Andalusia, southwest Spain, the capital of Hindu and Mohammedan sovereignsituated about 27 miles N. of Huelva, and 13 miles ties. Population, 6,000. N.E. of Tharsis, with which it was connected by rail CALCAREOUSTUFA OR TUFA, a mineral which in 1887. There is a large copper-mine in the vicin- in its chemical composition is nearly identical with ity. Population, about 10,000.
limestone and marble, but is distinguished by its CALANCHA, ANTONIO DE LA, Peruvian Augus- spongy and cellular structure. It is generally soft, tine monk; born in Chuquisaca, Peru, in 1584; died brittle and friable, but sometimes it is sufficiently in Lima, March 1, 1654; held various offices in the hard to be used in building (see Rome, Vol. XX, p. church, the principal one being the rectorship of the 808). Sometimes it incrusts animal and vegetable college of San Ildefonso, at Lima. He is famous, remains, as in “petrifying springs” (see GEOLOGY, however, on account of his one published writing, Vol. X, p. 270), and it is sometimes used as a filteringCrónica Moralizada del Orden de San Agustin en el stone. The stalactites and stalagmites found in cavPeru, an accurate account of the growth of his order erns are varieties of calcareous tufa. in that district, and which is valued as a history of CALCASIEU, a river of Louisiana, about 230 South America.
miles long and navigable for 100 miles. It rises in CALAND, PIETER, a Dutch engineer; born in the western part of the state, flows south through Zierikzee in 1826; graduated at Breda, at the mili- Lake Calcasieu, and enters the Gulf of Mexico near tary academy; in 1845 became a director of the bu
the village of Cameron, 90 miles from Galveston. reau of dikes and drains; in 1873 became chief An iron lighthouse 53 feet high stands at its inspector of that bureau; is a knight of the Order of mouth. the Netherlands Lion. His great work is the arti- CALCEOLARIA, a South American genus of ficial approach to Rotterdam, rendering that port plants of the natural order Scrophulariacea. The easily accessible. He is the author of several works | calyx in this genus is four-partite, corolla two-lipped,
the lower lip remarkably inflated so as to form a born at Chester, March 22, 1846; died in St. Augusbag, and the shape of the whole in some species tine, Florida, Feb. 12, 1886. He was for some time resembles that of a slipper. The art of the gar- employed as clerk in a bank, first at Whitchurch, dener has succeeded in producing varieties and and afterward at Manchester. The success of his hybrids which exhibit many rich and delicate tints. work in the London illustrated papers encouraged Some of the species are used in South America for him to remove to the metropolis, where he soon dyeing. See HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. 262. proved himself without an equal in depicting the
CALCIFEROUS EPOCH, an epoch in the humors of animal life, and the joys of the countryLower Silurian system of North America. The house and the hunting-field. He contributed fredivision is characterized by the presence of calca- quently to Punch and the Graphic, and occasionally reous sandstones and limestones, portions of which exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Dudley and are very hard and silicious, and contain geodes of the Grosvenor galleries. In 1882 he became a quartz crystals. The Calciferous epoch immediately member of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colors. succeeds the Cambrian period.
His health, however, soon gave way, and after vain CALCINATION OR CALCINING, the process attempts to restore it by trips abroad, he died at St. of heating or roasting in furnaces the various metal- | Augustine.
Augustine. Randolph Caldecott will be rememlic ores (see COPPER, Vol. VI, pp. 348–350) and of bered chiefly by the admirable Caldecott's Picture converting rock into cement by roasting. See Books, which began in 1878 with John Gilpin and CEMENTS, Vol. V, p. 328.
The House That Jack Built. He also illustrated CALCITE. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 396. Washington Irving's Old Christmas (1875); Brace
CALCIUM, the metal present in chalk, stucco bridge Hall (1877); Mrs. Comyns Carr's North Italand other compounds of lime. See CHEMISTRY, ian Folk (1878); and several other well-known Vol. V, pp. 525, 526.
works. CALCIUM CARBIDE. See CHEMISTRY, in these CALDERWOOD, HENRY, Scotch theologian and Supplements.
writer; born in Peebles, Scotland, May 10, 1830; CALCULATING-MACHINES. Numerous was graduated at Edinburgh University and United crank-operating calculating machines have been Presbyterian Theological Hall; entered the minplaced on the market for multiplying and dividing, istry of the United Presbyterian Church, being and performing other arithmetical calculations. As chosen pastor at Glasgow of the Greyfriars Church; a rule, they have several series of number-indexes, became professor of moral philosophy in Edinburgh running from o to 9, with some form of pointers, University in 1868. He has written a number of valadjustable by the crank. Among the best known uable works, among which are Handbook of Moral of these are the machines of Thomas of France, Philosophy; Relations of Mind and Brain, and Evowhich is manufactured in an improved form by Tate lution and Man's Place in Nature. of England; Odhner of Poland; Baldwin of St. Louis; CALDIERO, a decayed town of North Italy, and Grant of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Grant's about nine miles E. of Verona. Its thermal springs machine consisted of a cylinder bearing a set of were in repute as early as the first century of the rings on which are the numerals. These he terms Christian era, and continued to enjoy popularity adding-rings. A similar set of rings is placed on a until the sixteenth century, after which they gradshaft below, and these he terms registering-wheels. ually became neglected, and are now little visited. In order to multiply, the adding-rings are set to read | On the heights of Caldiero, in 1805, the Archduke the multiplicand, and the registering-wheels the Charles of Austria repulsed the French under multiplier. If the multiplicand were 387,432, the Messéna, after a desperate engagement lasting nearly crank would be turned three times and a slide shifted, two days. then eight times and a slide shifted, and so on. At CALDER, a river of Yorkshire, West Riding. It the conclusion of the turning the answer could be rises in a marsh on the borders of Lancashire, near read on the recording-wheels.
Burnley, and after a course of 40 miles joins the In 1889 Dorr E. Felt introduced a new form of Aire near Pontefract. It forms a considerable porcalculating machine, which has found large sale, tion of the canal route through Yorkshire and Lanand is used in Cornell University and other scientific cashire, between the east and the west coasts of Eninstitutions. It has a keyboard resembling that of gland. a typewriter. The keys are numbered in two direc- CALDERON, FRANCISCO GARCIA, Peruvian statestions, from left to right and up and down. By man; born in Arequipa, Peru, in 1834; elected to striking the figures to be added, in the proper col- the Congress in 1867; Minister of the Treasury in umns, the answer may be read at once. To multi- | 1868; elected President in 1881; was taken prisoner ply three figures by three figures, the operator has | by Chile; released in 1886, and made president of absolutely nothing else to do but to select three of the Senate. A Dictionary of Peruvian Legislation the keys and strike them. This can be done in three (2 vols.) is his only published work that is known. seconds, as soon as one becomes familiar with the CALDERON, Philip HERMOGENES, painter; keyboard. The machine will also add, subtract, born of Spanish parentage, at Poitiers, France, in divide, square, and extract the cube root.
1833. He studied in London and Paris, and regu
C. H. COCHRANE. larly contributed to the Royal Academy from 1853, CALCULI, or stone in the bladder and gall-stone. his subjects being chiefly historical or imaginative. See VESICAL DISEASES, Vol. XXIV, p. 189.
He exhibited at the Paris international exhibitions CALDECOTT, RANDOLPH, an English artist; 1 of 1867 and 1878, receiving at the foriner the first
medal awarded to English art, and at the latter a gyman; born in Charlotte County, Virginia, in first-class medal and the Legion of Honor. In April, 1734; shot by a sentry, near Elizabeth, 1887 he was appointed keeper of the Royal Acad. New Jersey, Nov. 24, 1781.
New Jersey, Nov. 24, 1781. He was a graduate of emy. He again exhibited in 1891. Among his Princeton in 1759, and became pastor of a Presbypaintings are After the Battle; The Siesta and Day terian church in Elizabeth, three years later. Durof the Massacre of St. Bartholomew.
ing the agitation preceding the Revolution he was CALDERON, SERAFIN ESTEBANEZ DE, a Span- active in arousing the spirit of rebellion, and was ish poet and novelist; born in Malaga in 1801; died subsequently chaplain in the American army. A at Madrid, Feb. 7, 1867. He was educated at the monument commemorating his life and service was University of Granada, and in 1822 appointed as erected at Elizabeth in 1846. He was known as professor of belles-lettres and rhetoric at Granada. the "Fighting Parson,” and to him is credited the In 1837 he was governor of Seville. See Spain, saying, “Now put Watts into them, boys,” as he Vol. XXII, p. 361, for a critique of his writings. had supplied his men with hymnbooks to use for
CALDWELL, a city of Sumner County, southern gun-wadding. Kansas, about 20 miles S. of Wellington, on the CALDWELL, JOSEPH, educator; born in LamingAtchison, Topeka and Santa Fé, the Chicago, Rockton, New Jersey, April 21, 1773; died at Chapel Island and Pacific, and the St. Louis and San Hill, North Carolina, Jan. 24, 1835. He graduated Francisco railroads. It is the trade center of a at Princeton in 1791, taught school in his native fertile agricultural district, and contains a number place and also in Elizabeth, and in 1796 was of grain-elevators and flouring-mills. Population, appointed to the chair of mathematics in the Uni1,448.
versity of North Carolina. Thereafter he devoted CALDWELL OR LAKE GEORGE, a village, his energies to the upbuilding of that institution, the capital of Warren County, central eastern New and to himn is due the merit of having saved it from York, situated near the head of Lake George, ruin. In 1804 Dr. Caldwell became president of about 60 miles from Albany, on the Delaware and the university, which position he occupied until his Hudson railroad. It is a very popular summer death, with the exception of the years 1812–17. resort. Its surroundings are picturesque and roman. CALDWELL, MERRITT, educator; born in Hetic; the lake is studded with numerous beautiful bron, Oxford County, Maine, Nov. 29, 1806; died islets; and in the vicinity are several places of his- in Portland, June 6, 1848. He graduated at Bowtoric interest, including Fort George and Fort doin in 1828, and in the same year became principal William Henry. The name Horicon, commonly of the Maine Wesleyan Seminary. In 1834 he was supposed to be the original Indian name of the elected professor of mathematics at Dickinson Collake, was a fanciful invention of Cooper, the novel lege, Pennsylvania, and in 1837 was transferred to ist. Population 1890, 1,377.
the chair of metaphysics and English literature, CALDWELL, a town, the capital of Noble which position he occupied until his death. Among County, southeast Ohio, situated about 30 miles E. his published works are The Doctrine of the Engof Zanesville and 35 miles N. of Marietta, on the lish Verb; Philosophy of Christian Perfection; and Bellaire, Zanesville and Cincinnati and the Cleve- Christianity Tested by Eminent Men. land and Marietta railroads. It has a sash and CALDWELL, SAMUEL LUNT, educator; born door factory, and in the vicinity are found coal, in Newburyport, Massachusetts, Nov. 13, 1820; iron, oil and salt. Population 1890, 1,248.
died at Providence, Rhode Island, Sept. 26, 1889. CALDWELL, a town, the capital of Burleson He was educated at Colby University, Waterville, County, central Texas; 66 miles N.E. of Austin; | Maine. He subsequently graduated at the Newton on the Gulf, Colorado 'and Santa Fé railroad. A Theological Institute, and became pastor of a BapNormal Institute is located here. Population 1890, tist church at Bangor, Maine, and afterward at 1,250.
Providence, Rhode Island. He held a professorship CALDWELL, CHARLES HENRY BROMEDGE, an ,
in Newton Theological Institue, and in 1878 was American naval officer; born in Hingham, Massa- called to the presidency of Vassar College; this pochusetts, June 11, 1823; died in Waltham, Massa- sition he resigned in 1885. He published sermons, chusetts, Nov. 30, 1877. He entered the navy as orations and lectures, and edited volumes 3 and 4 midshipman in 1838, and became lieutenant in 1852. of Publications of the Narragansett Club. He commanded the Itasca in 1862, when an at- CALEDONIA, a village, the capital of Houston tack was made on Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and County, southeast Minnesota, situated about 32 led a party of men who cleared away the chain ob- miles S. of Winona, on the Chicago, Milwaukee and struction which prevented the Union gunboats from St. Paul railroad. It contains manufactories of passing the forts. Lieutenant Caldwell was in the wagons and sleighs, and is the center of an imporaction at Grand Gulf in 1862, and was soon after- tant local trade, and the seat of Caledonia Academy. ward made commander. He subsequently com- Population 1895, 1,045. manded the Essex, the Glaucus and the R. R. Cuyler, CALEDONIA, a village, the capital of Traill and in 1874 was promoted to the rank of commodore. | County, central eastern North Dakota, situated at
CALDWELL, Howard H., poet; born at New- the confluence of Goose River with the Red River bury, South Carolina, in 1831; has contributed of the North. It is an important shipping-point for largely to periodicals, and published two volumes grain on river steamers. Population 1890, 267, of poems, Oliatta and other Poems and Poems.
CALEDONIAN CANAL. See Canal, Vol. IV, CALDWELL, JAMES, American patriot and cler- | p. 787.
CALEDONIA SPRINGS, a village of Prescott the most important city in Cauca. It is connected
Trent. . It figures in history as the place where the
of the grooves, but from the smooth surface between CALENDS, the first day of each Roman month. them, technically called the “bands.” In the United See CALENDAR, Vol. IV, p. 665.
States the caliber of a firearm is expressed in deciCALENTURE, an obsolescent term for a species mal parts of an inch; thus what is commonly called of temporary fever occurring on board ship in hot a 44-caliber rifle is one of 44-inch. The caliber of a climates, and probably due to the effect of exposure cannon is expressed either by the diameter of its to the direct rays of the sun.
bore or by the weight of a solid round shot which CALFA, AMBROISE, known to some as INSUF it will carry. In Great Britain caliber is expressed Bey, Armenian historian and scholar; born in as in the United States, with the exception of the Constantinople, March 2, 1830; joined the Mekhi- heavy guns, which are denominated from their tarists and was educated by that order in Venice. weight; as, a 38-ton gun, or a 100-ton gun, Upon the completion of his studies there in 1848, CALICO-BASS, the common grass ass (Pomonys he was sent to the Mekhitarist college, Murat, in sparoides). It is found in the United States from the Paris, being given a position in the faculty. In Great Lakes to the Gulf, and is prized as a game and 1854 he retired to become the organizer of a school food fish. at Grenelle. This he left in 1857, on account of CALIFORNIA, a city, the capital of Moniteau ill health, after which time he devoted himself to County, central Missouri; in the midst of a rich translation and to historical writing. These works agricultural and mineral-producing district; on the include a Universal History, Guide to Conversation, Missouri Pacific railroad. It contains a number of an Armenian-French Dictionary, etc.
mills for the manufacture of four, paper
and woolen CALFA, CORÈNE, Armenian writer and scholar; goods. Population 1890, 1,772. brother of the preceding; born in Constantinople | CALIFORNIA, a borough of Washington County, in 1835; educated by the Mekhitarists in Venice; southwest Pennsylvania; on the Monongahela River, editor-in-chief of the journal Polyhistore; followed 50 miles S.W. of Pittsburg; on the Reading and his brother to Paris and became an instructor at the Southwestern railroad; steamboats ply between it Murat College; soon took a high rank among the and Pittsburg; the Southwestern Normal School is Armenian clergymen; was made bishop, and in located here. Population 1890, 1,024. 1875 archbishop. He published a book of poems CALIFORNIA embraces within the boundary of under the title La Colombe du Massis, and later the state proper an area of 153,600 square miles, published an Armenian Grammar; a History of which confronts the Pacific Ocean along a coast-line Armenia; a treatise on the French Language, for the more than 700 miles in length, and extending Use of Armenians, and Lectures on Religion.
through nine and one half degrees of latitude. The
CALHOUN, a town, the capital of Gordon County,
CALHOUN, a town, capital of McLean County, acres, California also includes 4,760 square miles of western Kentucky, on the Green River, 65 miles lakes, islands, bays, navigable rivers, salt marsh and N.W. of Bowling Green ; the river is navigable the tide-lands, making the total area 158,360 square year around. Population 1890, 637.
miles, or 101,350,400 acres. California is second CALI, SANTIAGO DE, a city of the Cauca state, among the states in size, and comprises 4.4 per cent Colombia, South America, situated on a tributary of the entire area of the United States, and is greater of the Rio Cauca, 3,300 feet above the sea. It is in extent than the combined states of Connecticut,
Delaware, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, lina, furnishing several varieties of marble, valuable
mento and the San Joaquin, the courses of both
Off the south coast are several much larger favorable to invalids, particularly consumptives. mountainous islands, occupied as grazing-lands for Monterey, San Diego, San Bernardino, Los Angeles large flocks of sheep; the largest one, Santa Cata- | and Santa Barbara have become winter sanatoriums,