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famed throughout the world. The death rate per bringing to the growers $1,561,617, and being fully thousand in 1894 was 9.71, which, while very low as 17 per cent of the product of the states and compared with other states, is still not a fair com- territories. Other crops are hay, rye, broom corn, parison, as so many invalids in the last stages of pul- tobacco, cotton, sugar-cane, sorghum, alfalfa, millet monary diseases come into the state too late to be and hemp. The state stands foremost in the probenefited, and add materially to the death rate. The duction of the leading fruits and vegetables, raising northern part of the state, latitude 42°, is just within especially fine peaches, apples, pears, grapes, plums, the extreme summer limit of the north temperate prunes, apricots, nectarines, cherries, figs, olives, rain-belt. This limit in winter shifts a little south oranges, lemons, quinces, limes, pomegranates, of the southern end of the state, and thus California pomelos, persimmons, citron, bananas, guava, mulhas the full benefit of the winter rains and enjoys a berries, raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, etc. summer comparatively rainless. The mean annual In the growing of nuts the state stands first, raising precipitation in the northwestern part of the state, and exporting large quantities of almonds, chestand upon the exposed flanks of the Sierras and Coast nuts, English walnuts, pecans, peanuts and filberts, Range is from 80 to 100 inches, while in the south- which, from their excellent quality, find a ready eastern part there are comparatively rainless areas, market. California stands first in the production receiving but from 2 to 4 inches annually. At San of grapes, having over 300,000 acres planted to Diego and Monterey but 10 inches on an average vineyards, producing over 60 per cent of the wine fall, while at San Francisco the mean is close to 21 made in the United States, and furnishing all of inches. Between these extremes of from 80 to 100 the raisins grown. The wine and brandy exported inches, and 2 to 4 inches, there lies every degree of in 1895 amounted in value to almost $7,000,000. average annual moisture. The rains are sudden and Beets, carrots, cabbages, cauliflower, celery, letshowery, as in the tropics, but thunder-storms are tuce, melons, onions, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radalmost unknown. December is the month of great- ishes, tomatoes and turnips are among the leading est rain. Snow is rare, except in the Sierras, and vegetables shipped to places with less favorable hail falls only occasionally.
climate. Canaigre is raised for use in tanning The distribution and variety of vegetation over leather, and licorice-root is being extensively cultian area of such extreme range of climatic and mois- vated, both proving profitable industries. Olives ture conditions is marvelous and comprehensive. are raised for the purpose of the extraction of the The cone-bearing trees excel in size and variety any oil, as well as for pickling, and the purity of the other known area. The drier portions present a olive oil produced has gained for it a demand wealth of palm, cactus and yucca that bewilders the greater than the supply. In the production of beet botanist. In sections the forest growth is sometimes sugar the state stands first, furnishing 80 per cent so dense that more than a million feet of lumber can of the entire amount made in the United States. be cut from a single acre, while other areas are ab- The amount of this commodity produced in the solutely devoid of vegetation. Between extremes of crop season of 1893-94 was in excess of 42,000,000 such scope are found vegetations of every class and pounds, bringing the sum of $2,046,520. (See BEET kind.
SUGAR, in these Supplements.) The agricultural products of California are many Stock-raising is a profitable industry, as is dairyand varied, and agriculture is now the chief occupa farming, the climatic conditions being favorable tion of the people, as mining once was.
The farm- to both.
Nowhere else does live-stock multiply ing-lands of the state are estimated to cover an area more rapidly and mature earlier without shelter or of nearly 22,000,000 acres, of a value of about cultivated food than in the valleys of California. $700,000,000, producing about 4 per cent of the This is particularly true of the country west of the farm products of the United States. The growth of Sierra Nevadas, where the mildness of the winters is the cereals is extensive, and stands first in impor- very favorable to every branch of stock-raising. tance among the products of the soil. In the rais- Horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and Angora goats are ing of wheat the state stands second. The yield in all extensively raised, and the state is the home of 1893 was 36,158,000 bushels, but by reason of the some of the finest and highest-priced animals of the low price of that staple it did not bring as much as above kinds in the world. The state stands third in the crop of some former years, notably 1882, when the number of sheep, and second in the amount of the wheat harvest brought $43,000,000. The 93,945 wool produced, the clip of 1894 being 30,000,000 acres planted to corn in 1895 produced 2,556,500 pounds. Much attention is given to apiculture, and bushels, scarcely sufficient for home consumption; the honey produced amounts to about 10 per cent of 111,367 acres sown to oats brought 3,160,661 bushels the entire amount marketed in this country. in the season of 1894; and the same year, 1,671,998 The mineral resources of California are varied acres in barley gave a return of 22,913,617 bushels. and of much importance. The production of gold, Of this latter cereal California raises almost 30 per in which the state stands first, shows that Califorcent of the entire crop of the United States, stand- nia produced 38 per cent of the gold mined in the ing first, and, with New York, producing about one United States. The production of the precious half of the whole amount raised in this country.
metal for 1895 amounted to $15,334,317.69, and In the production of beans California stands second, estimates of the amount mined since its discovery in raising near 1,000,000 bushels annually, which con- 1849 place its value at $1,269,049,711. The silver stitutes about 23 per cent of the entire crop. For annually produced has also a large value. Quick1894 the crop of hops amounted to 8,658,962 pounds, silver, mined nowhere else on this continent, yields
are dent of ch The choc schoc 6.000 purpe
a large annual return, that for 1885 being $1,337,131. / 75,000 feet of lumber, and a yield of from 1,000,000
Sea-lions frequent the rocks and islands near the seaCalifornia has an abundant water-power, the con- shore, and fur-seals occasionally appear at the Faralfiguration of the country making its utilization lones. The California otter, and sea-otter, cougar, cheap, and the transmission of electricity from jaguar, lynx, gray wolf, coyote, skunk and wolverine points of generation easy. It is estimated that the are natives of the state, and the beaver and gray water-power available for the development of elec- | ground-squirrel are very common. The elk is still trical energy is amply sufficient to furnish the found in the forests of the north counties, and there power to drive every kind of machinery within the are several varieties of deer, the black-tail being the state. Among the manufactures of the state are most common. Antelopes are being rapidly extermining and agricultural machinery, lumber, leather, minated. The mountain-sheep, or “bighorn,” is woolen goods, four, silk, sugar, chemicals, etc. The found in the mountains of the Sierra Nevada. census of 1890 shows about 8,000 establishments in All the birds common to temperate climate are well operation, with an aggregate capitalization of almost represented, there being 350 species native to the $150,000,000, employing 83,000 operatives and state. Grouse and quails, or partridges, geese and paying $51,000,000 for annual wages.
ducks abound. The state is well supplied with The forest trees of California are of numerous fish, and a large business is done in the exportation species, some of which, as the mammoth, or big of dried and canned fish of several kinds. The tree, and the Monterey cypress, occur nowhere else product in 1890 was valued at $4,463, 369, furnishout of the state (see Vol. IV, p. 704). The narrow ing employment for over 5,000 persons. The oyster belt of redwood which covers the west slope of the industry is a considerable one, amounting to about Coast Range is very productive, and no other great $750,000 annually. Whales are found along the body of timber in North America is so accessible and coast in large numbers, and their product, together so easily worked. Single trees afford as much as with that of seals, amounted in 1890 to the sum of
$2,490,373. There are many reptiles, but only one these, together with the state and national institupoisonous serpent, the rattlesnake.
tions, held individual deposits in excess of $190,Much of the land in the southern and south- 000,000. eastern part of the state is arid from lack of water, The number of miles of railroad in operation in and for some years much attention has been given California exceeds 4,500. to irrigation. In 1894 the acreage under irrigation According to the census of 1890, there were 11 exceeded 5,500,000 acres, of which some 3,800,000 religious denominations represented in the state, acres was under cultivation. (See IRRIGATION, in with 1,542 organizations, having 1,493 churches and these Supplements.)
halls, a membership of 255,869, and the value of The school system of the state is admirably mod- the church property given as $10,656,376. eled and well conducted, being under the direct The charitable and educational institutions include control of a state board of education, consisting of the California state institution for the deaf and dumb five members, with the governor as ex officio presi and the blind, located at Berkeley, about four miles dent of the board.' The average annual attendance north of the city of Oakland. Some 2 50 afflicted per. of children at the state schools is about 240,000. sons are inmates, and the cost to the state is about There are about 3,000 school districts, 60 high $60,000 annually. The Industrial Home of Mechanschools, 1,900 grammar schools, 2,800 primary ical Trades for Adult Blind at Oakland has about 100 schools, 3,250 public school buildings and about inmates, the current expenses of operating the home 6,000 teachers. The annual expenditures for school being about $20,000 annually. The California purposes are about $5,000,000. The principal insti- Home for Feeble-Minded Children, located at Glen
Ellen, has about 300 inmates, requiring nearly $50,000 annually for their maintenance. The state provides five asylums for the care of her insane. They are located, respectively, at Napa, Stockton, Agnews, Mendocino and San Bernardino. These institutions are admirably conducted, and so liberal is the manner in which the unfortunate insane are cared for that California ranks second among the states in the comparative cost of maintaining asylums. At Yountville is located a veterans' home, where over 400'ex-sailors and soldiers are cared for, and the institution ranks first among the similar institutions of the kind in the United States in point of economical management, and fourth in point of
benefits conferred. STATE CAPITOL, SACRAMENTO.
California stands second in rank in the comparatutions for superior instruction are the University of tive cost of prisons. The largest of these correcCalifornia and the Leland Stanford Junior University. tional institutions is the state prison located at San (See CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF; and also LELAND Quentin, about 1c miles north of San Francisco, on STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY, in these Supple- the waters of the bay. About 1,200 prisoners are ments. There are 13 other colleges, 4 theological here confined, and about 700 are kept at Folsom, a schools, i of law and 3 of medicine, in addition to town about 20 miles northeast of Sacramento, on many seminaries of high grade, as well as many com- the American River. About half a mile from the mercial and business colleges. There are normal village of Ione, in Amador County, is the Preston schools located at Chico, Los Angeles and San José, School of Industry. It is not conducted on the plan the three having a total attendance of about 2,000 of a penal institution, but rather, as its name indistudents, and receiving stațe aid to the amount of cates, as an industrial school, designed to be a place about $100,000 annually. The San Francisco Acad- of reformation for boys whose habits of life and enemy of Sciences is an institution of high rank. The vironment are leading them toward a criminal textbooks used in the state schools are printed under
There is also a Reform School for Juvenile the supervision of the state board of education and Offenders located at Whittier, some 15 miles southfurnished to pupils at actual cost.
east of Los Angeles, which has on an average 250 The state library at Sacramento contains about boys and 50 girls, all of whom are taught some 95,000 volumes, and is liberally sustained by legis useful trade or occupation to fit them for contact lative appropriation. In 1880 an act was passed with the world. providing for the establishment of free public libra- California has a national guard, with an average ries and the maintenance of the same, with reading- strength of 5,000 officers and men. The annual aprooms attached. Under this law about 30 of these propriation for the maintenance of the guard is near institutions have been organized and are actively $100,000, and from the general government sums operated, with over 300,000 volumes on their shelves. ranging from $10,000 to $20,000 have been annually In addition are many other libraries free to the received, mostly in the way of arms and accoutrepublic, supported by societies or subscription. ments. The state stands fourth in the comparative
In 1894 California had 35 national banks and 175 cost of the maintenance of its militia force. state banks, with a combined capital exceeding $53,- In 1890 the sum expended for the support of the 000,000. There were also 6o savings banks, and state and local governments reached $24,000,000,
exter -n,” is evada
to the se and
ether m of
giving the state the rank of sixth in this connection. in the faculty, with 2,000 students. It has a library
The assessed value of all kinds of property for the CALISTHENICS is the Greek name for exercises year 1894 was $1,216,700,283, constituting about 4 promoting gracefulness and strength, and comprises per cent of the entire property of the United States. the more gentle forms of gymnastics, especially for This valuation gives a per capita ownership of girls. It now constitutes an important part of the $2,097, the largest of any of the states. The total physical training of girls at American colleges. A state debt amounts to $2,282,500.
notable system of physical culture has been inauguThe state is divided into 57 counties, in 56 of rated at Wellesley College, near Boston, Massachuwhich newspapers are published. There are 647 setts. In that institution a fine gymnasium, elabonewspapers published, of which 102 are daily, 458 rately equipped, was erected in the fall of 1891, and weekly, and the remainder ranging from four times three hours per week of attendance, under compea week to monthly.
tent instructors, were required of every member of The principal cities and towns of California are the freshman class. The results, which have been as follows, the populations given being according to watched with much interest, have proved very satisthe census of 1890: San Francisco, 298,997; Los factory, not only in the development of physique Angeles, 50,395; Oakland, 48,682; Sacramento, 26,- and a marked improvement in the carriage and vigor 386; San José, 18.060; San Diego, 16,159; Stockton, of the girl students, but in their increased capacity 14,424; Alameda, 11,165; Fresno, 10,818; Vallejo, for mental application, and similar departinents have 6,343; Santa Barbara, 5,864.
been organized in all of the larger educational instiThe population of California has increased rap- tutions of the United States. See GYMNASTICS, Vol. idly since 1850, the date of the admission of the | XI, p. 348. state to the Union. It was then 92,597. In 1860 it CALISTOGA, a town of Napa County, central had increased to 379,994. The increase during the eastern California, situated near the petrified forest, next ten years was not so great, the census of 1870 about 65 miles N. of San Francisco, on the Southgiving the population as 560,247. In 1880 the ern Pacific railroad, 3 miles from the base of Mt. number had increased to 864,694, and in 1890 to St. Helena. It is noted for its mineral springs, and 1,208,130. Of this latter number 1,111,558 were is a popular summer resort. Wine-making and minwhite; 71,681 were Chinese; 12,355 were Indians; ing are its principal industries. 11,437 were colored, and 1,069 were Japanese. The CALIVER, a matchlock or firearm about midcensus of 1890 disclosed the fact that California had way in size and character between an arquebus and about two per cent of the entire population of the a musket, used in the sixteenth century. It was United States, thus ranking twenty-second. The small enough to be fired without a rest or support. total vote cast for governor in 1894 was 284,548, in- CALIXTINES, the more moderate sections of dicating an increase in the population since the the Hussites in Bohemia. See HUSSITES, Vol. XII, taking of the decennial census of about the required p. 407. number of inhabitants to bring the whole number of CALLA, an aquatic or marsh-loving genus of people up to the estimates made for that year, which Aracece, of a single species, Calla palustris, the water were 1,250,000.
It has white spathes, cordate heart-shaped The following is a list of the governors of the leaves, flowers crowded up to the extremity of the state since California was admitted to the Union: spadix, and red berries. It is widely distributed
1849, Peter H. Burnett; 1851, John McDougal; through the cold marshes of Europe and North 1852, John Bigler; 1856, J. Neely Johnson; 1858, America, and acquires some economic importance in John B. Weller; 1860, Milton S. Latham; 1860, John Lapland and parts of Russia, from the fact that its G. Downey; 1862, Leland Stanford; 1863, Frederick root-stock, when deprived of its acrid properties by F. Low; 1867, Henry H. Haight; 1871, Newton cooking, is a source of starchy matter, used in breadBooth; 1875, Romualdo Pacheco; 1875, William making. The well-known and beautiful Richardia, Irwin; 1880, George C. Perkins; 1883, George Stone- the calla of house-cultivation, is an allied genus. man; 1887, Washington Bartlett; 1887, R. W. Water- See HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. 264. man; 1891, H. H. Markham; 1895, James H. Budd. CALLANDER, a village in Perthshire, central See CALIFORNIA, Vol. IV, pp. 694 et seq.
Scotland, on the left bank of the Teith, 16 miles CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF, at Berkeley, Cali- N.W. of Stirling It lies in a beautiful and romanfornia; established in 1868 by act of the legislature; tic situation, surrounded by the lofty mountains and founded in reality 13 years previous as the Col- Highland lakes of the Trossachs (9.v., in these lege of California, which first organized classes in Supplements), and is a famous resort for tourists. 1860. The Agricultural College is a part of the Uni- | Population, 1,538. versity. The University is supported by legislative CALLENDER, John, historian; born in Boston, appropriation in the form of an annual state tax. The Massachusetts, in 1706; died in Newport, Rhode Agricultural College receives aid from the United Island, Jan. 26, 1748. He came of a distinguished States government. Within the last few years large Puritan family, two members of which have been private benefactions have been received. Martin ministers. He graduated at Harvard, and became Kellogg is its president. There were, in 1895, 235 | pastor successively of a Baptist church in Boston; in
Swansea, Massachusetts; and in Newport, Rhode | Among his writings are Bérangère, a novel; La
tiful timber trees of its region, its bark also yielding CALLERNISH, a district on the west coast of the gum resin known as “East Indian tacamahac. the island of Lewis, of the Hebrides group, 16 miles CALORIMETER. Among recent forms of calfrom Stornoway, remarkable for its prehistoric stone orimeter the Junker gas-calorimeter, designed for circles, of which there are four, at no great distance laboratory work, testing gas-engines, etc., is worthy apart. Similar circles are found at Stonehenge, of mention. Much error has resulted from judging England, described under Rude STONE MONUMENTS, of gas by its candle-power, which may vary mateVol. XXI, p. 51; see also ARCHITECTURE, Vol. II, rially from its heat-giving qualities. In this instrup. 383; LEWIS AND Harris, Vol. XIV, p. 492. ment the heat generated by a flame is transferred to
CALLICHTHYS, a genus of fishes found in a current of water flowing at a constant rate, and South America. They are characterized by two measurements are taken of the quantity of gas rows of bony plates on either side, which extend the burned, of the quantity of water passed through, entire length of the body. See SILURIDÆ, Vol. and of the increase of temperature of the outgoing XXII, p. 69.
water over the incoming water. It is made like an CALLIGONUM, a genus of plants of the family upright boiler, with copper tubes, through which Polygonacea, having a quadrangular fruit winged at the heated gases rise, while the water runs downthe angles. The best-known species is a succulent ward outside the tubes. The spent gases are allowed shrub found on the sandy steppes near the Caspian to escape from a throttle, at atmospheric pressure. Sea, where its acid shoots and fruit often serve to M. Mahler's calorimeter consists of a graduated allay thirst. The roots afford a nutritious gum. vessel for holding a specific quantity of water, and
CALLIGRAPHY. See PALÆOGRAPHY, Vol. of an inverted glass bell, from which the gaseous XVIII, pp. 143 et seq.
products of combustion are compelled to flow and CALLINGER OR KALINJAR, one of the hill pass through the water. There is also a platinum forts of Bundelcund, India, district of Banda, 112 crucible forming the combustion chamber for the miles N.W. of Allahabad; elevated 1,200 feet above fuel be tested, and a steel bottle of compressed the adjacent plain. From its position and size it oxygen connected by tubes with the crucible. must at one time have been a place of great strength. The calorimeter of MM. Le Chatelier and Cornu At the base of the rock stands a town of the same is of the optical pyrometer type, being designed for name, which, though much decayed, still bears tes- use in tempering and similar operations. It contimony of its ancient grandeur. See BANDA, Vol. sists of a telescope to shut off outside light, and an III, p. 309.
oil-lamp as a standard of comparison, and renders CALLITRIS, a genus of the Coniferæ. See visual test of heat by the color of the fame much Morocco, Vol. XVI, p. 833; also SANDARACH, Vol. more accurate than where ordinary means of observaXXI, p. 256.
tion are used. See HEAT, Vol. XI, pp. 556, 567. CALLUS, a botanical term with the following
C. H. COCHRANE. applications: 1. A parenchyma tissue which covers CALORIMOTOR, an electrical apparatus so wounds preceding the formation of cork. From named on account of its heat-producing powers. It these callus-cells adventitious roots and buds may consists of a voltaic battery in which the zinc-copper arise. The term is applied in horticulture to the plates are so large as to cause a very slight internal cap formed over the end of a cutting. 2. A peculiar resistance, permitting a large quantity of electrical substance which covers both surfaces and lines the energy to be produced, and, when short wires are pits of the “ sieve-plates” (q.v.), and in some cases used, a considerable amount of heat.
The deflagperiodically closes the pits in autumn. 3. Very rator of Hare was the first form. loosely applied to any hard excrescence upon a plant. CALOTTISTS (Le Régiment de la Calotte), a society
CALMS OR CALM LATITUDES, those parts of of witty and satirical men, in the times of Louis XIV, the ocean near the equator which are subject to total who were headed by two officers in the king's bodyabsence of wind for long periods at a time. See guard, named Torsac and Aimon. Their name was METEOROLOGY, Vol. XVI, pp. 143, 144.
taken from the cap which formed the symbol of the CALONNE, ALPHONSE BERNARD DE, VISCOUNT, society. Their amusement consisted in sending to French writer; born at Béthune, May 17, 1818; any public character who had made himself ridicuengaged in political writing and art criticisms. His lous a "patent” authorizing him to wear the calotte politics caused him trouble with the government, as a covering for the weak part of his head. As the and on account of his severe criticisms he was com- society became audacious, and did not spare even pelled to fight several duels. Since 1870 he has royalty itself, it was suppressed during Fleury's written the reviews and art criticisms for Le Soleil. | administration.