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CALOVIUS OR KALAU, ABRAHAM, the chief plants with spiny heads or fruits, such as the comrepresentative of controversial Lutheran orthodoxy mon caltrop, Centaurea Calcitrapa (a thistle, with in the seventeenth century; born at Mohrungen, in spiny heads); species of Tribulus, with spiny fruit; East Prussia, April 16, 1612; died at Wittenberg, Trapa natans, with spiny fruit; Cenchrus tribuloides, Feb 25, 1686. He was successively professor at whose spiny spike is usually called a “sand-bur"; etc. Königsberg, preacher at Danzig, and professor at CALUMBA or COLUMBO, used in medicine, is Wittenberg. Hewaged war incessantly on Arminian, the root of Jateorhiza Calumba (J. palmata), a menisSocinian, Reformed and Catholic doctrines, and was permaceous climber of eastern Africa. Its bittervery bitter agaiust Calixtus. He was six times mar- ness and other properties are ascribed to the presried, the last time, in his seventy-second year, to a ence of columbin, berberin and columbic acid. It young daughter of his colleague, Quenstedt. Calo- is a useful, mild tonic and stomachic. American vius's chief writings are his Systema Locorum Theologi- calumba root, or columbo, is obtained from Frasera corum (12 vols., 1655–77) and Historia Syncretistica. Walteri, a gentianaceous biennial, and has properties (1682)
like those of gentian. CALOYERS ("good old men"), a general name ERS
CALUMET, a village of Houghton County, Michifor the monks of the Greek Church. The caloyers gan, situated in the copper region, near the northfollow the rule of St. Basil, and devote much time ernmost point of the upper peninsula, on the Hecla to devotional exercises. They are of three ranks, and Torch Lake railroad, 15 miles from Houghton. Archari or novices, Microchemi or professed, and It contains a celebrated copper-mine, often spoken Megalochemi or perfect. From among the last the of as the richest in the world. See Michigan, bishops and patriarchs are chosen. The caloyers Vol. XVI, p. 239. Population 1894, 2,192. furnish practically the only learned theologians in CALUMET OR PEACE-PIPE. See PIPE, Vol. Greece at the present time. They occupy numerous XIX, p. III. monasteries, the most noted of which are the ancient CALVARY, MOUNT. See MORIAH, Vol. XVI, monastery of Mount Sinai, and the cluster of monasteries at Mount Athos, Greece.
CALVÉ, EMMA, operatic vocalist, was born in CALPE, one of the pillars of Hercules, identified France about 1866. Her father was a civil engineer with Gibraltar. See GIBRALTAR, Vol. X, p. 585. and died during her girl
CALPENTYN, a long and narrow peninsula on hood. She received lesthe west side of Ceylon, in lat. 8° 14' N., long. sons from Signora Mar79° 53' E.
The neck is so low as to be over- chesi. Her début was in flowed during the northeast monsoon, so that it is Gounod's Faust, at the transformed into an island.
Théatre de la Monnaie, CALTABELOTTA OR CALATA BELLOTA, a Brussels, in 1882. In town of west Sicily, 10 miles N.E. of Sciacca, most Paris, in 1884, she played picturesquely situated around an ancient castle
an ancient castle | various parts, and afterwhich crowns a steep rock overhanging a stream. ward made a tour of Italy. There is a beautiful church, the Chiesa Matrice, She was very successful at here. Caltabelotta was long a Saracen town, and its Covent Garden, in 1892, in name is said to be derived from Kalaat-el-Ballut Cavalleria Rusticana and ("the castle of the cork trees”). Population, 6,178. L'Amico Fritz, and ap
EMMA CALVÉ. CALTANISETTA, province and city of central peared in both, by comSicily; the province lies west of Girgenti and south mand, before the Queen, in July, 1893. She made an of Palermo. Its southern side is washed by the American tour in 1894 and another in 1896, both Mediterranean. There are manufactures of chemi- highly successful. cals and iron, marble-quarries, and olive and grape CALVERLEY, CHARLES STUART, English paryards. Area, 1,455 square miles. Population in odist; born Dec. 22, 1831; died at Folkestone, Feb. 1891, 266,379. The city, capital of the province, is
He was educated at Harrow, Oxford and fortified, and is situated 28 miles N. E. of Girgenti. Cambridge, and in 1865 was called to the bar, and Sulphur springs and works are here. Population in settled in London, but a fall on the ice in the winter 1893, 36,500.
of 1866–67 put an end to what promised to be an CALTHA, a genus of plants belonging to the exceptionally brilliant career. One of the most family Ranunculacea, found in marshy places in the gifted and scholarly men of his time, and unrivaled cold and temperate regions of both hemispheres. as a humorist, Calverley will be remembered by his C. palustris is the common " marsh-marigold," or two little volumes, Verses and Translations (1862) “cowslips,” of the United States. It bears some
and Fly- Leaves (1872). what kidney-shaped leaves and showy yellow flowers CALVERT. For an account of GEORGE CALVERT, in early spring. The young plants are boiled for first Lord Baltimore, see CalvERT, Vol. IV, p. 713. — "greens.
CECIL CALVERT, second Lord Baltimore, was born CALTHROP CALTHORP, in military about 1603, and succeeded to his father's title in warfare, a piece of iron with four prongs, each 1632. In 1634 he sent an expedition to his Amerprong about four inches in length, used to check the ican territory, under the charge of his brother, Leonapproach of the enemy's cavalry. See HERALDRY, ard, and thus became the real founder of the colony Vol. XI, p. 703.
of Maryland. (See MARYLAND, Vol. XV, p. 605.) CALTROP, a name applied in botany to certain LEONARD CALVERT, the first governor of the colony,
CALVERT - CAMBERWELL BEAUTY
was born about 1606, and died in 1647. The title a frightful animal sent by the goddess Artemis to became extinct upon the death of FREDERICK CAL- lay waste the fields of Eneus, king of Calydon, VERT, the seventh Lord Baltimore, in 1771.
because he had omitted a sacrifice to her. The CALVERT, GEORGE Henry, author; born in king being absent on the Argonautic expedition, no Prince George County, Maryland, Jan. 2, 1803; died one dared to face the monster, until Meleager, the in Newport, Rhode Island, May 24, 1889. He was son of Eneus, with a band of heroes, pursued and a great-grandson of the first Lord Baltimore. Hav. slew him. ing graduated at Harvard, he studied at Göttingen, CALYMENE, a genus of the fossil order TriloGermany, and on his return resided in the neigh- bites, found in the Silurian rocks. Calymene Bluborhood of Baltimore, edited the Baltimore Amer- | menbachii, known as the “ Dudley locust,” is very ican, and then removed to Newport, Rhode Island, abundant in the Wenlock limestone. See GEOLOGY, and in 1853 became mayor of that city. He wrote
Vol. X, p. 335. for periodicals and published numerous dramas, CALYPSO BOREALIS, a beautiful orchid of the
ALIS pamphlets and books, among which are Scenes and northern hemisphere, extending in the United States Thoughts in Europe; Life of Rubens; Introduction to from the north Atlantic states to Colorado and OreSocial Science; and Biographic Æsthetic Studies. gon, and throughout British America. It is a low,
CALVERT, a city, the old capital of Robertson bog herb, with a single thin ovate or cordate radical County, central Texas, about 85 miles N.E. of Aus- leaf, a scaly stem, and a solitary drooping rose-coltin, on the Houston and Texas Central railroad. It ored flower mottled with purple, appearing in early contains manufactories of cottonseed-oil, and is spring. the business center of a fertile agricultural district. CALYPTRÆA, a genus of mollusks, sometimes Population 1890, 2,632.
popularly known as chambered cup-and-saucer, bonCALVI, Felix, COUNT, Italian historian; born in net or slipper limpets. It is the typical genus of Milan, Dec. 16, 1822. His first work was a novel, the family Capulidæ. The shapes vary considerably.. Un Château dans la Campagne Romaine. In a short Some ten living species are known, mostly from time he abandoned novel-writing and devoted him- warmer waters. See Mollusca, Vol. XVI, pp. 649, self to the study of history. In 1871 he founded the 650. Historical Society of Lombardy, of which he has CALYX, in botany the external envelope of the since been president. Among his many writings flower. See BOTANY, Vol. IV, p. 131. the more important are Di Ansonio Franchi e della CAM OR GRANTA, a river of England, which Filosofa Contemporanea; Curiosità Storiche e Diplo- rises near Henham in Essex and flows northeast matiche del Secolo XVII; and Bianca Maria Sforza through Cambridge and there joins the Ouse. In Visconti Regina dei Romani.
its course it passes through the handsome park of CALVO, CARLOS, an Argentine lawyer, diplomat the Nevilles, Barons Braybrooke, at Audley End, and author; born in Buenos Ayres, Feb. 26, 1824; and completes the picturesque scenery of the “backs” in 1860 minister to Paris and special representative of the colleges of Cambridge University. See Camto London; in 1885 minister to Berlin; an officer BRIDGE, Vol. IV, pp. 728, 729. of the Legion of Honor, and correspondent of the CAMARGUE, a district at the mouth of the Historical Institute of Paris and of the Academy Rhone, France. See BOUCHES-DU-RHONE, Vol. IV, of Sciences. He has published An Account of the p. 169. Treaties, Conventions and Other Diplomatic Acts of CAMARILLA, a Spanish word, literally, “ a little the Latin-American States; Theory and Practice of chamber," signifies, throughout Europe, the influence International Law; and Dictionary of Diplomacy and exercised on the state by the favorites of a monarch, Private and Public International Law.
in opposition to the advice of his legitimate minisCALX, a Latin term for quicklime. As quick ters. It first obtained this meaning in the time of lime is produced by burning limestone, the alche Ferdinand VII of Spain. It is sometimes applied mists applied the term calx to the substance of a to the audience-room of the king. metal or mineral that remains after being subjected CAMASSIA, a bulbous genus of the family Liliacea. to extreme heat and calcination.
The white or blue flowers are in racemes on a naked CALYCANTHUS, a genus' of Calycanthaceæ; a scape rising from a cluster of linear flat leaves. L. small order, of which only a few species are known, esculenta of the mountains of the northwestern United natives of North America and Japan. They are States is the “camass,” or “quamash," of the Indians, square-stemmed, aromatic shrubs, with purple flow- the bulb being largely collected by them for food. ers which have the odor of strawberries. The most C. Fraseri (Scilla Fraseri) is a species of the Atlantic common species in the United States is Calycanthus states, often called “wild hyacinth.”
The genus is floridus, called “Carolina allspice," or “sweet- closely related to Scilla, or “squills,” of Europe. scented shrub."
CAMAYEU AND MONOCHROME, terms by CALYCIFLORÆ, a term introduced by De Can- which painting in one color is designated. The dolle to include those natural orders of dicotyledons ancients made them both in gray and in red. Picin which the sepals and petals are separate, as in
tures of several tints, but where the natural colors of Thalamiflora, but in which the stamens, instead of the object are not copied, are also said to be en being hypogynous are perigynous or epigynous. camayeu. As one color generally prevails, we speak It includes the Leguminosa, Rosaceve, Saxifragacea of blue, red, yellow, green camayeu. The word is and other related orders.
sometimes used for cameo. CALYDONIAN BOAR, in Grecian mythology
CAMBERWELL BEAUTY (Vanessa Antiopa), a
THE WASHINGTON ELM.
butterfly almost world-wide in range. In America commercial importance. Cambridgeport, lying be.
CAMBIST, an Italian word for money-changer,
CAMBIUM, an embryonic meristem tissue, coinposed of thin-walled cells rich in protoplasm, and lying between the wood and bast. By its activity new wood and bast are formed, increasing the member in diameter. It is characteristic of the stems of dicotyledons and gymnosperms, resulting in the production of the growth-rings (annual rings). When bark is peeled off, the line of easy separation is furnished by the cambium. See BOTANY, Vol. IV,
CAMBRIA, the ancient name of Wales, the Bri-
the most recently settled portion of the city, contains
CAMBRIDGE, a village, capital of Isanti County,
CAMBRIDGE, a village, capital of Henry County, ton Academy. The Cambridge valley agricultural
road are located here. Population 1890, 4,361.
miles W. of Richmond, on the Cleveland, Cincinrounded by an iron fence, marked with a granite nati, Chicago and St. Louis, the Lake Erie and slab, which records that "Under this tree Washing- Western, and the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago and ton first took command of the American army, July St. Louis railroads. It contains extensive manufac3, 1775.” North Cambridge is a district of much tories of railroad cars, machinery, furniture, sash and
CAMBRIDGE GREENSAND-CAMEL'S HAIR
blinds, flour and lumber. It is the northern terminus | Cortland and Northern railroads. It contains imof the Whitewater Canal. Population 1890, 1,782. portant manufactories of leather, furniture, woolen
CAMBRIDGE GREENSAND, a name given to goods, rakes and iron, and has several vegetable and certain “coprolite beds” met with in Cambridge-fruit canning factories. Population 1890, 1,902. shire, which were at one time supposed to represent CAMDEN, a town, capital of Camden County, the upper greensand. The beds in question are northeast North Carolina, on the Pasquotauk River, now ascertained to occur on the horizon of the base 42 miles S. of Norfolk, on the Norfolk and Southof the chalk marl. See COPROLITES, Vol. VI, p. 353. ern railroad. Population 268, in 1890.
CAMBRIDGE PLATFORM, a statement of a CAMDEN, a town, capital of Kershaw County, system of government for the Congregational Church, central northern South Carolina, i mile E. of the drawn up at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1648. Wateree River and 32 miles N.E. of Columbia, on The system was to be a means of bringing uniform- the Ohio River, and Chattanooga and the South ity into the Church government. A wide difference Carolina and Georgia railroads. Ancient Indian existed among the New England Congregationalists. mounds are found in the vicinity. It is an importThis system, in general, is the same as now in use tant educational and trade center. During the Civil by the Church.
War it was captured by General Sherman, and large CAMBUSLANG, a large mining village of Lan- stores of cotton and tobacco and most of the busiarkshire, Scotland, 4 miles S.E. of Glasgow. Here ness houses were burned. Population 1890, 3,533. a revival, known as the “Camb’slang Wark," was See CAMDEN, Vol. IV, p. 734. held under Whitefield in 1741. Population, 5,538. CAMDEN, a town, capital of Benton County, west
CAMDEN, a town, capital of Wilcox County, Tennessee, 87 miles W. of Nashville, on the Nashsouthwest Alabama, 4 miles S. of the Alabama ville, Chattanooga and St. Louis railroad. PopuRiver, 36 miles S.W. from Selma. An academy and lation 330, in 1890. seminary are located here. Population 1890, 545. CAMDEN SOCIETY, an association formed in
CAMDEN, a city, capital of Ouachita County, London, in 1838, for the purpose of publishing central southern Arkansas, situated at the head of historical and other manuscripts of antiquarian or low-water navigation on the Ouachita River, 100 literary interest. The name was taken in honor of miles S.W. of Little Rock, on the St. Louis, Iron William Camden, the historian. The publications Mountain and Southern and the St. Louis South of this society are highly valued. Over 165 volumes western railroads. It is a shipping-point for cotton have been issued. and an important center of trade. Steamboats ply CAMEL, a caisson-like apparatus for floating a between here and New Orleans. It contains several vessel through shoal-water or over sand-bars. establishments for the manufacture of flour. Popu- invented by Bekker of Amsterdam, Holland, about lation 1890, 2,571.
1690. It is often used between Kronstadt and St. CAMDEN, a town of Kent County, central Dela Petersburg. The principle on which it operates is ware, three miles S. of Dover. It is the seat of an very simple. A large, light caisson, or “camel," academy. The chief industry is the canning of nearly filled with water is attached to each end of the fruits. Population 553, in 1890.
vessel to be raised. The water is then pumped out, CAMDEN, a village of Knox County, southern and the buoyancy of the exhausted “camels" floats Maine, on the west shore of Penobscot Bay, about the vessel over the obstruction. Machines made on nine miles N. of Rockland. It contains manufactories the same principle are used in dry-docks. of railroad cars, car-wheels, pumps, spikes, anchors CAMELFORD, a village in the northwest of Cornand woolen goods, and is engaged in commerce, wall, England, 11 miles N. E. of Bodmin, near the ship-building, and the exportation of lime.
source of the Camel, 14 iniles from Launceston. It CAMDEN, a city of Camden County, central lies in a high and hilly tract, and is said to have been western New Jersey, on the Delaware River, opposite the scene of a battle between King Arthur and his Philadelphia, with which it is connected by several nephew, Mordred, A.D. 542, in which both were lines of ferries. It is an important railway city, slain. Population, 800. seven railroads having their termini here; namely, CAMELOPARDALIDÆ. See GIRAFFE, Vol. X, Camden and Amboy, Camden and Burlington pp. 618-620. County, Camden and Atlantic, Philadelphia and CAMELOT, a steep hill of Somersetshire, EngAtlantic City, West Jersey and Camden, Gloucester land, near Ilchester, in the parish of Queen’s Camel, and Mount Ephraim. The city has increased | identified by tradition with one of the capitals of the rapidly during the last 20 years, both in population legendary King Arthur. There are some remains of and business; in part, however, by annexation of a remote antiquity in the vicinity. portion of Newton. There are located here eight ship
CAMEL'S HAIR, an article of commerce in the yards, with dry-docks, marine railways, etc., iron east of Europe, Arabia and Persia, the camelinum of foundries, boot and shoe factories, and manufactures the middle ages. It is used by the Arabs in making of paints, oils, etc. The water-works which supply carpets, tents ard wearing-apparel. In France, the city with water from the Delaware River are at the imported hair is used in the manufacture of Pavonia, about one mile north of Camden. Popu- hats.
The fine hair from which artists' pencils are lation, 63,467, in 1895.
made is imported from Smyrna and Constantinople, CAMDEN, a village of Oneida County, central but originally was obtained in Persia. There are New York; about 18 miles N.W. of Rome, on the three qualities--red, black and gray. Of these the Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg, and Elmira, 1 black is considered the best. The “camel's hair” 664
cloth sold in some places is in reality woolen. For in the base-board of the camera. This arrangement imitation Camel's Hair, see ABATTÖus in these Sup- secures portability, does away with the troublesome plements.
tripod screw, and enables the operator to instantly CAMEL'S THORN, a name primarily applied to turn the camera toward any desirable point, where species of Alhagi, a genus of plants of the family it may be held rigid by fastenings provided. Leguminosa, containing a number of herbaceous or The introduction and evolution of the hand-camhalf-shrubby species. These plants are of great im- era presents one of the most interesting phases of portance on account of the food which they afford photographic practice. “Its name is legion.” It for camels, as they are natives chiefly of the deserts has contributed much, in careful hands, to photoof the East. (See MANNA, Vol. XV, p. 493.) A. graphic growth and improvement, yet it is responsiMaurorum exudes a sweetish substance, which is one ble for much that degrades and disgusts the true of the numerous mannas" of the Oriental deserts. photographer and his art. Only the most skilled The name is also said to be applied in Persia and can have good success with the “hand” or “snapIndia to a species of Zizyphus used as fodder for shot” camera, unless it be by accident, for it resheep and goats, and in South Africa to various quires the best judgment as to light and composispecies of Acacia browsed upon by giraffes.
tion. CAMENÆ, according to Italian ancient religion Broadly speaking, hand-cameras may be divided four prophetic nymphs, but identified with the into three classes: First, those constructed for glass Muses by later mythology. The most important of plates, to be used in the common plate-holder or in these ancient nymphs was Carmenta; her associates, magazine; second, those adapted for cut films also; Antevorta, Egeria and Postvorta.
and third, those fitted for a roll-holder, adapted CAMERAS. The changes which have been for the use of bands of film sufficiently long for a made in cameras consist principally in adjustments number of exposures. and attachments, and have had for their object the The modification of the camera and its parts for securing of compactness, portability, convenience special uses in the various scientific and industrial and efficiency. The principle of the camera ob-applications of photography offers an interesting scura remains unchanged.
study. The panoramic camera, the photo-microThe introduction of the “square" form of cam- scopic camera, the telescopic camera, the stereoera for outdoor work marks one of the chief ad-scopic camera, the bicycle camera, the multiplying vances. It was common to construct cameras so camera and the pinhole camera (used without a that the view presented upon the ground glass lens) are all ingenious in mechanism, and supply would be “horizontal.” If a "vertical” view—say, admirably the wants of the workmen for whom they of a tree or a tall building-was preferred, the cam- have been designed. See PHOTOGRAPHY, Vol. XVIII, era had to be removed from the stand or tripod and pp. 839, 840.
Edw. L. Wilson. readjusted. This required time; and while it was CAMERON, a hamlet, capital of Cameron Parbeing done, the light upon the scene might change ish, southwest Louisiana, on the east bank of Calor the best chance pass entirely away.
casieu River, 2 miles from the Gulf of Mexico and The newly constructed square camera is provided 90 miles N.E. of Galveston. Population 1890, 941. with a reversible front (or back, according to style), CAMERON, a city of Clinton County, northwest which permits the quick reversal of the plate-holder Missouri, about 29 miles E. of St. Joseph, and 55 miles from a
vertical” to a “horizontal” plane, and vice N.E. of Kansas City. It is an important railroad versa, as the circumstances require. To secure the and trade center, on the Chicago, Rock Island and advantages of such a contrivance, the bulk of the Pacific and the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroads. camera must be increased; but that is no great dis- It is the seat of the Missouri Wesleyan College, advantage. The “revolving-back" camera accom- Population 1890, 2,917. plishes similar advantages, but it is more expensive, CAMERON, a city, capital of Milam County, cenand not so desirable practically.
tral Texas, 60 miles N.E. of Austin, on the Gulf, Modifications have been made in the single and Colorado and Santa Fé and the San Antonio and double swing attachments, which secure greater Aransas Pass railroads. Two colleges, one for men lightness and speedier action. The construction of and the other for women, are located here. Poputhe front board upon which the objective is fixed, lation 1890, 1,608. so that it may be raised or lowered at will, has also CAMERON, ANGUS, statesinan; born in Calebeen so altered as to provide greater facility and donia, Livingston County, New York, July 14, 1826; less cumbersomeness. By the use of the sliding removed to La Crosse, Wisconsin, in 1857; served front the operator regulates the height of the hori- several terms in both branches of the state legislazon in a landscape or the measure of foreground, ture, and for nine years served as regent of the Uniand insures more artistic balance. The folding versity of Wisconsin. From 1875 to 1885 he was platform is sometimes supplemented by an added United States Senator from Wisconsin. extension for use with objectives of very long focus. CAMERON, CHARLES ALEXANDER, Sir, chem
The turn-table camera-base is an important im- ist; born in Dublin, Ireland, July 16, 1830; studied provement, having for its object the displacing of at Dublin and in Gerinany; public analyst to the the loose tripod head. Using this invention, two city of Dublin in 1862; in 1867 professor of hygiene metal flanges, one revolving inside the other (the in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland; since inner flange being fitted with projecting pins which 1876, professor of chemistry in that institution and receive and hold the legs of the tripod) are inserted I in control of the department of health of Dublin.