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He held important offices in British scientific asso- and rose by his own efforts from the drudgery of stableciations. He was knighted in 1886. Besides numer- boy to positions of honor and profit under the Canaous important papers on selenium compounds, he dian government. He began his political career has published History of the Royal College of Sur- in 1836, as representative in the Upper Canada assemgeons in Ireland; Manual of Hygiene and Com- bly, and was successively inspector of revenue, cabipendium of the Sanitary Laws, etc.

net officer, president of the council, Commissioner of CAMERON, HENRY Clay, clergyman and scholar; Public Works, Postmaster-General and member of born in Shepherdstown, Virginia, Sept. 1, 1829; the House of Commons from South Ontario. was graduated in 1847 at Princeton College, and at CAMERON, SIMON, an American statesman; born Princeton Theological Seminary in 1855; elected in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, March 8, 1799; professor of Greek at Princeton in 1861; entered died there, June 26, 1889. He learned the printer's the ministry of the Presbyterian Church in 1859; | trade when only nine years of age, and in 1820 had became a member of the board of visitors of the risen to be editor of a newspaper in Doylestown, West Point Military Academy in 1876. He has Pennsylvania. Two years later he edited another published a History of the American Whig Society paper in Harrisburg. He held the office of adjuand contributed largely to periodical literature. tant-general for his state, and in 1845 was elected

CAMERON, JAMES, soldier ; born in Maytown, by the Democratic party as their representative in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, March 1, 1801; the United States Senate. In 1856, having become killed at the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. He a member of the Republican party, he was sent to entered his brother Simon's printing-office in Harris- the United States Senate. When Abraham Lincoln burg in 1820; edited the Lancaster Political Sentinel was nominated for the Presidency, Senator Cameron in 1827; studied law; served as sutler in the Mexi- was a favorite candidate for the first place on the can War, and was colonel of the Seventy-ninth New ticket, and also for the second ; but the PennsylYork regiment at the outbreak of the Civil War. vania delegation was not agreed, and he failed of

CAMERON, JAMES DONALD, an American states- nomination. President Lincoln called him to his man; son of Simon Cameron ; born in Middletown, Cabinet as Secretary of War. When he served his

Dauphin County, Pennsyl. second term in the Senate his loyalty was questioned vania, May 14, 1833. After on account of his advocacy of peace; but in the graduating at Princeton he Cabinet he urged more aggressive ineasures than the became successively clerk, President was prepared to sanction. He was in favor cashier and president of the of arming fugitive slaves, and instructed General ButMiddletown Bank. He was ler to this effect. In January, 1862, he resigned president of the Northern his position and was sent as minister to Russia, Central Railway Company where he helped in securing the friendship of that of Pennsylvania from 1863 nation at this trying period. He resigned in Noto 1874, when that road vember, 1862, and four years later was returned to the passed into the controland United States Senate. He was elected to a fourth

ownership of the Pennsyl- term, but resigned in his son's favor in 1877. He JAMES DONALD CAMERON. vania Railroad Company, was practically the Republican dictator in his state, Mr. Cameron is also interested in coal, iron and and was called the “Czar of Pennsylvania Politics." manufacturing industries. Under President Grant CAMERON, VERNEY LOVETT, African explorer; he held the portfolio of war in 1876; in 1877 he born near Weymouth, England, in 1844; died March resigned to take his father's place in the United 26, 1894.

26, 1894. He entered the navy in 1857, and served States Senate. He was re-elected Senator in 1879, in the Mediterranean, the West Indies, and the Red 1885 and 1891.

Sea, and on the East Coast of Africa, taking part in CAMERON, JOHN HILLYARD, Canadian states- the Abyssinian expedition and in the suppression of man ; born in Beaucaire, Languedoc, France, April the slave trade. In 1872 (see AFRICA, Vol. I, p. 249), 14, 1817; died in Toronto, Nov. 14, 1876. He he was appointed to the command of an East was educated at Kilkenny College, Ireland, and Coast expedition to relieve Livingstone; and startin Toronto; entered the legal profession; was ing from Bagamoyo in March, 1873, in August, at elected to the Canadian Parliament in 1846, and Unyanyembe, he met Livingstone's followers bearappointed Solicitor-General in the same year. He ing his remains to the coast (see GEOGRAPHY, Vol. X, served for 16 years in the legislative body, and dur- p. 194). After making arrangements for their safe ing that time was a prominent mover in a number arrival, he proceeded to Ujiji, where he found some of important bills, one of which secured better of Livingstone's papers and a map, which he forpostal facilities between Canada, Great Britain and warded to Zanzibar.

He then made a survey of the United States. He was the author of several Lake Tanganyika, which he found to be disconlegal works, including Rules of Court Relating to nected with the Nile system. Taking a southerly Pleading in the Court of Queen's Bench. He was one route, he reached the Portuguese settlement of Benof the commissioners appointed for the revision of guela, on the West Coast, Nov. 7,1875, thus being the the statutes of Upper Canada in 1840, and the con- first European to cross Africa from east to west, and solidation of the statutes in 1856.

returned to England. Created a commander of the CAMERON, MALCOLM, Canadian statesman; born Bath and raised to the naval rank of commander in at Three Rivers, Canada East, April 25, 1808; died in 1878, he traveled overland to India, and in 1882, Ottawa, June 1, 1876. He was entirely self-educated with Sir Richard Burton, he visited the Gold Coast.

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666

CAMERONIAN REGIMENT-CAMPANULARIA

An agree

Among his works are Across Africa (1877) and Our | Their kings, Bell and Akway, practically wholesale
Future Highway to India (1880).

merchants, made considerable trouble by their refusal
CAMERONIAN REGIMENT, a name given to to permit the natives of the interior to trade directly
the Twenty sixth Regiment of British infantry, which with Europeans. As England declined to assume
had its origin in a body of Cameronians. In 1689 the protectorate, the Germans were appealed to, and
the convention at Edinburgh, taking advantage of on July 14, 1884, the German flag was hoisted at
the zeal and courage of the members of this religious Cameroon and a governor appointed.
body, induced a number of them to assist in the ment was concluded in April, 1893, settling the
Revolution, on the understanding that the special boundary between the territory and the Niger Coast
object of the corps was to recover and establish the Protectorate. In the same year a German expedi-
work of reformation in Scotland. The regiment, tion, under Baron Vechtritz, arrived at Yola, on the
with the youthful Lord Angus as colonel and William River Benué, and were received by the Emir in the
Cleland, the poet, as lieutenant-colonel and actual most friendly manner. The district covers an area
commander, was sent northward to quell the insur- of about 130,000 square miles, and the population
rection. On Aug. 21, 1689, the Cameronians, 1,200 is estimated at about 2,500,000. In 1894 there were
strong, defended themselves against 5,000 High- 231 whites, of whom 153 were Germans. In 1893-94
landers, and although Cleland fell early in the fight, the revenue was about $150,000. The chief town is
his work was accomplished; for, in Macaulay's Cameroons. See CAMEROONS, Vol. IV, p. 742; also
words, “the Cameronians had finished the war." AFRICA, in these Supplements.
See CAMERON, RICHARD, Vol. IV, p. 742.

CAMILLA, a town, capital of Mitchell County, CAMERONIANS, a religious body in Scotland, southwest Georgia, 26 miles S. of Albany, on the followers of Richard Cameron, officially called Re Savannah, Florida and Western railroad. Populaformed Presbyterians. In 1681, societies were organ- tion 1890, 866. ized bearing the names of the districts to which they CAMLET, properly a fabric made from the hair belonged, for the purpose of defense against the of the Angora goat. It is also made wholly of wool, oppression of the government, and for the mainte- or of wool mixed with cotton or linen, and spun nance of worship. They refused to accept the indul- hard. Marco Polo mentions the fabric as among gence granted to the Presbyterian clergy in the times the products of Tibet. The cloth is still made in of Charles II (see PRESBYTERIANISM, Vol. XIX, p. the Afghanistan countries. The imitation is made 684), lest by accepting they should be understood to in England and America. recognize his ecclesiastical authority. The political CAMOMILE-FLOWERS. See CHAMOMILE, position of the Cameronians was very peculiar, since, Vol. V, p. 384. declining to recognize any laws or institutions which CAMORRA, the name of a secret society in the they conceived to be inimical to those of the king- former kingdom of Naples, under the Bourbon govdom of Christ, they refused to take the oath of ernment, the members of which were called Camallegiance. In 1860 there was an attempt to pre- orristi." It was first publicly known about 1820. vent the members exercising the franchise, but in It had a central rendezvous in every large provincial 1863 it was decided not to exercise discipline to the town, and twelve such in the city of Naples; and extent of suspension and expulsion on such ques- for each of these sections there was a chief, with tions. In consequence of this decision, to which powers of absolute command, and a treasurer with the majority adhered, 10 or 12 congregations se- charge of the common fund. This organization, ceded. ' In 1876 the larger body, known as the partly political and partly of the nature of a standReformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland, formally ing vigilance committee, plundered and terrorized united with the Free Church. The principles of the the country for many years. It was tolerated under Cameronians are now, therefore, distinctively repre- King Ferdinand II, for political reasons, but the sented by the few congregations which seceded in government of Francis II endeavored to put down 1863. See, for an account of the founder, CAMERON, the society, and the police received instructions to RICHARD, Vol. IV, p. 742.

seize and transport all known members of it. Those CAMEROON, a German colony on the West Coast who remained entered into alliance with the Gariof Africa, extending along 15° E. long. from the baldian committee, and essentially aided in the exCross River to the mouth of the Rio del Rey, pulsion of the Bourbons. The organization still below 3° N. lat. The name is derived from the retains a nominal existence, but is of no importance. Cameroon River, which enters the Bight of Biafra, CAMPANULA (“a little bell”), a genus of plants opposite Fernando Po, by an estuary over 20 miles of the family Campanulacea, including the bluebell wide. Thestream is for a considerable distance nearly or harebell, the canterbury-bell, etc. Commonly a mile broad, has at some seasons a current of five called “bell-flowers” in the United States. See miles an hour, and its yellow waters may be traced | HAREBELL, Vol. XI, p. 478. far out at sea. The country is very fertile, abound- CAMPANULARIA, a common genus of hydroids ing in ebony, redwood and palm trees, and a variety and type of a family, Campanularidæ (see HYDROof tropical fruits, while the production of cotton and zoa, Vol. XII, p. 561).

zoa, Vol. XII, p. 561). The delicate steam bearing ivory is very considerable. More recently planta- the colony of polyps may be simple or branched; tions of tobacco and cacao have been established. the nutritive individuals are surrounded by transThe climate is very trying to Europeans, and traders parent, bell-shaped sheaths, within which they may generally live in hulks, and only store their goods be retracted. The genus is common in north Euro

shore. The natives belong to the Bantu group. pean seas and in the Mediterranean.

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CAMPARDON-CAMPBELL

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CAMPARDON, Émile, French author; born in born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, Aug. 12, 1843; Paris, July 18, 1834; since 1884 chief of the bureau died in Middletown, New York, July 30, 1888. He of legislature and judiciary in the office of the began the study of law, which he relinquished, and beArchives of the Empire; received the decoration of came a Leader reporter. He founded The Evening the Legion of Honor in 1888. His writings relative Mail of Pittsburg in 1868, The Southern Magazine of to the eighteenth century and the French Revolution New Orleans in 1867, and three years later was official are the most important of his works. Among these reporter of the Louisiana house of representatives. are Histoire du Tribunal Révolutionaire de Paris; He took up the writing of dramatic pieces in 1871, Madame du Pompadour et la Cour de Louis XV; and among his plays are the following: Through Voltaire, Documents Inédits; L'Académie Royale de Fire; Peril; Fate; The Virginian; On the Rhine; Musique au XVIIIe siècle; and, in conjunction with an adaptation of the German comedy Ultimo, which M. Boutaric, Les Mémoires de Frédéric II

he named The Big Bonanza; Heroine in Rags; How CAMPBELL, an ancient and illustrious Scottish Women Love; My Partner; The White Slave; My family, to which genealogists have chosen to assign Geraldine; and Paquita. The Big Bonanza netted an Anglo-Norman origin, deriving its surname from a San Francisco theater $16,000 in a month. My the Latin De Campo Bello. According, however, to Partner achieved success in New York, being the the Duke of Argyle, it is purely Celtic, of Scoto- first of Mr. Campbell's plays which gave satisfaction Irish origin; and Cambel, as the name was always in that city. In 1886 the author became insane. formerly written, is just the Celtic cam beul, “curved CAMPBELL, DOUGLAS, lawyer; born in Cherry mouth.” See ARGYLESHIRE, Vol. II, pp. 498-500. Valley, New York, in 1839; died in Schenectady,

CAMPBELL, ALEXANDER, an Irish divine; born New York, March 7, 1893. He was graduated at at the historical Shane's Castle, County Antrim, Ire- Union College in 1860; took part in the Civil War, land, Sept. 12, 1788; died in Bethany, West Vir- attaining the rank of major; began the practice of ginia, March 4, 1866. He was educated at the law in New York City in 1866. He retired from Glasgow University. His father, Thomas, came to active practice a few years before his death. He this country in 1807, and ministered to destitute published The Puritan in Holland, England and congregations in western Pennsylvania. Following America: An Introduction to American History. his father in 1809, he became pastor of a Presbyterian CAMPBELL, Douglas HOUGHTON, an American church in Washington County, Pennsylvania. The botanist; born in Detroit, Michigan, Dec. 16, 1859; father and son became dissatisfied with Calvinistic was graduated at the University of Michigan and studdoctrines, and in 1810 organized a church at Brush ied in Germany, at Bonn and Tübingen; from 1888 Run, Pennsylvania, whose creed was the Bible and to 1891 professor of botany at Indiana University; whose form of baptism was immersion. Alexander later at Stanford University as professor of botany. Campbell in 1827 organized the church which is He has published, among other writings, The Develvariously called “Disciples of Christ,” “ Christians," opment of the Ostrich Fern; Elements of Structural “Church of Christ,” and “Campbellites.” The sect and Systematic Botany; and Mosses and Ferns, which increased in numbers, and in 1880 had a member- appeared in 1895, and is taken as an authoritative ship of 500,000. Its founder was in 1823 the editor work on that subject. of The Christian Baptist, afterward called The Mil- CAMPBELL, Sir George, British statesman; lennial Harbinger. Mr. Campbell believed slavery born in 1824; died in Cairo, Egypt, Feb. 18, 1892. permissible to Christians, and according to Scrip- He entered the service of the East India Company tural authority. He wrote much for the religious | in 1842; held several important offices in India, press, and published many religious books, among among them that of chief commissioner of the Cenwhich are Christian System; Living Oracles; Chris- tral Provinces; in 1871 was appointed lieutenanttian Baptism: Its Antecedents and Consequents; Lec- governor of Bengal; in 1875 entered Parliament. tures on the Pentateuch. His published works num- He published several successful works, including ber 60 volumes. In 1840-41 he founded Bethany Modern India ; White and Black in the United States; College, of which he was the first president, holding and The British Empire. this office until his death.

CAMPBELL, GEORGE WASHINGTON, an American CAMPBELL, SIR ALEXANDER, Canadian states- statesman; born in Tennessee in 1768; died in Nashman; born in Yorkshire, England, in 1822; died ville, Feb. 17, 1848. He graduated at Princeton in May 22, 1892. He came to Canada when a boy, 1794; served in Congress from 1803 to 1809 as Repreand in 1843 was called to the bar of Upper Canada. sentative, and from 1811 to 1814 as Senator; became In 1856 he was created queen's counsel. He sat Secretary of the Treasury in 1814; elected to the in the legislative council of Canada before the union. Senate in 1815; was appointed minister to Russia In 1867 he took office under Sir John Macdonald, in 1818; and appointed a member of the French first as Postmaster-General and afterward as Minister Claims Commission in 1831. of the Interior. In 1878 he was Postmaster-General CAMPBELL, HELEN STUART, an American auand Minister of Militia in the Liberal-Conservative thoress; born in Lockport, New York, July 4, 1839. administration. Entering the Senate he became She was educated in Warren, Rhode Island, and at leader of the government party in that body; in 1881 Mrs. Cook's Seminary in Bloomfield, New Jersey. was made Minister of Justice, and in 1885 Postmas- She began at an early age to contribute sketches to ter-General. In 1887 he became lieutenant-governor the newspapers, and made a study of the housekeepof Ontario.

ing problem, employments for women, and the conCAMPBELL, BARTLEY, an American dramatist; dition of the poor in cities. Among her books are

668

CAMPBELL-CAMPBELLITES

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Unto the Third and Fourth Generation; The Problemi | him a charge of heresy, which led to his deposition of the Poor; Mrs. Herndon's Income; What-to-do by the General Assembly in 1831. (See ScotClub; Under Green Apple Boughs.

LAND, Vol. XXI, p. 538.) For 26 years he preached CAMPBELL, JABEZ Pitt, an African Methodist quietly, without remuneration, to a regular congreEpiscopal bishop; born Feb. 5, 1815; died Aug. 9, gation that gathered round him in Glasgow. His 1891. He was by birth a slave; escaped to Phila- health failing, the remainder of his life was spent in delphia, where he was educated; entered the minis- | retirement.

retirement. In 1868 his university gave him the try in 1837; was very successful, preaching in pulpits degree of D.D., and in 1871 a testimonial and adin all the larger cities of the United States; was con- dress were presented to him by men of nearly every secrated bishop in 1864; in 1887 was bishop of religious denomination in Scotland. He was the North Carolina, Virginia and Maryland; made author of three of the most valuable of modern Engseveral visits to Europe, representing the African lish theological books: Christ the Bread of Life Methodist Church in important international Metho- (1851); The Nature of the Atonement (1856); and dist conferences. He held the most important Thoughts on Revelation (1862). offices in his church, and to him is attributed much CAMPBELL, LEWIS, Greek scholar; born Sept. of its success.

3, 1830, in Scotland; educated at Glasgow and OxCAMPBELL, JAMES, an American public man; ford universities; was tutor in Balliol College under born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Sept. 1, 1822; Professor Benjamin Jowett; ordained a minister of died there, Jan. 27, 1893. He became a lawyer; was the Church of England in 1857; appointed professor judge of the court of common pleas from 1841 to of Greek in the University of St. Andrews in 1863. 1850; attorney-general of the state in 1852; and He has edited and published numerous works on appointed Postmaster-General in 1853.

classical subjects, among which are The Theatetus of CAMPBELL, JOHN ARCHIBALD, an American Plato; Sophocles; Plays and Fragments; contributed jurist; born in Washington, Georgia, June 24, 1811; the articles on Plato and Sophocles in the Encydied in Baltimore, Maryland, March 12, 1889. He CLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA, and has written many graduated at the State University in 1826, and was papers for British and foreign periodicals.

. admitted to the bar by special act of legislature, as at CAMPBELL, THOMAS, clergyman; born in Irethe time he passed his legal examination he was a land, Feb. 1, 1763; died in Bethany, West Virginia, minor. Upon removing to Montgomery, Alabama, Jan. 4, 1854. The Campbells of Argyle were his he practiced law, and frequently sat in the legislature. ancestors. He studied at Glasgow University, and President Pierce gave him the appointment of associ- was trained for the ministry under the Scottish esate justice of the United States supreme court, and tablishment. Soon after becoming a minister, he this office he held from 1853 to 1861. He believed joined the “seceders,” and then sailed for the in the right of secession, but opposed the Civil War. United States. He identified himself with the AssoUnder the Confederacy he was assistant secretary of ciate Synod of North America and assumed the care war. The Peace Commission of February, 1865, of destitute churches in western Pennsylvania. His which met at Fortress Monroe, numbered him as son joined him in 1809, and thereafter the two were one of the Southern representatives. After the Con- united in church work, organizing the “Disciples of federacy had been abolished, he was arrested and Christ,” or “Campbellites.” He labored to assist detained in Fort Pulaski; when discharged he re- his son until blindness and the infirmities of age sumed the practice of law.

obliged him to give up work. CAMPBELL, JOHN FRANCIS, Scottish folk-lorist; CAMPBELL-BANNERMAN, HENRY, British born at Islay, Scotland, Dec. 29, 1822; died at Cannes, statesman; was born in 1836, and was educated at France, Feb. 17, 1885. Educated at Eton and the the University of Glasgow and at Trinity College, University of Edinburgh; he held offices at court, Cambridge. In 1872 he assumed the additional and was afterward secretary to the lighthouse and surname of Bannerman, under the will of an uncle. coal commissions. Much of his life was spent in Mr. Campbell-Bannerman has represented the Stirtravel.

He was an enthusiastic Highlander, a pro- ling district of boroughs in the Liberal interest found Gaelic scholar, and a man of singularly since December, 1868; he was financial secretary at lovable nature. An obelisk was raised to his memory the War Office from 1871 to 1874; was again apin 1887 on the summit of Choc-na-Dab, a hill in pointed to that office in 1880; and in May, 1882, Islay, near his birthplace. Campbell's great work was nominated to succeed Mr. Trevelyan as Secreis his Popular Tales of the West Highlands (4 | tary to the Admiralty. On the resignation of Mr. vols., Edinburgh, 1860-62), a very important | Trevelyan he was appointed Chief Secretary for Irecontribution to the scientific study of folk-tales. land, 1884-85; and in Mr. Gladstone's third cabi-He gave much attention also to scientific studies, net, 1886, held the office of Secretary of State for and published several scientific works.

War, a position to which he was again called on the CAMPBELL, JOHN MCLEOD, Scottish theolo- return of his chief to power in 1892. He was called gian; born at Kilninver, in Argyle, in 1800; died to occupy the same office in the Rosebery cabinet at Roseneath, Feb. 27, 1872. Sent to Glasgow of 1894, retiring with that cabinet in 1895. Soon University at the age of eleven, he was licensed to after he was elected member of Parliament for the preach by the presbytery of Lorne in 1821, and was Stirling, Scotland, district. ordained minister of Row, near Helensburg, in 1825. CAMPBELLITES, the popular name for a reli. His views on the personal assurance of salvation and gious order founded in 1811 by Alexander Campbell. on the universality of the atonement brought upon See DISCIPLES OF Christ, in these Supplements.

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CAMPBELL ISLAND-CAMTOOS

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CAMPBELL ISLAND, a lonely spot of volcanic meetings became especially prominent. The pracorigin to the south of New Zealand, discovered in tice of holding such meetings originated in 1799, 1810 by the captain of a whaling-vessel, who gave it and is still common. Lorenzo Dow introduced the the name of the owners of his vessel. It is in lat. system of camp-meetings in England about 1801, 52° 34' S., and long. 169° 62' E. It was used as an which led to the formation of the Primitive Methodobservatory during the transit of Venus in 1874.

ist Society. Though it is mountainous, portions rising to a height CAMPOAMOR, RAMON DE, Spanish poet, philoof 1,498 feet, and measures only 36 miles around, it sopher and statesman; born in Navia in 1817; has valuable harbors and a rich and rare flora. went to Madrid to study medicine, but devoted him

CAMPBELL'S STATION, a hamlet of Knox self to literature and politics; was appointed goverCounty, southeast Tennessee, 12 miles S.W. of Nash- nor of Alicante and Valencia ; was for several years ville. Here, in November, 1863, the Union forces a member of the Cortes, or government assembly. under Burnside defeated the Confederates under There he distinguished himself as an orator. After Longstreet.

the revolution of 1868, in which he took part with CAMPBELLSVILLE, a town, capital of Taylor the royalists, he became Minister of the Interior; County, central Kentucky, 18 miles S. of Leb- upon the restoration of Alphonso XII he became anon, on the Louisville and Nashville railroad. Counselor of State. Among his published poetical Tobacco warehouses are here. Population 1890, works are Ayes del Alma; Los Pequeños Poemas, and 1,018.

Oeuvres Poétiques. Among his philosophical writings CAMPBELL WEB PERFECTING PRESS. See are Filosofia de las Leyes; Polemicas con la DemocraPrinting-Presses, in these Supplements.

cia; and El Idealismo, CAMPHILENE, an artificial variety of camphor CAMPOBELLO, an island belonging to New obtained from turpentine, by acting thereon with Brunswick. It is situated off the coast of Maine, at the dry vapor of hydrochloric acid, and keeping the the mouth of the Passamaquoddy Bay, about two whole at a low temperature by immersing the vessel miles from Eastport. It is 9 miles long, and from in a freezing mixture. A solid substance is pro

i to 3 miles wide. It is a popular summer resort, duced which separates in white crystalline prisms, and contains some of the finest hotels on the coast. and has the taste and agreeable aromatic smell of Lead and coal are found in the island. The chief common natural camphor.

industry is fishing. Population, about 1,200. CAMPHINE OR CAMPHENE, a term applied in CAMPO DE CRIPTANA, a town of south-cencommerce to purified oil of turpentine, obtained by tral Spain, in the province of and about 50 miles carefully distilling the oil over quicklime, or by N. E. of the city of Ciudad Real. It has manufacrectifying it over dry chlorid of lime to render it tories of coarse cloths, and some trade in corn and quite free from resin. It was formerly much used fruits. Population, 5,255. for fluid in lamps, but being very volatile, and when CAMPO-FORMIO, a village of northern Italy, mixed with air very explosive, it was discarded as six miles S.W. of Udine, celebrated for the treaty of soon as kerosene was introduced.

peace here concluded, Oct. 17, 1797, between CAMPIDOGLIO, PALAZZO DEL, the name of a Austria and the French Republic. See AUSTRIA, palace in Rome which stands between the palaces Vol. III, p. 131; also NAPOLEON, Vol. XVII, p. 200. “of the senators" and “of the conservators.' CAMPOS, ARSENIO MARTINEZ. See MARThese three palaces were built by Della Porta, but TINEZ-CAMPOS, in these Supplements. designed by Michael Angelo. They stand upon the CAMPOS, SÃO SALVADOR DOS, a city in the place once occupied by the ancient capitol. In its Brazilian province of Rio de Janeiro, 150 N.E. construction were used colossal columns which ex- of Rio de Janeiro City; situated on the Paratend the height of two stories, and which are best hyba, which is navigable for small craft to this expressed in the architectural term colossal order. point, 30 miles from its mouth. It has fine

CAMPINAS, SAN CARLOS DE, a city of southern wharves, and considerable trade in coffee, sugar, Brazil, situated on a fertile plain, 44 miles N.W. of brandy and timber. Population, 40,000. of São Paulo. There are large coffee and sugar CAMPUS MARTIUS, now the most crowded plantations in the surrounding district. Population, part of modern Rome. See Rome, Vol. XX, p. 35,000.

807; also MARS, Vol. XV, p. 570. CAMPION, the common name of plants belong- CAMPVEER, a fortified town of the Nethering to the genera Lychnis and Silene, of the family lands, in the province of Zealand, in Walcheren Caryophyllacea, to which family belong, also, the Island, four miles N. E. of Middleburg.

It has a * common "pinks.” The common “campions of port on the Veersche

at, a tract of water sepathe United States are S. stellata, starry campion,” rating Walcheren from North Beveland. The and S. inflata, bladder-campion."

town is now in a state of deplorable decay, but it CAMP-MEETINGS, gatherings of religious still possesses a splendid cathedral and remnants organizations, held usually in thinly populated dis- of its early prosperity. It has one calico factory. tricts, and generally continued for a week or more, Historically it is one of the most interesting of with a view of securing prolonged and uninter

Dutch towns. Here William III, Prince of rupted religious exercises." Assemblies of like kind Orange, was first proclaimed stadholder. Pophave been more or less usual at various periods in ulation, 900. the history of the Christian Church; but it was in

CAMTOOS OR GAMTOOS, a river of the connection with Methodism in America that such east division of Cape Colony, Africa, 200 miles in

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