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ening, deepening and widening where necessary, sterdam with the North Sea, and 17.9 miles long, and by the use of dams that can be lowered in is undergoing enlargement to a bottom width of the flood seasons. Where the prism is not suffi- 82 feet and a depth of 27.9 feet, to be completed ciently scoured by the natural flow of the stream, in 1896. There are tidal locks at the North Sea it may be cheaply maintained by the hydraulic or entrance and at the Zuider Zee end, and the other type of dredge. The canal proper is thus

The canal proper is thus | founding of these works on a most difficult soil is measurably limited to the summits between water- of interest. courses and to overcoming rapids and falls. It The Manchester ship-canal is a very ambitious will be seen that the old location along the foot attempt to make a seaport of the city of Manof the slopes of the valley, with embankments, chester for that part of the seagoing business aqueducts, waste-weirs and other artificial works, formerly transacted at Liverpool for Manchester expensive to maintain and always subject to risk and the surrounding district. The works have of failure and to interruptions of traffic, with been carried out under much financial vicissitude complicated problems of seepage and feeders, is and with some set-backs, due to failing contractors largely done away with.

and unprecedented floods, and were opened in The desirability of high lifts, in order to save

1893. The canal extends from the estuary of the time in lockage, and the increased capacity, still Mersey, at Eastham, a distance of 35 72 miles, to demands the fullest resources in providing feed the heart of Manchester, rising some 70 feet above water at summits, but, happily, the important mean sea-level by means of five locks, one of routes of the future lie over the deeper passes which is a tide-lock, at the entrance. It is generto which large areas may be made tributary; and, ally 120 feet wide on the bottom and the depth is again, much consideration is being given to barge. 26 feet, and the locks are 600 feet long and 65 lifts designed to overcome large elevations with a feet wide. The excavation of nearly 7,000,000 minimum use of water. These have proven very cubic yards of rock, much of it of a friable charserviceable on the smaller type of canal, but it is acter, and over 40,000,000 cubic yards of earth, doubtful whether the conditions will invite their was required. It is crossed by many bridges, use to the same extent on canals of large capacity. mostly high level, with clear headway of 75 feet,

In the way of ship-canals proper for maritime so as to permit passage of vessels with top-masts rather than domestic uses, the past twenty years struck. It contains a unique structure in the has witnessed several notable achievements. The swinging aqueduct provided for the crossing of Suez canal has developed a commere of 8,000,000 the Bridgewater canal. The great sluices detons, and is being gradually widened and deepened vised for controlling foods are also of special to better accommodate the traffic. The Corinth interest. This canal, constructed in a densely canal, across the Isthmus of Corinth, in the king- settled country, with interests vested from time dom of Greece, was opened in 1893, substantially immemorial, presented many unusual problems. along the route upon which work was prosecuted It is too early to judge the utility of this work. in the reign of the emperor Nero, in A.D). 67. This It certainly has given the Manchester district canal is at sea-level and without locks, and is lower rates, and doubtless, with the adaptation of 3.91 miles long, 69 feet wide on the bottom, and slowly changing institutions to the new condi26 feet deep, and the excavation of 15,000,000 tions, it will eventually prove an important factor cubic yards of material was involved in its con- in the prosperity of the regions it is designed to struction. It saves a long detour in the coasting serve. trade and the tempestuous passage off Cape

In America the St. Mary's Falls canal, uniting Matapan.

Lake Superior with the other great lakes, has deThe North Sea canal, connecting the North | veloped a commerce double that passing the Suez Sea and the Baltic across the base of the Penin- | canal, and the largest lock in the world will be sula of Jutland, was opened with much ceremony opened in 1897, its length being 800 feet, its in 1895.

It is a sea-level canal, with tidal locks width 100 feet, and with 21 feet of water on the at either end, and is 61.3 miles in length. The miter-sills at the average lake-level. The Canawidth is 72 feet on the bottom and the depth 29.5 dian government opened its new canal on the feet, and the material excavated was 104,640,000 opposite shore in 1895, the lock being 900 feet cubic yards of earth. No special engineering long and 60 feet wide, with the same depth of difficulties were encountered. The formation of water. the prism through marshes, by placing two par- The most remarkable work of recent times, and allel embankments of sand and excavating be- now nearing completion, is the sanitary and ship tween, was an interesting application of practice canal of Chicago. The prism is larger than any developed in Holland. This work was chiefly re- canal heretofore constructed, and it is the only markable for its thorough and efficient organiza- ship-canal so designed as to carry a large volume tion and administration, and its steady prosecution of water. Its primary purpose is to dispose of to successful completion without unforeseen com- the sewage of the city, so diluted as to be without plications. Its inspiration lay in its military offense, and keep all polluted waters away from the value to the German Empire, rather than in its lake front, and thus do away with the necessity of commercial necessity, though it will doubtless building costly water-works at some distant point develop large utility in the Baltic Sea trade. on the north shore. Incidentally, the channel

The Amsterdam canal, uniting the port of Am- forms a much-needed deep-water extension of the

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harbor; at the same time, it is the most costly some 75 feet below the same. The Desplaines part of a waterway to the Mississippi River, and River in food overflowed the portage and divided carries the volume of water required in order to its waters between the Mississippi and St. Lawdevelop a 14-foot barge navigation through 300 rence basins. The canal problem was simply to miles of the Desplaines and Illinois rivers to the cut a channel through the old pass which drained Mississippi. This work, in conjunction with the the lake region to the Mississippi in glacial times improvement of the Mis. sippi River now in and restore in part the ancient outlet. In doing progress, will enable this scale of navigation to this, one half the distance is cut through solid be maintained between the lakes and the Gulf of Niagara limestone, and when this does not reach Mexico for the larger part of each year.

the surface, the sides of the cutting are carried The canal proper extends from a junction with up with massive retaining-walls so as to conform the Chicago River, in the southwest part of the to the full rock-cut. In preparing for the concity, 28 miles to a point near Lockport, where it struction of the canal proper, it was necessary to is to be discharged through controlling-works, de provide a new channel for the Desplaines River, signed to regulate the flow or stop the same at draining 700 square miles, for a length of 13 pleasure. Works will be required to conduct the miles and to define its course by massive embank. waters through the city of Joliet for a distance of ments 20 miles long. seven miles farther, and improvements of a radi- The work has developed the channeling-macal character will be required between the head of chine, by which the sides are chiseled out smooth the canal and Lake Michigan, through the city of in advance of the blasting, the cantilever-hoist for

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work, machines of 60 Ź

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vestment of about MAP OF $3,000,000.

An avMAIN DRAINACE CANAL,

erage force of 7,000 OROL AND

CHICAGO TO LOCKPORT,
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to 8,000

BREMEN
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ployed during the

favorable season and Chicago. The entire extent of work is about 40 6,000 tons of dynamite were used. Along the miles. The prism of the canal is 160 feet wide at rock-cuts, the machinery was driven in large bottom in solid rock and 162 feet at surface, while part from air-compressor stations on each section in earth-cutting the bottom width is 202 feet of about one mile. In the purely earth-cut and 300 feet at the flow-line, the nominal depth toward the Chicago end, inclined and bridge throughout being 22 feet at low water, to be conveyors were devised, with a large saving over increased to 24 feet when finally completed to former methods by cars, tracks and locomotives. Lake Michigan. Seven miles of the Chicago end The work was actually executed at prices of less has been excavated, with a bottom width of 10 feet than half what similar work in rock had been only, the purpose being to increase the prism to before estimated, and the earth-work has been the standard by dredging after the canal is opened. greatly cheapened. The total excavation in situ The capacity is to be sufficient to pass ten thou- was 12,200,000 cubic yards of rock and 37,500,000 sand cubic feet of water per second at all times, and cubic yards of earth, estimated at 67,000,000 this is to be increased, under certain conditions, yards in the waste-banks. with the growth of population, the ratio of dilu- The work has been carried on by a board of tion to be maintained on the basis of 20,000 cubic nine trustees elected by the people, and this board feet per minute for each 100,000 of population.

is vested with all municipal powers necessary to The physical conditions which invited this work its purpose by the sanitary district act passed are in themselves remarkable. The old portage by the general assembly of Illinois in 1889, and west of Chicago is scarcely ten feet above ordi- under which the sanitary district of Chicago has nary lake-level, and leads to the Desplaines valley, been organized,

been organized. Work was actually begun in which in a distance of 30 miles from the lake has 1892, and prosecuted with great vigor, with the descended to its level, and in 10 miles more to intention of completing the same in four years

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and opening the work in 1896. This could not be auspices of a company organized in France. The realized, as the financial management has been actual work performed was a mere fraction of the inadequate. However much final completion total, and out of all proportion to the expenditure, may be delayed, this work, measured by the ma- and the affairs of the company fell into the hands terial handled, will prove the cheapest of modern of liquidators, under very scandalous circumtimes ; and in the development and use of appli- stances. Some efforts have been made to resusCROSS SECTIONS

CROSS SECTIONS

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PANAMA CANAL.

PROPOSED. 1881.
LISCTN-4533 Bule

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1882-1893. LENGTM-1.91 Rs.

CROSS SECTION-11

CICAVATIOS-ul, estimate 20.000 ch

citate the enterprise and complete the work, with
a summit-level and locks, but confidence seems to

be lacking, and this proposition has received little
CORINTH CANAL.

encouragement. The consensus of American
opinion has favored the Nicaragua route, using
Lake Nicaragua as a summit-level, as more prac-
ticable, and a company was organized, and ex-
pended some five million dollars in getting the
work under way. Operations were suspended in
1893, owing to the financial depression, and sev-

eral propositions have been brought before the ances, in the volume of rock and in the engineer-Congress of the United States, designed to enlist ing features it outranks any other yet

con

the financial support of the government through structed.

a guaranty of bonds. Meantime the report of The project of cutting the American isthmus an engineering commission, appointed to examine has received much attention within the 20 years, the matter, has greatly increased the estimates and an

enormous sum of money was raised to and raised doubts as to the practicability of the construct a sea-level canal at Panama under the project, so that some time may elapse before the

Scale, 150 ft-linch

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CANAL DOVER-CANDLENUT TREE

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work is put in actual execution. The people | P. arundinacea is the common “reed canary-
of the United States are so fully persuaded of the grass" of bogs and low grounds, a striped variety
political and commercial utility of the enterprise, of which is cultivated for ornament under the
that its postponement cannot be regarded as more name “ribbon-grass.'
than temporary.

CANASTOTA, a village of Madison County, The plate herewith is drawn to true propor- central New York; about 30 miles W. of Utica, tions, and shows the relative cross-section of the on the West Shore, the New York, New Haven notable ship-canals of the world as actually built and Hartford and the Delaware and Hudson or proposed.

railroads. It is the seat of an academy, and conOne of the boldest and most far-reaching pro- tains manufactories of cutlery, astronomical injects, now being considered by an international struments; has saltworks, canning factories, etc. commission, is the proposition to extend naviga-Sulphur and iron springs are also found here.

. both the se. Lawrence and Hudson rivers into | CANAVERAL,"CAPE OF, on the east coast of the Great Lakes. This will involve several works Florida, 135 miles S. E. of St. Augustine, in lat. of magnitude, and large problems in lockage. 28° 27' N., long. 80° 33' W.; just east of MerConsidering the great marine development on the ritt's Island and separated from it by a branch lakes and the enormous freight movement be- of the Indian River. The government light lotween the interior and seaboard, the consumma

cated here is a revolving one. tion of this project will produce the greatest CANBY, EDWARD RICHARD SPRIGG, soldier; water route of the world.

born in Kentucky in 1817; killed in Siskiyou Nothing is more certain than that, having County, California, April measurably reached the limit of railway develop-11, 1873. He graduated ment and extended the service throughout the in 1839 from West Point; productive areas of the country, with densifica- served with distinction in tion and smaller margins of profit, the water the Mexican War, as well routes will grow in importance, and the next as in the war of the Union, great step in transportation facilities is probably receiving the full rank of in this direction. This development will not, brigadier-general in 1866. however, be along the lines of early canal policies, He was in command of but will define itself in connecting links through the United States troops the great passes and valleys and in the improve- at New York in 1863, durment and canalization of natural waters. Even- | ing the draft riots. He tually, the country will be netted with an arterial captured Mobile in 1865, system to which other means of transportation and received the surrenwill furnish the veins and capillaries.

der of the armies under Gen. R. Taylor and Gen.

LYMAN E. COOLEY. E. K. Smith. During the winter of 1872–73 he
CANAL DOVER, a village of Tuscarawas was engaged in making terms with the Modocs,
County, central eastern Ohio, on the Tuscarawas and was treacherously shot by “Captain Jack
River, about a hundred miles N. of Marietta, on while conferring with them regarding a treaty
the Ohio canal, on the Cleveland, Lorain and of peace.
Wheeling, the Cleveland and Marietta and the CANBY, Fort, a United States army post
Cleveland and Pittsburg railroads. Here are a

and fortification on Cape Disappointment, Washrolling-mill, iron-furnace, tannery, boiler factory ington, at the mouth of the Columbia River, 14 and flour-mills. Population 1890, 3,470.

miles from Astoria. It is the principal defense CANANDAIGUA, village and lake of Ontario for the entrance of the river. County, New York. (See Vol. IV, p. 795.) The CANCELLARIA, a genus of gasteropod molvillage is on the Northern Central and the New usks, characterized by the shell being marked off York Central and Hudson River railroads. There into squares by transverse ribs and revolving are here two academies, a private insane asylum, lines. They are found in northern seas. two orphan asylums, a brewery and several fac- CANCER, a genus of brachyurous crustaceans tories. Population 1890, 5,868.

which includes the common shore-crabs. CANARIS, CONSTANTINE. See KANARIS, in CANCER-ROOT, a name applied to species of these Supplements.

Epiphegus, Conopholis and Aphyllon, of the family CANARIUM, a genus of Asiatic trees belong- | Orobanchacea, and often extended to the whole ing to the family Burseracea, a family noted for family. The family is made up of root-parasites, its strong aromatic resins and balsams. The destitute of green foliage, with yellowish or browngenus Canarium is one of the largest, and abounds ish scales in place of leaves. Epiphegus is also in aromatic resins, some of its species being sup- known as “ beech-drops”; Conopholis as “squawposed to be among those yielding

root”; and many other species as “broomCANARY-GRASS, a popular name applied to rapes. Phalaris Canariensis, a grass yielding “canary- CANCRINITE, a silicate of alumina and soda seed.". It is a native of the Canary Islands, is found in Norway and in Maine. It is a variety of extensively cultivated in Europe, and has also be- nephelin. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 412. come somewhat naturalized in the United States. CANDLENUT TREE (Aleurites), a native of

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GENERAL CANBY.

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CANDYTUFT-CAN-MANUFACTURE AND CANNERS' TOOLS

Java, Hawaii and other Pacific islands.

It is so

are in the United States eight or ten large estabnamed from the natives stringing together the lishments making cans and supplying them to the nuts, which are very oily, and thus making can- canning factories. Some of these factories have dles. See also Oils, Vol. XVII, p. 745.

an output of over 100,000 cans per day each. CANDYTUFT. See Iberis, under HORTICUL- | Many of the canning factories are making their TURE, Vol. XII, p. 251.

own cans, of late years, especially in the districts CANELLA, a small genus of tropical American where they are located away from the railroad trees of the family Canellacea. The best-known centers. Fruits and vegetables are usually packed species is C. alba of south Florida and the West in round cans, the small sizes being known as 1, Indies, the “wild cinnamon" or " white cinna- 2 and 3 pound cans, and the larger sizes as halfmon," under which latter name the fragrant bark gallon and gallon. Meats are usually packed in is exported.

tapering oblong cans, ordinary fish in oval cans, CAÑETE, MANUEL, Spanish poet; born in and sardines in a small oblong can, in imitation of Seville, Aug. 6, 1822; after a short term of study at those first put up in France and Italy. Cadiz, he entered the government service in the In the large factories automatic machinery is office of the Minister of the Interior. He has used for cutting out the parts and soldering towritten several volumes of poetry and also a num- gether the cans. In the smaller factories the ber of dramas. He has made a special study of work is done mostly by hand. A press run by Spanish dramatists of the fifteenth and sixteenth foot-power is used to stamp the tops and bottoms, centuries. He has published the result of his study and a boy or man will produce about 1,000 per in Spanish and Spanish- American Writers and The day. The bodies are cut in square shears, and Spanish Stage of the Sixteenth Century.

are then formed up in forming-rolls. The bodies CANFIELD, JAMES HULME, president of the are then placed on special formers and the side Ohio State University since 1895; born at Dela- seams soldered. After the tops and bottoms are ware, Ohio, March 18, 1847; studied at the Poly placed on the body it is rotated in a bath of technic Institute of Brooklyn, and graduated from melted solder, which connects the three parts Williams College; practiced law at Jackson, Mich- and leaves the can air-tight. After the cans are igan, and at St. Joseph, Michigan; superintendent filled with the contents, the caps are soldered on of schools at the latter place in 1876; in 1877 to by hand. Square, oblong and oval cans are made 1891, professor of history and political science in in the same manner, the only variations being in the University of Kansas; was president and sec- the shape of the dies and frames and the method retary of the National Educational Association; of soldering. Ordinary country factories usually elected chancellor of the University of Nebraska put up from 300,000 to 1,000,000 cans during a in 1891.

season's pack. CANICULAR YEAR, also Sothic or Sothiac The Ferracute Machine Company's foot-presses YEAR, a fixed year of the ancient Egyptians. See for can-makers are made with an adjustable EGYPT, Vol. VII, p. 729.

frame which permits the stamping to be done upCANISIUS, PETER, Jesuit missionary; born in right, or at any suitable angle rendered conveNimeguen, Netherlands, May 8, 1521; died in nient by the nature of the work, which is usually Freiburg, Switzerland, Dec. 21, 1597.

His name

slid off the die through the hole in the back of was properly the Dutch De Hondt (dog) which he the press into a box. Sets of dies are furnished turned into the Latin Canisius; the first man to with the presses for a variety of work. become a Jesuit in Germany; became the leader The Page vacuum can-testing machine has a of the order there and in Austria; preacher to horizontal rotating wheel, on which the cans are Ferdinand I; a member of the Council of Trent, mounted as hollow arms. As the wheel goes 1545; vice-chancellor of the University of Ingol- around, the cans are put in place by a boy, and if stadt, 1549; wrote Institutiones Christiana Pietatis imperfect, so that they leak, and no vacuum can and Summa Doctrina Christiana. Beatified in 1864 be formed, they fall off automatically, and are by Pius IX.

thus separated from the perfect cans. CANKER-WORM, the larval form of two spe- The Ferracute soldering turn-table has a heavy cies of moths of the genus Anisopteryx, belonging | iron pedestal, around which is a rotating table to the family of measuring-worms, Geometridie. with eight treadles and seaming-frames.

The The worms are ash-colored above, black on sides can bodies are set on the table, the seams sol. and yellowish beneath. The wingless female moth dered, and the cans removed by different operaascends orchard trees, such as apple, cherry, plum, tives as the table turns around. On top of the and deposits her eggs. The larvæ are very de- pedestal is a fire-pot with soldering-coppers. structive to the foliage in their early life.

Double seaming-machines are made for forming they descend the tree and burrow in the soil, a tight seam without solder, and these do very where the metamorphosis takes place. The well for goods that are not "processed.” Other canker-worms are common in America from machines used by the can-maker are capping-maMaine to Texas.

chines, for soldering a number of cans at once; CAN-MANUFACTURE AND CANNERS'floating-machines, for soldering the end seams on TOOLS. Tin cans are made mostly for the can- the outside; can-beaders, for forming the mouths ning of fruits, meats and vegetables, condensed of the bodies of open-top cans; folding-machines, milk, spices, paints and varnishes, etc. There | for square and oblong cans; crimpers, for crimp

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