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CARBONDALE-CARCASS

695

any

MOND, Vol. VII, p. 163; and MINERALOGY, Vol. the most recent improvements in electric cars, that XVI, p. 381.

of electric-heating commands much attention. Coils CARBONDALE, a city and railroad junction of are placed under the seats, and, the current being Jackson County, southern Illinois, 57 miles N. of turned on, the heat escapes into the car through Cairo by the Illinois Central railroad, also on the gratings. When this system of heating is used on a Chicago and Texas railroad and the St. Louis, vestibule-car, having no doors directly at the ends to Alton and Terre Haute railroad. The Southern cause chilling blasts to sweep through, it is possible Illinois Normal University is located here. The to keep a car comfortably warm in quite cold weather. trade of the city is principally in building-stone, In some recent styles of cars, electric buttons are tobacco, cotton, lumber, farm products and coal. placed at intervals, by means of which passengers Population 1890, 2,382.

may signal when they desire to stop the car. ImCARBONDALE, a city and railroad junction of proved forms of fenders and brakes are being applied. Osage County, central eastern Kansas, 16 miles S. See BRAKE, in these Supplements. of Topeka by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé

C, H. COCHRANE. railroad. It has extensive coal-mines. In 1895 the CARBURETER. The principal gas companies population was 683.

now einploy gasolene extensively for raising the CARBONDALE, a city of Lackawanna County, illuminating power of their In the Maxim northeastern Pennsylvania, on the Lackawanna apparatus, patented in 1889, the gasolene is evapoRiver, 16 miles N.N.E. of Scranton, and on the rated by heat, so as to obviate fractional evaporaDelaware and Hudson, the New York, Ontario and tion or any variation of the amount volatilized, due Western, and the New York, Erie and Western rail- to differences in temperature of the air or gas. The roads. The mines of the neighborhood are worked extent of evaporation is automatically regulable. by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, and With this carbureter the enrichment of the gas is yield about 900,000 tons annually. It is supplied the same, no inatter how many or how few burners with electric lights and motor power, gas and water. are being supplied, and no deposition of liquid The population of the city was, in 1880, 7,714; in takes place if the temperature of the enriched gas is 1890, 10,826. See Vol. V, p. 89.

kept below 50° F. CARBONIC ACID. See under CARBON, Vol. In the Maxim and Sedgwick carbureter the gasoV, p. 88.

lene is vaporized by steam supplied from a generator. CARBONIC OXID OR OXIDE. See Carbon, This vapor is mixed with a proper proportion of gas OXIDES OF, Vol. V, p. 87.

drawn from the main at a convenient point, and CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD. See GEOLOGY, afterward returned to it. The method of mixing is Vol. X, pp. 346-350.

to force the gasolene vapor out of an injector in such CARBON THEORY OF STEEL. See IRON, manner that it draws a quantity of unenriched gas in these Supplements.

from the main by means of the partial vacuum CARBORUNDUM. See Chemistry, in these created, and this, mingling with the gasolene vapor, Supplements.

becomes enriched, the extent of such enrichment CAR-CONSTRUCTION, ELECTRIC. Street-cars being easily controlled. are being made larger and stronger each year, as the The Simplex carbureter is largely used in the patronage of electric railways increases. To a great manufacture of air-gas. In this, hot water and a extent their manufacture has taken the place of car- brush are made use of, to vaporize the petroleum. building for steam-railways, the latter industry hav

C. H. CocHRANE. ing suffered a most marked decline. The frames of CARCANO, Giulio, born in Milan, Italy, Aug. 7, trolley-cars have to be built especially strong, for 1812; died Sept. 5, 1884. He was brought to pubseveral reasons--the roof has to bear the jerks of the lic notice in 1835 by his novel, Ida della Torre. He trolley-pole, the poor-frame has to support powerful was banished in 1849; but on the establishment of brake-mechanism, and the bracing has to withstand national independence he was appointed inspector the shocks incident to the sudden stops which are of schools, and held several important offices under often required. The cross-timbers of the floor-frames the government. He was a poet and novelist of have to be arranged so as to avoid the motors, and much merit. He made a faithful translation into so as to contain trap-doors through which the motors Italian of the dramatic writings of Shakespeare. can be removed entire when needed. All the prin- CARCASS, in military pyrotechny, a hollow case cipal woods are used in their manufacture, though of iron filled with combustibles. It is fired from a oak and hard pine predominate. Concealed steel mortar. Its chief use is to ignite the enemy's buildrafters are commonly used to strengthen the roofs.ings, and to give sufficient light to aim the shot and The average length of trolley-cars is now about 25 shells. Carcasses were first used by one of the feet, but the tendency is toward increased length. princely ecclesiastics, the Bishop of Münster, when The principal styles made are motor, trailer and he fought against the Duke of Luxemburg at Groll, mail cars; also, open, closed, vestibule, convertible in 1672. They do not burst, but send out an inexand combination styles. Notwithstanding increased tinguishable fire through holes in the shell. They size and strength, the weights are kept down, vary. burn from 3 to 10 minutes. The fuses are inserted ing mostly between 3,000 and 5,250 pounds. The in the holes and are adjusted in length to suit the electric mail-car was first introduced in Boston, and, time taken in firing. The composition with which proving successful, has been placed on lines in sev- the carcass is filled consists for the most part of salteral other large cities of the United States. Among | peter, sulphur and pitch.

696

CARCEL

LAMP_CARDINAL

CARCEL LAMP, a lamp invented in 18co by Roman Church, nor were they called cardinals. Carcel, a native of France. It burns colza, a vege- Gregory III, however, appointed seven bishops to table oil. It is used in lighthouses and photometry. officiate by turn in the cathedral of St. John Lateran, The oil is pumped to the wick by clockwork arranged and thus instituted the order of cardinal bishops. to go a certain number of hours. In France the The number later was reduced to six, and these flame of this lainp is taken as the standard of illu- bishops were appointed to the suburbicary churches mination.

or dioceses of Ostia and Velletri, Porto and Santa CARDBOARD, a stiff compact pasteboard made Rufina, Frascati, Sabina, Palestrina, Albano, making by pasting together several layers of paper, accord- six in all. The bishops of these dioceses, and they ing to the thickness and quality required. Bristol- alone, are cardinal bishops of the Holy Roman board, used by artists, is made entirely of white pa- | Church. The essence of the cardinalate consists in per; ordinary cardboard, of fine white paper outside, the right and duty of assisting the Roman pontiff with one or more sheets of coarse cartridge-paper in ruling the universal church, and in case of vacancy between, while fine cards are enameled with a coat- in the Apostolic See of supplying his place until the ing of size, and polished with a stiff brush.

election of a new pope. These duties are performed CARDIADÆ OR CARDIIDÆ. See COCKLE, by the cardinals as a body, not as individuals, so Vol. VI, p. 100.

that the corporate or collegiate forın is of the essence CARDIFF, a town in Onondaga County, central of the cardinalate. The name, privileges and the New York, situated on Onondaga Creek, ii miles various accessory duties of the cardinalate have N. of Syracuse, chiefly notable for being the place undergone great changes in the course of ages, but of the pretended discovery of the “Cardiff Giant,” its essential characteristic has been traced back to a statue carved in Chicago from a block of Iowa apostolic times by not a few writers, as appears from gypsum, and then buried at Cardiff.

When dug

the Council of Constance, held in 1417. The dignity up it was exhibited as a petrified giant. Popula- of the cardinalate is, after that of the pope, the tion 1890, 5,135.

highest in the church. It is greater than that of CARDINAL, the highest dignitary in the Roman bishops, archbishops, primates, or even patriarchs. Catholic Church after the pope. (See CARDINAL, Whether this precedence was obtained by cardinals Vol. V, pp. 96-99.) Cardinals are divided into the only in the eleventh or twelfth century, or whether three orders, of bishops, priests and deacons. This by right and in fact they always held it, is a conclassification, though now well known and fully rec- troverted question. Bellarmine, Baronius, Thomasognized, was of gradual development. First in sin, maintain the former opinion, as do also Cohellius, chronological order was the institution of cardinal Petra and Ferraris, who all wrote specially on this priests; then came cardinal deacons, and lastly subject. Natalis Alexander claims that only under cardinal bishops. There have been, also, cardinal Innocent IV, in the year 1243, did cardinals obtain subdeacons of the Holy Roman Church, but since the right of precedence in session over bishops. All the time of Alexander III we find no mention of these writers claim that the precedence of the carthem. The order of cardinal priests seems to have dinals of the Holy Roman Church over all other originated in this manner: St. Cletus, who was the dignitaries was only of gradual development. The second successor of St. Peter, and began his reign in question of precedence was specifically determined A.D. 78, according to Liber Pontificalis divided the by Pope Eugene IV, in his bull Non Mediocri, by city of Rome into districts and assigned to each its which he gives precedence to John Kemp, bishop of own priest. Pope Evaristus later confirmed this York and cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, over division of the city of Rome into parishes or titles, Henry, Archbishop of Canterbury, primate of Eng. and the priests who were incardinated or entitled in land and legate-born of the Holy See. Later, in these churches were afterward called cardinal priests. the year 1449, the Archbishop of Gneisen, primate The origin of cardinal deacons is more obscure of Poland, was made yield precedence to Cardinal than that of cardinal priests. Pope Clement, in the Sbigneo, bishop of Cracow. Precedence among the the year 92, appointed seven deacons, similar to cardinals themselves is regulated by the order of those mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, to cardinal bishop, cardinal priest or cardinal deacon, preside over the seven districts or regions into to which they belong, and seniority in creation. which he divided the city of Rome, and to their For the creation of a cardinal, all that is required care he confided the diaconice, that is, hospitals or is the will of the sovereign pontiff sufficiently exhouses where widows, orphans and the poor in pressed. Neither a certain form nor any special general were received and supported out of the ceremony is essential, because the whole substance of patrimony of the church. Later, the number of the cardinalate consists in the power of jurisdiction, deacons was increased to 14, each of whom was and its consequent prerogatives, which depends simincardinated or assigned to a deaconry, and then ply on the will of the superior. The cardinalate is were known as cardinal deacons of the Holy Roman not, like the priesthood, a sacrament. Since the Church. The admission of cardinal bishops into publication of the decree of Pope Pius V, it is certhe College of Cardinals seems to have taken place tain that cardinals obtain all cardinalitial rights the not earlier than the year 731. Before that time the moment they are appointed in secret consistory, bishops of the churches surrounding Rome may unless the pope makes special mention to the conhave been consulted by the pope concerning affairs trary. If the newly appointed cardinals are in of the universal church, but they were not Rome, they proceed in their usual dress without any sidered part of the presbytery or chapter of the attendants to the Apostolic Palace, where one of the

con

CARDINAL-BIRD-CARDUCCI

697

old cardinals presents them to the Holy Father, who who attends to its property. Still, as a college, it gives them the red cap, or beretta. But if a newly may not meet without the previous permission of appointed cardinal is absent from Rome, one of the the pope. The selection of cardinals is optional attendants of the Pope is dispatched at once to with the pope. Still, certain positions in the papal carry him the red beretta, in receiving which the

court are supposed to prepare the way to the new cardinal must promise oath, under pa of cardinalate, and are thus termed cardinalitial posideprivation of the cardinalate, that within a year he tions. Such are nunciatures to the greater nations. will proceed to Rome to visit the Holy Father. A Among the cardinals there should be at least four public consistory is then called for giving the insig- from the regular and mendicant orders, according nia to the new cardinals. In another consistory, the to the bull of Sixtus V, and finally, according to pope closes the mouths of the new cardinals, pro- the mind of the Council of Trent, the cardinals, as hibiting them from speaking in consistories and much as can be, should be selected from all the other meetings until their mouths are opened again. nations of Christianity. Following the wish of Then, again, in another consistory, the pope orders the council, the Roman pontiffs now promote to the the new cardinals to retire, while he asks the older dignity of the cardinalate select men from various cardinals whether they think the new cardinals regions, but particularly from Catholic nations. should have their mouths opened. And, all assent

P. A. BAART. ing, the new cardinals are called back and kindly ad- CARDINAL-BIRD, also called cardinal grosmonished by the Holy Father, who then opens their

See GROSBEAK, Vol. XI, p. 209. mouths, with these words: “We open your mouth CARDINAL-FLOWER, a name applied to both in conferences and in councils and in the elec- | Lobelia cardinalis on account of showy deep red tion of the sovereign pontiff, and in all acts which flowers. Indigenous in the United States, in wet or both in and out of the consistory pertain to car- low grounds, but often cultivated for ornament. It dinals. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, has a tall, simple stem, alternate lance-oblong leaves, and of the Holy Ghost, amen.” Then finally the and an erect raceme of showy flowers, which somering is given, and the title or church assigned to times vary from deep red to rose-colored or even each new cardinal.

white. The title of a cardinal is the church in the city of CARDINGTON, a village of Morrow County, Rome to which he is appointed. Cardinals, who northern central Ohio, on the Olentangy River, 38 are at the same time ordinaries or bishops of dio- miles N. of Columbus, on the Cleveland, Cincinnati ceses are obliged to reside, not in their titular and St. Louis railroad, in a fertile agricultural churches in Rome, but in their dioceses. Though district. It contains manufactories of flour and such cardinals cannot fully assist the Pope, still they woolens. Population 1890, 1,428. can give some help, and it has long been the custom CARDITIS, or inflammation of the heart, a form that quite a number, sometimes reaching nearly one of disease of very rare occurrence, if the term be half of the seventy cardinals, are selected from limited in its application to cases of true acute among such bishops as are obliged to reside in their inflammation of the muscular structure of the heart own dioceses. Cardinals retain the title assigned itself. Carditis, however, was formerly understood them until by right of option, they acquire a higher, in a wider sense, so as to include certain forms of cardinals of a lower order having the right to ascend disease of the external and internal lining membrane to a higher one. Thus the vacancies in the six sub- of the heart. See HEART, Vol. XI, p. 554. urban sees are always filled, not by an election, but CARDOON, a vegetable. See HORTICULTURE, by the right of option; according to seniority in the Vol. XII, p. 280. cardinalate. Thus, too, the oldest cardinal bishop CARDUCCI, Giosue, Italian poet; born July 26, who is present in the papal court becomes dean of 1836, at Val di Castello, near Pietrasanta, in the the Sacred College as soon as a vacancy occurs.

province of Pisa. His youth was spent in study, This cardinal is always the Bishop of Ostia, and he and at the age of 25 he was appointed to a professorhas the privilege of consecrating the newly elected ship in the University of Pisa, from which he was pope if, when chosen, he is not yet a bishop. transferred in 1860 to a chair in the University of

Cardinals have many privileges, but chief among Bologna. He has been throughout his life a stanch them is the precedence all of them have over bish republican, and in 1867 was for a short time susops, archbishops, primates and patriarchs. They pended from his professorship for having signed an have also the exclusive right to the titles “Emi- address to the patriot Mazzini. In 1876 he was nence” and “The Most Eminent,” and everywhere returned to the Italian Parliament as member for rank with princes of the royal blood. At present Lugo di Romagna. His earliest poes, Juvenilia cardinals have the exclusive right of electing a new and Levia Gravia, contrast strongly with his later pope when a vacancy occurs. (See CONCLAVE, in works. Signs of a transition in sentiment and in these Supplements.) In this election they are style appeared in the Decennalia, which dealt mainly obliged strictly to follow the laws made before the with political events of the years 1860–70. The vacancy. Further, it may be observed that while change became complete in the Nuove Poesie, in the pope usually consults with the cardinals, still which he gave expression to the most advanced poneither their consent nor advice is necessary for litical views. These poems are remarkable for the the validity of papal acts. The College of Cardi- sustained power and dignity of the language and nals is a corporate body, and has as secretary a prel- the frequent nobility of the thought. The Odi Barate who keeps its records, and a cardinal camerlingo | bare, written in meters borrowed from Horace, are

698

CARDWELL-CARE Y

In 1835

HENRY C. CAREY.

very popular with Italians, but to foreign critics which incloses the pistil as a more or less inflated Carducci seems in these pieces to have erred in the sac. rejection of rhyme.

CAREY, a village of Wyandot County, north CARDWELL, EDWARD, VISCOUNT, English states- central Ohio, on the Columbus, Hocking Valley man; born in Liverpool, July 24, 1813; died Feb. 15, and Toledo, the Northern Ohio and the Cleveland, 1886. He was educated at Oxford, where he became Chicago and St. Louis railroads. By the last it is professor of ancient history. He was elected to 16 miles S. of Tiffin. It contains manufactories Parliament in 1842 as a member of the party known of lumber and iron. Population 1890, 1,605. as Peelites, and was president of the Board jf Trade CAREY, HENRY CHARLES, an American politifrom 1852 to 1855. In 1855 he was returned to Par- cal economist, son of Matthew Carey; born in Philliament for Oxford. He became Secretary for Ire- adelphia, Pennsylvania, Dec. 15, 1793; died there, land in 1859, and Secretary of State for the Colonies Oct. 13, 1879. At the age in April, 1864, but resigned with his colleagues in of 21 he became a partner June, 1866. In December, 1868, he entered the in his father's business, Cabinet of Gladstone as Secretary of State for War, and later was head of the and while occupying this position introduced im- publishing house. He was portant reforms in the army. He was raised to the the originator of the syspeerage in 1874.

tem of trade sales between CARE OR CARLE SUNDAY, the Sunday before book dealers. Palm Sunday, said to be so called because it was he retired from business, the practice in many places to eat gray peas, called and devoted himself to carlings, which were steeped all night in water and scholarly pursuits. He was fried the next day in butter. This practice appar- the founder of a school of ently had its more immediate origin in the custom of political economy. At the Roman Catholic people of eating hallowed beans first he was a free-trader, at this time. The beans are described in some but he came to believe religious books as symbolical of confession, and their protection the best fiscal policy for the government. steeping before use of meditation. It appears to He was a member of the Republican party from its have been adapted from a heathen custom.

formation, supported the Union during the Civil CARÊME, MARIE ANTONIN, French cook and War, was a trusted adviser of Mr. Lincoln and Mr. author; born in 1784 in Paris; died there in 1833. Chase, and was a member of the constitutional conHe wrote Les Déjeuners de l'Empereur Napoléon, vention of Pennsylvania in 1872. He bequeathed La Cuisine Française, and other works connected his valuable library to the University of Pennsylvania. with his craft. As Talleyrand's cook he played an His first work was The Principles of Political Econimportant part at the Congress of Vienna.

omy. He afterward wrote The Credit System of also cook to the Czar Alexander and George IV of France, Great Britain, and the United States; The England.

Past, the Present and the Future; Principles of Social CARETTE, ANTOINE ERNEST HIPPOLYTE, Science; Letters on International Copyright; The Way French military officer and writer, was born May to Outdo England Without Fighting Her; Miscellan

He entered the Polytechnic School in eous Works; and The Unity of Law. See POLITICAL Paris in 1828 ; took an active part in the revolution ECONOMY, Vol. XIX, pp. 384, 385. in July of that year. Joining the army, he took part CAREY, JOSEPH M., a United States Senator in the Algerian campaigns. There he became in- from Wyoming; born in Milton, Delaware, Jan. 19, terested in ancient African history, and was ac- 1845; graduated at Union College, New York; was corded especial mention for his writings on that admitted to the bar in 1867; United States attorsubject by the French Institute. He was a member ney for Wyoming in 1869; engaged in stock-raising; of scientific expeditions to Algiers in 1840-42. associate justice of the Wyoming supreme court After the revolution of 1848 he participated in the in 1871; from 1885 to 1890 member of Congress; discussion of the Algerian question, and was defeated elected to the Senate in 1890, retiring in 1895. for the Chamber of Deputies at the elections under CAREY, MATTHEW, publisher; born in Ireland, the constitution. In 1852 he was appointed chief Jan. 28, 1760; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, of a battalion of engineers and colonel in 1863. Sept. 16, 1839. He was well educated, and selected He retired in 1868. He was made a commander of as his life-work the printing and bookselling busithe Legion of Honor in 1867.

ness. Among his first pamphlets was an inflammaCAREX, a very large genus of plants of the tory address to Irish Catholics, which obliged him family Cyperaceæ, commonly known as sedges. to flee to Paris to escape trouble. Here he made the They are all of a grassy or rush-like appearance, acquaintance of Benjamin Franklin. He returned and have some value in the economy of nature as after a year to Ireland, where he established the Volforming the principal part of vegetation in swamps, unteer's Journal, a newspaper very bold in tone, which they assist in converting into fertile ground. which became a political power. În 1784 an attack The stems are triangular, and the staminate and on Parliament brought on a suit for libel, and he was pistillate flowers are separated from each other in imprisoned. He sailed to the United States after the same cluster, or in different clusters on the same his liberation, and within two months had started a plant, or, rarely, on different plants. A charac- newspaper, The Pennsylvania Herald; in this first teristic feature of the genus is the perigynium appeared accurate reports of legislative deliberations.

[graphic]

He was

25, 1808.

CARIACOU-CARLETON

699

naclte.

For six years he published The American Museum. CARINI, ISIDORE, premier préfetto at the Vatican He founded the Hibernian Society, and assisted in Library; born in Palmero, Sicily, Jan. 7, 1843; be

; society. He published, in 1814, the Olive Branch; | Cathedral of Palermo; in 1877, professor of paleogor, Faults on Both Sides, Federal and Democratic, a raphy and curator of the Archives of Palmero; in work designed to conciliate the different factions in 1882, sent to Spain by the government to collect the United States which disagreed on the subject of information on the Sicilian vespers; in 1884, assistthe War of 1812. He issued, in 1820, the New Olive ant archivist and professor of paleography at the Branch, and two years later appeared his well-Vatican School in Rome; in 1889, appointed premier known work, Essays on Political Economy, which was préfetto at the Vatican Library. He has published followed by a series of tracts advocating the protec- numerous writings on religion, bibliography and tive system, as necessary for the good of all classes. subjects in archæology.

CARIACOU, a name often applied to deer of CARINUS, MARCUS AURELIUS, a Roman emperor; the genus Cariacus. The common white-tailed or elder son of Emperor Carus ; raised to the throne Virginia deer of North America is a member of the in A.D. 283, by his father, who left him in the west genus.

and went with his younger son, Numerianus, against CARIAMIDÆ, a family of South American birds, the Persians. On the death of Carus the same year, composed of the genus Cariama. In structure they both brothers succeeded to the purple. Numeriare extremely generalized, and intermediate between anus was slain in 284, and Carinus marched to the cranes and the birds of prey (Accipitres). They oppose Diocletian in Mosia, defeating him, but are sometimes domesticated.

was assassinated in 285, by one of his officers, whose CARIBBEE BARK OR PITON BARK, the bark wife the emperor had betrayed. of Exostemma Caribbæum, a small tree of the West CARISSA, a genus of plants of the family ApocyIndies and of Mexico, belonging to the natural

Carissa Carandas is a thorny shrub, much order Cinchonacea. It is one of the barks some- used for fences in India. The fruit, called carantimes substituted for the cinchona barks.

das, is a berry about the size of a small plum, and CARIBOR, a once famous placer gold-mining is used for tarts and preserves. district, in the northern part of British Columbia, at CARLÉN, Emilia Schmidt FLYGARE, a Swedish the sources of the Stikeen and Liard rivers. It is novelist; born in Strömstad, Aug. 8, 1807; died at now almost entirely deserted, except by a few in- Stockholm, Feb. 5, 1892. Her first novel, Waldedustrious Chinese, who make fair livings by washing mar Klein, appeared in 1838. She was then a over the tailings from the old diggings.

widow, having been married in 1827 to M. Flygare. CARIBOU. See DEER, Vol. VII, p. 25.

In 1841 she was again married to J. G. Carlén, a CARIBOU, a village in Aroostook County, north- lawyer and a poet. Her literary productiveness ern Maine, on the Aroostook River, 20 miles above was remarkable; many of her works were transits junction with the St. John River. It is situated lated into English, French and German, and circuon the Boston and Maine and the Bangor and Aroos- lated both in Europe and America. These works took railroads. Its principal industry is agriculture, include The Rose of Tistelen; The Representative; though it has starch, carriage, sash and door fac- and A Name. tories, lumber and shingle mills, grist-mills, and a CARLETON. See COFFIN, CHARLES CARLETON, foundry; has water-works and electric lights. Popu- in these Supplements. lation of Caribou township in 1890, 4,078.

CARLETON, SIR Guy, Lord Dorchester, a British CARILLON, a set of bells arranged for striking soldier; born in Strabane, Ireland, Sep. 3, 1724; died in such a way as to produce tunes. The set usually at Maidenhead, England, Nov. 10, 1808. He fought varies from 12 to 20. Eight bells and more are gallantly at Louisburg,

gallantly at Louisburg, Quebec, Belle Isle and called a chime; less than these, a peal. The ap- Havana. From 1772 to 1775 he governed Quebec. paratus by which a carillon is played is called a He led the expedition which invaded New York in clavecin, and a recent form of this is operated by 1776, and in 1781 was appointed commander-inelectricity, current contacts being produced by a chief of the British army in place of Sir Henry piano key-board that may be placed in any conve- Clinton. nient position. The term carillon is sometimes ap- CARLETON, THOMAS, brother of the preceding, plied to the music produced by or arranged for and also a soldier; born in 1736; died in Ramschiming. See Bell, Vol. III, p. 538.

gate, England, Feb. 2, 1817. He served in Wolfe's CARINARIA, a remarkable genus of gasteropo- regiment in 1755; was appointed quartermaster of dous mollusks, of the order called Heteropoda or the army in Canada; with his brother in the naval Nucleobranchiata, having a thin shell, in form some- conflict with Benedict Arnold on Lake Champlain; what like that of a limpet. The shells of some of appointed lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick; the species have been denominated Venus’s-slipper. and in 1784 governor and cominander-in-chief of The body is gelatinous, and so transparent that Nova Scotia and Canada. He remained in America much of its interior organization can be seen. The 19 years; for 14 years after his return to England species are all marine. See MOLLUSCA, Vol. XVI, he retained those offices, the administration being P. 654.

carried on by his deputies. He was advanced in CARINATÆ, the group of birds having keeled military rank, and in 1803 he was made a general breastbones. See Birds, Vol. III, p. 699; ORNI

in the British army. THOLOGY, Vol. XVIII, p. 44.

CARLETON, WILLIAM, poet ; born in Hudson,

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