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Michigan, Oct. 21, 1845. He graduated at Hills- ernment; has had under its care 2,500 students, of dale in 1869, visited Europe in 1878 and 1885, and whom some 150 have been graduated. Their trainis well known by his ballads of rural life. He has ing is to a great extent industrial. The pupils make lectured in England, Canada and some parts of the their own uniforms, and much of the work of the United States. His collections of published poems school is done by the students. Carlisle also has are entitled Farm Ballads; Farm Legends, Young some fame for its sulphur springs, four miles north Folks' Centennial Rhymes; Farm Festivals; and City of the borough. Population 1890, 7,620. Ballads.

CARLISLE, JOHN GRIFFIN, an American statesCARLETON COLLEGE, organized in 1870, at man; born in Campbell County, Kentucky, Sept. 5, Northfield, Minnesota; conducted by the Congrega- 1835; taught school in the tional Church; president in 1895, James W. Strong; county, and afterward at the same year there were 22 in the faculty and 277 Covington; was admitted students; 12,000 volumes in the library. From its to the bar in 1858, and was organization till the year 1895, 229 have graduated. a member of the House of

CARLETON PLACE, a town of Lanark County, Representatives from 1859 eastern Ontario; on a navigable stream called the to 1861. He was elected Mississippi River, and on the Canadian Pacific rail- to the state senate in 1866, road, 28 miles S.W. of Ottawa. There are manufac- and re-elected in 1869; he tories of iron and woolens, and a large number of was also a delegate-at-large lumber-mills. Population 1891, 4,435.

from Kentucky to the naCARLINE THISTLE, a name applied to species tional Democratic convenof Carlina, a genus of plants of the family Composita. tion in 1868. He resigned The name is said to be derived from a legend, that his seat in the Senate in

JOHN G. CARLISLE. an angel showed the root of one of the species to June, 1871, and was the Charlemagne as a remedy for a plague. This par- same year elected lieutenant-governor, serving until ticular species (C. acaulis) grows on hills and moun- September, 1875. The year following he was altertains in the middle latitudes of Europe. It has a nate Presidential elector for the state at large. He very short stem and very large heads of Aowers. was a member of consecutive Congresses from the

CARLING, Sir John, Canadian senator and states- Forty-fifth to the Fifty-first, both inclusive, and was man; born in London, Ontario, Jan. 23, 1828; a mem-speaker in the Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth and Fiftieth ber of the brewing firm of Carling and Company; Congresses. In 1890 he was elected to the United director of the Great Western and auxiliary railways; States Senate as a Democrat, to fill the unexpired elected to the general assembly of Ontario in 1857; term of James B. Beck, and in March, 1893, was Receiver-General in 1862; member of the House of appointed Secretary of the Treasury by Mr. CleveCommons from 1867 to 1874; Minister of Public Works land. In 1895-96 he took a firm stand in favor of in 1867-71; Postmaster-General from 1882 to 1885; the gold standard, making numerous speeches in then became Minister of Agriculture, holding the various parts on the country, and was looked upon office until 1892. After 1892 he was a member of the as one of the leaders of the “sound money” wing Cabinet without holding a special office. He was appointed to the Senate in 1891, but resigned in CARLISTS, the name given to the supporters of 1892, and was elected to the House of Commons. the Spanish pretender, Don Carlos de Bourbon. See

CARLING SUNDAY. See CARE OR Carle Sun- SPAIN, Vol. XXII, pp. 345, 346. Day, in these Supplements.

CARLOMAN, the name of two Frankish dukes. CARLINVILLE, city and capital of Macoupin See FRANCE, Vol. IX, p. 531. County, southwestern Illinois, on the Litchfield, CARLOS I, king of Portugal, son of King Louis Carrollton and Alton and the Chicago and Alton I, was born Sept. 28, 1863; married Marie Amélie, railroads; 54 miles N.N.W. of St. Louis. Blackburn daughter of the Comte de University is here located, and there is also a theo- Paris, May 22, 1886, and logical seminary. Coal is found here. Population succeeded his father on the 1890, 3,293

throne, Oct. 19, 1880. CARLISLE, capital of Nicholas County, north- CARLOS, DUKE OF eastern Kentucky, on the Louisville and Nashville | MADRID, born March 30, railroad, 17 miles N.E. of Paris. Its principal in- 1848. He claims the Spandustries are carriage-making and four-milling. Pop- ish throne as the son of ulation in 1890, 1,081.

Don Juan, the brother of CARLISLE, borough, and the capital of Cum- | Carlos (Charles VI), who berland County, southern central Pennsylvania. (See claimed the throne, and in Vol. V, p. 110.) It is situated on the Philadelphia whose behalf the uprisings and Reading and the Cumberland Valley railroads; of 1848, 1855 and 1860 by the latter, 18 miles W.S.W. of Harrisburg. It is took place. As Charles VI well laid out; has wide streets, electric lights and died without heir, his water-works. It has car-shops, switch-works, shoe claims were taken up by Don Juan, and in turn by and carpet factories. It is the seat of Dickinson the present Carlos. Don Juan married Maria Teresa College; also of the Carlisle Indian School, an insti- of Austria. Carlos is married to Margaret of Bourtution founded in 1879 and supported by the gov- | bon, sister of the late Henry V of Fran Comte de

of his party






Chambord. Carlos styles himself Charles VII, and Hume, Adam Smith, Smollett and John Home. in 1872, 1873 and 1875-78 his followers raised re- His Autobiography, a charming picture of the manners bellions in the mountain provinces. They were de- of a bygone age, was published in 1860, edited and feated, and Carlos obliged to flee to France, from completed by John Hill Burton. which he was driven in 1881 on account of his ac- CARLYLE, THOMAS, a British essayist and histions in behalf of the Comte de Chambord. He torian; born at Ecclefechan, a small market town of took refuge in London.

Dumfriesshire, Scotland, CARLOS, Don, son and heir of Philip II of Dec. 4, 1795; died at ChelSpain, the subject of Schiller's tragedy, Don Carlos; sea, London, Feb. 5, 1881. died miserably in prison, his father being suspected He was the second son of of causing his death. See Philip II, Vol. XVIII, James Carlyle, stonep. 744, 745.

mason, a man of great CARLOTTA, ex-empress of Mexico, daughter physical and moral of Leopold I, first king of the Belgians, was born strength, who, though in June 7, 1840. In 1857 she married the Archduke humble circumstances, was Maximilian of Austria, who became emperor, in able to give his sons an 1863; of that part of Mexico which was occupied by excellent Scottish educaFrench troops, and was shot at Queretaro, June 19, tion. Thomas received 1867. Carlotta, in 1866, returned to Europe, and his elementary instrucsought aid in vain to uphold her husband's fortunes tion from his father and in Mexico, but in Rome her mind gave way under mother. His home-teaching was supplemented by stress of grief and anxiety, and she was secluded in attendance at the Ecclefechan school, whence he Brussels.

proceeded, in 1805, to Annan Academy, and in CARLOVINGIAN OR CAROLINGIAN DY- 1809 entered Edinburgh University. Except in NASTY. See FRANCE, Vol. IX, pp. 531-536. geometry, his college curriculum was not remarkable,

CARLSEN, Emil, artist; born in Denmark in and even in the mathematical class he took no prize. 1848; moved to the United States in 1872; since In 1813 he began a fitful preparation for the minis1887 has lived in New York, with the exception of try, which, however, was soon abandoned. a short time spent in San Franciso. He is known In 1814 Carlyle became mathematical master of on account of his landscapes, but better by reason of Annan Academy; in 1816 assistant teacher at Kirkhis work in still life.

caldy, and two years later removed to Edinburgh, CARLTON, THOMAS, Methodist clergyman; born where he engaged in private teaching. An introin Londonderry, New Hampshire, July 26, 1808; duction to Dr. David Brewster led to his writing died in Elizabeth, New Jersey, April 16, 1874. He articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopædia, and subseentered the ministry in 1829, and for 23 years re- quently to his translating Legendre's Elements of mained in the Genesee Conference, being located in Geometry. At the beginning of the session of 1819 Buffalo, Rochester and elsewhere. In 1852 he be- he enrolled in the class of Scots law, but he found came senior agent of the Methodist Book Concern law as uncongenial a study as divinity. In 1822, in New York City, and remained in that position while engaged as a private tutor, he arranged to until 1872.

write a Life of Schiller for the London Magazine, CARLUDOVICA, a genus of tropical American and a translation of the Wilhelm Meister of Goethe palms, belonging to the small family Cyclanthacea. for an Edinburgh publisher. It differs from the true palms, with pinnate leaves, In 1824 Carlyle paid his first visit to London, in having fan-like folded leaves. The flowers are where he remained some months, superintending arranged in whorls or close spirals on a thick axis. the publication, in book-form, of his Life of Schiller. The leaves of C. palmata are used in the manufacture At this time he made the acquaintance of Coleridge, of Panama hats.

Thomas Campbell, Cunningham, Procter and other CARLYLE, a town and capital of Clinton County, eminent literary men. In the spring of 1825 he central southern Illinois, on the Kaskaskia River, 47 removed to a farm near Mainhill, which he had miles E. of St. Louis, and on the Baltimore and leased, his brother attending to the farming, while he Ohio Southwestern railroad. It contains important himself translated German romances. His marriage manufactories of iron, wagons and plows, and is the with Jane Baillie Welsh took place in 1826, and they seat of a seminary for young women. Population at once settled in Edinburgh. Here Carlyle com1890, 1,784.

pleted four volumes of translations, which were pubCARLYLE, ALEXANDER, Scottish Presbyterian lished under the title of German Romances, and beecclesiastic; born Jan. 26, 1722, at Prestonpans, came a contributor to the Edinburgh Review. East Lothian (of which parish his father was min- In 1828 the Carlyles removed to Mrs. Carlyle's ister); died at Inveresk, Aug. 25, 1805. He was property of Craigenputtock, and there they lived educated at the universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow for about six years. During this period Carlyle and Leyden, and in 1748 was ordained minister of subsisted by writing for a number of reviews. He Inveresk. With Robertson, the historian, he led the also wrote a History of German Literature, the best moderate party in the kirk, and he was sent to parts of which were subsequently published in the London as the accredited agent of his church; was

form of essays, and in 1833-34 there appeared, by moderator of the General Assembly and dean of the installments, in Fraser's Magazine, Sartor Resartus, chapel-royal. Carlyle enjoyed the friendship of his most characteristic work. Carlyle's quiet life at


in 1865.


CARMAGNOLE – CARMAN Craigenputtock was varied by occasional visits to was no more crabbed or disagreeable personage Edinburgh, and by a residence of six months in Lon- than he. His fellows at Annan and Edinburgh don, during which time he made the acquaintance of first called out an evidence of his disposition, and John Stuart Mill and John Sterling.

each successive circumstance. emphasized the In 1834 Carlyle resolved to try his fortune in foundation of that first example. As in speech London, and in the summer of that year

established the crabbed man makes use of short paragraphs, himself at No. 5 Cheyne Row, Chelsea, where he sentences and abrupt endings, so in writing he lived till the day of his death. Here he settled made use of a style in accord with his nature. down to the writing of his French Revolution, which Some are inclined to blame his constant study of appeared in 1837. During the years 1837-40 he the German inverted style for his peculiar manlectured to considerable yet select audiences, and nerisms in expression. The German may have his yearly earnings from these lectures maintained had an influence, but the dyspepsia had more. him and his wife till the French Revolution not only That he could make use of good fowing English established his reputation as a literary genius of the is evinced in his Wilhelm Meister, but that style highest order, but placed him beyond the possibility was unnatural, and he did not maintain it. His of want. In 1838 appeared Sartor Resartus in book- Sartor Resartus is a fair example of his natural form, and the first edition of his Miscellanies. In expression at the time when his life had a little 1845 he published Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, humor in it, but mixed with satire. This work perhaps the most successful of all his works, inas-established Carlyle's reputation, for it placed bemuch as it completely revolutionized the public fore the public a collection of satirical humor in estimate of its subject. In 1851 he published a unique, graphic and rugged style, such as could biography of his friend John Sterling. From this not but attract attention. The most pessimistic time Carlyle gave himself up entirely to his largest of pessimists, if he puts his ideas into phrases work, the History of Friedrich the Second, Called constructed in a manner peculiarly his own, will Frederick the Great, the first two volumes of which attract notice and be read ever so widely. So were published in 1858, and which was concluded with the French Revolution, perhaps his greatest

work,-great because the new clothes of old ideas In November, 1865, Carlyle was elected lord attract. There was less opportunity for display rector of Edinburgh University, and in the follow- of satire, but a splendid chance for dramatic deing April the ceremony of his installation took place scriptions. The story of the French struggle is amid extraordinary demonstrations of enthusiasm. told as the incidents that went to make up the A few days later news reached him, in Dumfries, of lives of the leaders. Carlyle was careful of the the death of Mrs. Carlyle. His grief developed into truth as he saw it. In his historical writings he remorse when he discovered from certain of her was sure to give the exact circumstance without letters and her journal that, during a period of their coloring. This desire to state facts carried him married life, his unconscious want of consideration to the extreme in his Life of Frederick the Great, for her had caused her much misery. It has also in which are given so many details as to make the been demonstrated by the Letters and Memorials of whole work wearisome. Carlyle was, it must be Jane Welsh Carlyle that at one time they were some- said, consistent. He preached along the same what estranged. These Memorials are of note as line in the last year of his life that he did in the proving Mrs. Carlyle to have been one of the keen- early part of his career. He used no delicacy in est critics, most brilliant letter-writers and most his method of argument, but pounded and hamaccomplished women of her time. Carlyle wrote mered his reading congregation. He was brilliant, no important work after his wife's death. In 1874 powerful, a critic and a genius, but to many so he was offered and accepted the Prussian Order of much of his life as was spent in pessimistic șarMerit, in recognition of his having written the life casm is a blemish upon his learned industry and of Frederick the Great, who founded the order. In life-purpose. the same year Disraeli offered him the grand cross His Reminiscences were edited by J. A. Froude of the Bath (with the alternative of a baronetcy) and (1881); the Correspondence of Carlyle and Emerson a pension, but he declined both. He died at his (1886), by Charles E. Norton, who also edited the house in Chelsea, Feb. 5, 1881. A burial in West-Correspondence of Carlyle and Goethe (1887); A Life minster Abbey was offered, but in accordance with of Carlyle, by J. A. Froude, was published in 1882; his own wish, he was laid in the churchyard of and the Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle Ecclefechan, beside his kindred. The growth of a strong character can always

CARMAGNOLE, the name of a popular song, be traced to a wonderful degree of accuracy in dance and jacket. With the Reign of Terror both the utterances or writings of the man. As the the song and jacket disappeared. See CARMAGNOLA, thought and manner of thinking change, so does Vol. V, p. 114. the style, and so does, of course, the disposition CARMAN, ALBERT, a Canadian churchman; born of the man himself. Of no one can these fore- at Matilda (now Iroquois), Ontario, June 27, 1833; going statements be made more truthfully than of was educated at Victoria University, Cobourg, in Carlyle. What may have been a sweet and gen-1854. In 1858 he was appointed professor of matheerous disposition was so changed by his manner matics in Albert College, Belleville, Ontario, becomof thought, his dyspeptic way of looking at every ing president of the institution in 1858, developing subject, that in the later ears of his life there it into Albert University. He was also instrumental

in 1883.

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in founding Alma College for Girls, at St. Thomas. CARNALLITE, a mineral which, when found
In 1864 he was ordained an elder in the Methodist in masses, has fertilizing value. See MINERALOGY,
Episcopal Church, bishop in 1874, and was chosen Vol. XVI, p. 384.
general superintendent of the church in Canada; it CARNARVON, HENRY HOWARD MOLYNEUX
being by his means that the various sections of that HERBERT, Earl OF, born in 1831, died Jan. 28,
church in Canada became united. He has published 1890. He was educated at Oxford, and succeeded
a work entitled the Guiding Eye.

his father as fourth earl in 1849. He entered the CARMAN, Bliss, a Canadian poet of the nine-Upper House as a Conservative, and in 1866 acteenth century, whose songs, in minor key, have ob- cepted from Lord Derby the office of Colonial Sectained considerable popularity, was born in Freder- retary, but resigned in 1867. On Disraeli's return ickton, New Brunswick, April 15, 1861.

He was

to power in 1874, Lord Carnarvon resumed office educated at the University of New Brunswick and also as Colonial Secretary-once more, however, to resign studied abroad. Then he read law for a few years, in January, 1878, in consequence of the dispatch tried engineering, and returned to his studies in of the British feet to the Dardanelles.

During the philosophy and English at Harvard in 1886. Four brief Conservative administration of 1885-86 he years later he became connected with the editorial was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and his negotiastaff of the New York Independent, also assisting in tions with Mr. Parnell gave rise, two years later, to launching the early numbers of the Chap-Book and considerable controversy. He was author of The contributing thereto. His first book of verse, Low Druses of Mount Lebanon (1860); Reminiscences of Tide on Grand Pré, was published in 1893, and won Athens and the Morea (1869); and translations of recognition from

(); and the Odyssey (1886).

was in it atender threnody and strain of the woods hEAKINATION', 87planen See Posey Vol. Xix,


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and waste places, as well as true poesy. His next pp. 106, 107; HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. 254.
volume, Songs From Vagabondia, written in collabo- CARNEGIE, ANDREW, an American manufac-
ration with Richard Hovey, was published in 1894, turer; born in Dunfermline, Scotland, Nov. 25, 1835.
and was as favorably received. In 1895 he issued a His father was a weaver,
Threnody for Robert Louis Stevenson, a delicate trib- who, in the hope of better-
ute of poetry to his dead friend.

ing his family, came to the
In October, 1895, was published, in uniformity United States, where the
with a special series, Behind the Arras: A Book of son found employment at
the Unseen, in which the author's previous reputa- Pittsburg, Pennsylvania,
tion was fully sustained. Indeed, in his particular in tending a small station-
field, Mr. Carman, by his fresh glimpses of life and ary engine. Dissatisfied
nature, reveals the scenes of his native Arcady, link- with this, the boy became
ing his verses with memories of Longfellow.

telegrapher for the AtlanCARMATHIANS OR KARMATHITES, a branch tic and Ohio Company. of the Ismailian sect of Islam. See MOHAMMEDAN- While in the employ of ISM, Vol. XVI, pp. 586-588, 594.

the superintendent of the CARMEL, town and capital of Putnam County, telegraph lines he met southern New York; 49 miles N. of New York City. Woodruff, the inventor of the sleeping-car, and It is the seat of Drew Seminary for Young Ladies. seeing the value of the invention, engaged in the Population 1890, 2,912.

enterprise of getting it into use. This venture laid CARMEN SYLVA, the pseudonym of Pauline the foundation for his immense fortune. He became Elizabeth Ottilie Louise, queen of Roumania. See superintendent of the Pittsburg division of the ELIZABETH, QUEEN OF ROUMANIA in these Supple- Pennsylvania railroad; was at one time a member of ments.

an oil syndicate which realized $1,000,000 annually CARMI, city and capital of White County, south- in cash dividends; established, in company with eastern Illinois, situated at the head of navigation others, a rolling-mill, and in the extension of this on the Little Wabash, about 100 miles N.E. of last-mentioned enterprise Mr. Carnegie has become Cairo, and on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago the controller of the largest system of iron and steel and St. Louis, and the Louisville and Nashville rail- works in the world. Mr. Carnegie frequently writes roads. It contains flour-mills and manufactories on the labor question, and is the author of An of woolens and iron. Population 1890, 2,785. American Four-in-Hand in Britain (1883); Round

CARNAHUBA PALM OR CARNAUBA PALM, the World (1884); Triumphant Democracy; or, Fifty a very beautiful species of palm (Copernicia cerifera), Years' March of the Republic (1886, 1893); and The a native of Brazil. It attains a height of from 20 Gospel of Wealth (1890). Besides carrying on to 40 feet, and its timber is used in Brazil for a immense business enterprises, Mr. Carnegie has great variety of purposes. The fruit is black, and established generous charities.

His native country about the size of an olive. It is sweet, and is eaten has been remembered in the gift of $250,000 for a raw, and also prepared in various ways. Scales of free library in Edinburgh, and in the erection (1879) wax cover the under side of the leaves, and drop off of extensive swimming-baths and the gift of $40,000 when the fallen and withered leaves are shaken. to establish a free library for the use of the citizens Being collected in this way, the wax is melted into of Dunfermline. Bellevue Hospital, in New York masses, and forms an important article of commerce. City, has been endowed with $50,000 for a Carnegie See Wax, Vol. XXIV, p. 459.

laboratory Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, has received




$500,000 for a free library, while Allegheny City wrote biographies of his father and of Henri has been given half that amount for a music hall and Gregoire and of Barrère. He died in Paris, March library. Mr. Carnegie has established free libraries 16, 1888. for the use of his employees at several places.

CARNOT, MARIE FRANÇOIS SADI, late President CARNELIAN. See AGATE, Vol. I, p. 277. of the French Republic, was born at Limoges, Aug.

CARNIFEX FERRY, BATTLE OF, was fought 11, 1837. He was the son near the ferry crossing the Gauley River, in Nich- of Lazare Carnot and a Olas County, south-central West Virginia, eight grandson of L. N. M. Carmiles below Summerville, on the north bank of the not, “the organizer of vicriver, Sept. 10, 1861. The Confederates, under tory” under the French General Floyd, numbered 5,000 and were strongly Convention, and a civil intrenched. They were attacked by a superior engineer by profession. force of Federals under General Rosecrans. The When only 20 years of age battle was continued until darkness, when, during he entered as a student the night, General Floyd escaped by the bridge, the École Polytechnique, which he cut behind him, leaving his camp equip- and passed with distinction ment and munitions to fall into the hands of the to a school for special inFederal troops.

struction in the building CARNOCHAN, JOHN MURRAY, an eminent sur- of roads and bridges. Durgeon; born in Savannah, Georgia, July 4, 1817; died ing the siege of Paris he M. FRANÇOIS SADI CARNOT. in New York City, Oct. 28, 1887. He studied med- was appointed Prefect of the Seine Inférieure, and icine at the University of Edinburgh and graduated as Commissary-General gave valuable assistance in there, and afterward studied surgery in Paris, London organizing the defenses of that department. A and other Continental cities. In 1847 he began the month later he took his seat in the National Assempractice of surgery in New York City, where he at bly as deputy for Côte-d'Or, ranging himself in once attained a very high reputation on account of line with the Republican Left. He afterward sat his success in operations never before atteinpted. for Beaune. In 1886 he took office in the Brisson In 1852 he severed and tied the femoral artery, Cabinet as Finance Minister, the duties of which he effecting a cure in an exaggerated case of nutrition also filled when M. de Freycinet formed his govern(elephantiasis arabrum). The same year he removed ment in January, 1887. On the resignation of M. à lower jaw, entire, with both condyles. In 1854 he Grévy in 1887, M. Carnot was eiected President of removed the entire ulna, and also the entire radius. the republic. The Czar of Russia conferred on In 1856 he cut down and removed the entire trunk him the Order of St. Andrew in March, 1891. Durof the second branch of the fifth pair of cranial | ing the Franco-Russian fêtes of 1893 he took a nerves, the nerve being cut from the infra-orbital prominent part both at Paris and at Toulon, and in foramen to the foramen rotundum, at the base of the consequence of these it was said that he had deskull, involving an operation through the malar termined to stand again for the Presidency. His bone. The removal of this nerve had been decided promising career was cut short by the dagger of an upon to secure relief in a chronic case of neuralgia. assassin (an Italian anarchist named Santo) during a It was entirely successful, and made the bold and fête given in his honor at Lyons, June 24, 1894. He accurate operator famous throughout the world. In was a sagacious and high-minded statesman, and his 1851 he was appointed professor of surgery in the death was universally regretted. New York Medical College. He occupied other CARO, village and capital of Tuscola County, in professional appointments, including that of sur- the west-central part of southern Michigan, on the geon-in-chief to the State Immigrant Hospital. He Michigan Central railroad, 34 miles E.S.E. of Bay has published Congenital Dislocations (1850); Contri- City, in a district of stock and produce farms. It butions to Operative Surgery and Surgical Pathology has several lumber-mills; is supplied with electric (1860, 1877-86).

lights and water-works. In 1894 the population was CARNOT, LAZARE HIPPOLYTE, a son of the celebrated French statesman and mathematician, Lazare CARO, ELME MARIE, a French philosopher; born Nicolas Marguerite Carnot (q.v., Vol. V, p. 124), and at Poitiers, March 4, 1826. He was appointed lecfather of the late President of the French Republic (see turer in the École Normale de Paris in 1857; proarticle following); born at St. Omer in 1801; died fessor at the Sorbonne in 1867, and member of the in 1888. He was a radical republican of note, and French Academy in 1876. His lectures at the was an early disciple of St. Simon, but left that Sorbonne became very attractive to ladies, and he school to devote himself to the inculcation of a more was known as “ The Ladies' Philosopher.” He was a orthodox and moral socialism. From 1840 to 1848 follower of Cousin, and attacked the view of Schophe was a member of the Chamber of Deputies, and enhauer and Hartman. He was a contributor to the was appointed Minister of Instruction, February of Revue des Deux Mondes and to the Journal des Savants. the latter year, but resigned in July. From 1863 His works include L'Idée de Dieu et ses Nouveaux until 1868 he was a member of the legislative assem- Critiques (1883); La Philosophie de Goethe (1880); bly; he was defeated in 1869 by Gambetta, but in Le Matérialisme et la Science (1883); Études Morales 1871 was again elected; upon the formation of the sur le Temps Présent (1879); Mélanges et Portraits Senate in 1875 was elected a life member. He pub- (1888). He died at Paris, July 13, 1887. lished a work exposing St. Simonianism, and also CAROB. See Locust TREE, Vol. XIV, p. 767.



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