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1878, and was knighted in 1879. He has introduced | Kennebec County, Maine, Oct. 22, 1842. She gradumany reform motions in Parliament, those bearing ated at the Female Seminary in Gorham, Maine, on the question of finance being the most important. in 1862, and in 1866 went

CARUS, Julius VICTOR, a German zoölogist; to Italy for the purborn at Leipsic, Aug. 25, 1823.

He studied medi

pose of having her voice cine and surgery at Leipsic, subsequently at Würz- trained by Giovanni Corburg and Freiburg, and in 1849 went to Oxford as si of Milan. She made keeper of the Museum of Comparative Anatomy. her debut in Italian opera In 1851 he returned to Leipsic, and in 1853 was in Copenhagen, and for there placed in the chair of comparative anatomy. the next few months sang Carus lectured at Edinburgh for Wyville Thomson in the principal European during his absence on the Challenger expedition. cities. In 1869, having His writings, numerous and valuable, consist chiefly further improved her of monographs devoted to particular departments of voice by study at Badenzoology. The more general of his works are Sys- Baden and Paris, she came tem der Thierischen Morphologie (1853); Handbuch to America and sang in der Zoologie (1863); Geschichte der Zoologie (1872); | Steinway Hall, New York. For 12 years she sang and Prodromus Fauna Mediterranea (1884).

in America, with the exception of two winters (1875CARVALHO-MIOLAN, MARIE CAROLINE, a 76 and 1876–77) spent in Russia. Her voice was a French opera-singer; born at Marseilles, Dec. 31, rich contralto of singular sweetness. In 1882 Miss 1827. She received her first instruction from her Cary married Mr. Raymond of New York, and refather, Felix Miolan, an oboe-player, and then from tired from the stage. Duprez at the Paris Conservatoire (1843-47), re- CARY, PH@BE, authoress, sister of Alice Cary; ceiving the first prize in singing, and making her born near Cincinnati, Ohio, Sept. 24, 1824; died in début, at Duprez's benefit, Dec. 14, 1849, in the first Newport, Rhode Island, July 31, 1871. Her life and act of Lucia, and in the trio in the second act of La her literary work were closely connected with that of Juive. From this year until 1856 she sang at the her sister. She began to write poetry at the age of Opera Comique, making her reputation as Isabelle 17, one of her first poems being the hymn so in Le Pré aux Clercs, and as the heroines in Giralda widely known, commencing, “One sweetly solemn and Les Noces de Jeanette. In 1853. she married thought.” As mistress of the New York home she Leon Carvalho, then engaged at the same theater. had less leisure for writing than her sister, and she Mme. Carvalho sang for the next ten years at the attempted but little prose. The Poems of Alice and Lyrique, appearing in a new opera, La Fanchonnette, Phæbe Cary are mostly the work of Alice. Phoebe's and during this period established her right to be lines are more buoyant and cheerful in tone than are regarded as the first female singer of the lyric stage her sister's. Her published works are Poems and in France. She retired from the stage, June 9, 1885. Parodies (1854); Poems of Faith, Hope and Love Just two years later she appeared in a benefit con- (1867); and a number of the hymns published by cert given for the sufferers at the fire of the Opera Rev. Dr. Deems in Hymns for All Christians (1869). Comique, singing in a duet from Mireille with Mary Clemmer Ames Hudson, an intimate friend of Faure. She died at Dieppe, July 10, 1895.

the sisters, published a memorial of them. CARVER, JOHN, governor of Plymouth colony; CARY, SAMUEL FENTON, Congressman; born in born in England about 1590; died in Plymouth, Cincinnati, Ohio, Feb. 18, 1814; graduated at the Massachusetts, April, 1621. He was a member of Miami University in 1835 and the Cincinnati Law the Puritan company at Leyden, and was an agent School in 1837; served as Independent Republican sent to secure permission from the Virginia com- in Congress from 1867 to 1869, and was the Repubpany to found a colony in America. Carver came lican who voted against the impeachment of Presiover in the Mayflower, was elected governor by the dent Johnson. In 1876 Peter Cooper and Samuel Pilgrims while the ship was in the harbor of Prov- F. Cary were the candidates on the national Greenincetown, and was re-elected in March, 1651, but back ticket. died suddenly, the following month.

CARYATIDES, columnar ornament. See CARY, ALICE, authoress; born near Cincinnati, ARCHITECTURE, Vol. II, pp. 407, 408. Ohio, April 20, 1820; died in New York City, Feb. CARYOCAR, a genus of large trees of the family 12, 1871. Her youth was spent where the oppor

Ternstræmiacere, natives of the tropical parts of tunities for education and culture were very limited. America. It yields a good timber for ship-building, At the age of 18 she began to write prose and verse and produces the delicious nuts called butternuts. for the press, and her work met with acceptance. In Its flowers are large and of a purplish red color. 1852 she removed to New York City, where she The fruit is a sort of drupe, the Aeshy part of which attained literary eminence. Among her published consists of a butter-like substance which is used in works are Clovernook Papers (1851); Hagar: A Story cookery instead of butter. of To-day; Lyra, and Other Poems (1852); The CARYOPHYLLACEÆ, a family of exogenous Clovernook Children (1854); Married, Not Mated plants, containing upward of one thousand known (1855); Pictures of Country Life (1859); Lyrics and species, mostly herbaceous, distributed all over the Hymns (1866); The Bishop's Son; The Lover's Diary; world. Most of them are inconspicuous weeds, but and Snow-Berries (1867).

many produce beautiful flowers, and are favorites in CARY, ANNIE LOUISE, singer; born in Wayne, many gardens, as the pink, carnations, sweet-williams,





for soap.


etc. A few contain saponin, and afford a substitute CASCARILLA, a name given to a number of

South American bitter barks used in medicine, CARYOPSIS, in botany, a fruit in which the seed notable among which is the bark of Croton Eleutheria, and pericarp so closely adhere as to be inseparable a genus of the family Euphorbiacea. and even undistinguishable. The term is exclusively CASCO BAY, a body of water extending along applied to the characteristic fruit (commonly known the coast of Cumberland County, southern Maine, as the "seed") of grasses. Common illustrations for about 20 miles, from Cape Elizabeth to Fuller's are "grains” of wheat, corn, etc.

Rock, inclosing about three hundred islands. The CARYOTA, a genus of southern Asiatic palms, city of Portland is at the western end of the bay. belonging to the section of "feather-palms," with CASE, as a legal term, means any action or probipinnate leaves and fruit a berry. The best-known ceeding in law or equity. It is synonymous with species is C. urens, which yields an abundance of “cause, cause of action.” The word has also sugary sap, from which sugar or syrup is obtained another and distinct signification. In this latter by boiling, or “toddy” by fermentation, or “arrack" sense it is a shortening of the term “trespass on the by distillation. The pith also yields a much-used case,” and is the technical name applied to a form starch, resembling sago, and the leaves a very valu- of action which may be maintained to recover damable fiber.

ages for injuries to the person or property. In its CARYSFORT REEF, is situated off the southern broadest sense, case includes what have now become coast of Florida, in lat. 25° 13' 15" N., and long. known as distinct forms of action, assumpsit and 80° 12' 45" W. It is a dangerous coral reef, and trover. In the sense in which it is now used it is a has an iron-pile lighthouse 11 2 feet high, furnished form of action to recover damages for injuries comwith a powerful flash-light.

mitted without force, or if forcible, which damage CASABIANCA, Louis, a French naval officer; the plaintiff consequentially, and does not include born at Bastia about 1755; sat in the National Con- damages for the breach of a contract. Thus an vention of 1792, and in 1798 was captain of the action for damages on account of slander, malicious flagship L'Orient in the expedition to Egypt. He prosecution, deceit or injuries which result from was mortally wounded at the battle of the Nile, negligence, is properly brought in case. Aug. 1, 1798; the ship caught fire; his ten-year-old CASE, AUGUSTUS Ludlow, rear-admiral, United son would not leave him, and both perished. Mrs. States navy; born in Newburgh, New York, Feb. 3, Felicia Hemans has immortalized the boy and inci- 1813; entered the navy as midshipman in 1828; was dent in one of her most popular poems.

promoted through the several grades until 1872, CASAS, BARTOLOME DE LAS. See Las Casas, when he was made rear-admiral, and in 1875 was Vol. XIV, p. 319.

placed on the retired list. He served during the CASATI, GAETANO, an Italian African explorer; Mexican War, the Civil War, and in 1865 was apborn at Lesmo in 1838; educated there and at Mi- pointed fleet-captain of the European squadron. In lan and Pavia. In his twenty-first year he joined 1874 the combined European, North Atlantic and the army in Piedmont, and in 1867 reached the South Atlantic squadrons, which, at the time of the rank of captain. He resigned in 1879, determined Virginius difficulties, were grouped in the harbor of to become an African explorer, sailing thither from Key West, were under his command. He died in Genoa, in December of that year. He arrived at 1893 Khartoum, May, 1880, and succeeded in meeting CASE-HARDENING. See Iron, Vol. XIII, p. his countryman, Gessi Pasha, governor of the region | 342. around Bahr-el-Gazelle. In the middle of October CASELLI, JEAN, an Italian inventor; born at of this year he was able to proceed to Rumbeck, Sienna, May 25, 1815; pursued his studies at Florafter which he was not heard of until a letter ence, where he had for his master the famous physreached his patrons, the Societa d'Explorazione icist, Leopold Nobili. The first writing of Caselli Commerciale d' Africa, who had fitted out his ex- was on the life and work of his master. Caselli was pedition, dated Dec. 29, 1881, stating that he made a member of the Italian Athenæum, and read had been a prisoner, and had only succeeded in many interesting papers before that society, notably making his escape on the 7th of that month. Two a critical discourse on the History of the Italian years later he met Emin Pasha at Lado, and also Republics of the Middle Ages, by De Sismondi. In Junker, a Russian explorer. This was at the time 1836 he took religious orders and accepted a benethe Mahdi was making a stir, and the three adven- fice. In 1841 he was called to Parma as tutor to the turers were cornered in Egypt. The expeditions children of Count Sanvitale. After a short period sent to rescue them, conducted by Dr. Fischer and of exile on account of a political vote Caselli Dr. Lenz, both failed; but Henry M. Stanley was returned to Florence and devoted himself entirely to successful in reaching Emin. Casati then went to the study of electrical science. He worked with live as a “resident" in King Kabba' Rega's terri- apparatus constructed by himself, with the assistance tory, where he acted as postmaster to Emin in find- of his son, Ludovic, a distinguished mechanician. ing means of transmitting the latter's correspond. In 1854 he founded La Rocreazione, a journal for the ence to Europe. Kabba detained him in semi-cap- .purpose of popularizing physical sciences. In 1856, tivity. Stanley's arrival in 1889 set him free. His as a result of his labors, he succeeded in perfecting Ten Ycars in Equatoria was published in 1891. a new system of telegraphy, which he termed "pan

CASCADE RANGE. See Oregon, Vol. XVII, telegraphy,” by which the message was transmitted p. 822; WASHINGTON, Vol. XXIV, p. 385.

as originally written. This system of autograph

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telegraphy was at once adopted in France and in 1847; the son of Casimir Victor Perier, Minister of Russia, and was also extended into China and Persia. the Interior in 1872 under Thiers, and grandson of For many years Abbé Caselli was engaged in per- | Casimir Perier, Prime Minister to Louis Philippe in tecting a practicable electric motor, and constructed 1831. Jean Paul was trained for a political career, one, at the expense of Napoleon III, in 1865. He and during the Franco-Prussian war greatly diswas made an officer of the Order of St. Maurice and tinguished himself in the siege of Paris as captain Lazarus. Died at Florence, Oct. 7, 1891.

of the Mobiles d'Aube, receiving the cross of the CASEIN. See CHEESE, Vol. V, pp. 455, 456. Legion of Honor as a reward therefor (1871). Next

CASEMATE, originally a loopholed gallery exca- year he was appointed by his father Under-Secrevated in a bastion, through which artillery could fire tary of the Department of the Interior. In 1874 upon an enemy who had gained possession of the he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for ditch. As defense from shells became more impor. Nogent-sur-Seine as a Republican. In 1877 he tant, the term was subsequently applied to a bomb- entered the Cabinet as Under-Secretary of State in proof vault in a fortress for the security of the the Department of Public Worship and Instruction, defenders, without direct reference to the annoyance and was Under-Secretary of War in 1883. In 1885

he was again elected to the Chamber, this time as CASE-SHOT. See AMMUNITION, Vol. I, p. 745. an Opportunist, and also in 1880. In 1890 he was

CASEY, Silas, American soldier; born at East elected vice-president of the Chamber of Deputies Greenwich, Rhode Island, July 12, 1807; graduated and president of the Commission on the Budget. at West Point in 1826; served on the frontier in the In 1893 he was prevailed upon to form a ministry. Florida war, in the war with Mexico, where, at Cha- His ministry was of short duration, though there pultepec, he was severely wounded while leading the are those who insinuated that he desired its dissoluassault, and in the Civil War. He drilled volun- tion, so that he could prosecute his candidature for teers at the national capital, fought at Fair Oaks, the presidential succession. The assassination of and presided over the board which examined offi- Carnot brought about an immediate contest, and cers for colored troops. At the close of the war he Perier was elected, June 27th, his chief opponent was brevetted major-general of the United States having been M. Brisson (q.v., in these Supplements). army, and was retired from the service in 1868. He | The election of M. Gerault-Richard, who had been was the author of Infantry Tactics (1862) and Infan- sentenced to one year's imprisonment and a fine for try Tactics for Colored Troops (1863). He died at publishing an article reflecting upon the President, Brooklyn, Jan. 22, 1882.

and the election of M. Brisson, Dec. 18, 1894, to CASEY, Silas, JR., an American naval officer; the presidency of the Chamber of Deputies, anborn in Rhode Island, Sept. 11, 1841; graduated at noyed the President deeply, for he was a man who the Naval Academy in 1860, and rose successively to had a keen sense of the dignity becoming his office, the positions of lieutenant, lieutenant-commander, and he resigned, Jan. 15, 1895. Here may be reand in 1874 coinmander. He took part in the called the words he used upon his acceptance of the first attack on Fort Sumter, and in other engage presidency: “The weight of responsibility is too ments in Charleston harbor. In 1886 he com- heavy for me to speak my gratitude. I love my manded the receiving-ship Dale, and in 1891 the country too well to be happy on the day when I cruiser Newark.

become its chief.” These words reflect the sentiCASEY, THOMAS LINCOLN, an American military ments of a high-minded man. engineer; born at Madison Barracks, near Sackett's CASINO, a game of cards, in which the object is Harbor, New York, May 10, 1831; was graduated to obtain the most points, consisting of certain at West Point (1852) and became principal assistant counts and cards of a recognized value. The game professor of engineering at West Point (1857-59). can be played by two or more, by single or individHe commanded a detachment of engineer troops in ual opponents or partners. The cards are dealtone, the district of Oregon from 1859 until 1861, and in two or three at a time, provision being made also the summer of the latter year was on the staff of the for a hand dealt to the table, the faces of which are general commanding the department of Virginia. turned up. The game proceeds by taking tricks, in He had charge of fortifications on the coast of three ways: by pairing, that is, by matching a card Maine and New Hampshire from 1861 until 1867, on the table by one in the hand, of equal denomiand was assistant to the chief of engineers from 1867 nation; by combining, that is, by collecting from the until 1879. He was in charge of the public build board all the cards whose united number of spots ings and grounds of the District of Columbia from equal that of a card in the hand; and by building, 1877 until 1881, and of the construction of build that is, by combining cards on the table with one ing for the State, War and Navy departments. In in the hand, the trick, if it comes round without 1888 he became chief of engineers, with the rank of being captured by an opponent, being taken by the brigadier-general. He was placed on the retired card of equal denomination reserved for that pur


The points in the regular game are: cards, 3; CASHMERE. See KASHMIR, Vol. XIV, p. 9. big casino (the ten-spot of diamonds), 2; little casino CASHMERE GOAT. See GOAT, Vol. X, p. 409. (the two-spot of spades), 1; spades, 1; each ace, 1;

CASIMIR OR KAZIMIERZ, five Polish kings. the total points being 11 for each deal. If the cards See POLAND, Vol. XIX, 286-290, 294, 295.

are equal (26) in each party's hand at the end of the CASIMIR-PERIER, JEAN PAUL PIERRE, ex- rubber, cards are said to be “not out," and are not President of the French Republic; born Nov. 8, I counted to either party. Sometimes another count

list in 1895.



is introduced, called “sweeps"; that is, when, by any | Galpin, and before his death he shared in the prosof the three modes above described, a trick is taken perity of one of the largest publishing houses of which clears or sweeps the board; this necessitates modern times. the next in hand playing out a card without any CASSELTON, a thriving town of Cass County, advantage, in fact at a loss. When “sweeps” are southeastern North Dakota, situated in the fertile played, each counts one point. Casino is a game of wheat-producing valley of the Red River of the skill, as will be at once seen; for it needs a memory North, about 25 miles W. of Fargo, on the Northof the cards which are out and taken, so as to avoid ern Pacific and Great Northern railroads. Popula. the capture of a trick in process of building up be- | tion 1890, 840. fore it comes round, of preventing similarly the CASSIA, a plant. See Senna, Vol. XXI, p. 664. capture of the other counting-points, especially the CASSICAN, a South American bird of the genus casinos. The number of points to a game are usu- Cassicus, resembling the orioles. They are gregaally 51, but any number can be agreed upon. rian, and prefer to live near human habitations.

CASINO. See MONTE CASSINO, Vol. XVI, p. They have remarkable power of imitating other 778.

birds. CASPARI, KARL Paul, a Norwegian exegete and CASSIDARIA, a genus of gasteropod mollusks of church historian; born at Dessau Anhalt, Feb. 8, the family of helmet-shells (Cassida). The living 1814; became professor of theology at Christiania in species live in the warmer seas.

There are many 1857. His Arabic grammar (4th ed. 1875) is in high fossil species in the Cretaceous and Tertiary formarepute, and his contributions to the study of the Old tions. Testament include works on Obadiah, Isaiah, Micah CASSIDY, WILLIAM, journalist; born in Albany, and Daniel. Besides his Kirchenhistorische Anekdota New York, Aug. 12, 1815; died there, Jan. 23, 1873. (1883), he published at Christiania Quellen zur Ge- He was a graduate of Union College in 1834; studied schichte des Taufsymbols und der Glaubensregel (2 law and was admitted to the bar, and in 1840-42 vols., 1866-69), extensions of which appeared in was state librarian. In 1843 he became editor of 1875 and 1879. He died April 11, 1892.

the Albany Atlas, a Democratic daily. In 1856 the CASPER, town and capital of Natrona County, Atlas and Argus were consolidated, and he became east-central Wyoming, on the North Plaite River, editor. In 1865 the paper was called the Argus. and the terminus of a branch of the Fremont, Elk- Mr. Cassidy, from 1868 till 1873, was secretary of horn and Missouri Valley railroad, 240 miles N.E. the Democratic State Committee, and framed the of Cheyenne. It is supported by its mining indus- celebrated antislavery plank which suffered defeat tries. Population 1890, 544.

at the convention at Herkimer. In 1872 Governor CASSAGNAC, PAUL ADOLPHE DE. See GRANIER Hoffman appointed him as one of a committee of DE CASSAGNAC, in these Supplements.

sixteen to revise the constitution. CASSAREEP, an antiseptic and condiment. See CASSIMERE, a soft, fine woolen dress fabric, CASSAVA, Vol. V, p. 182.

usually in plain colors and twilled, used for men's CASSATION, Court of. In the law of France, wear. An imitation of it is made of cotton and the act of annulling the decision of a court or judi- wool. Cashmere (from which word the former is decial tribunal is called cassation; and the function of rived) is a fine, costly fabric, made in Cashmere, in cassation, as regards the judgments of all the other the Himalayas, and spun from the yarn made from couris, is assigned to a special tribunal, called the the flossy wool of the Cashmere goat. This fabric court of cassation. See FRANCE, Vol. IX, p. 511. is best known in the form of cashmere shawls. A

CASSATT, Mary, an American artist; born in coarse worsted variety of cassimere is known in ScotPennsylvania, and residing in Paris, where she land, where it is manufactured, as kerseymere, which studied under Soyer and C. Bellay, making her word is probably a corruption of cassimere. début at the Salon of 1874 with Ida. She has CASSIN, John, an American ornithologist; born studied in Spain, and shows a partiality for Spanish near Chester, Pennsylvania, Sept. 6, 1813. His subjects. In 1878 she exhibited, in Paris, works specialty was description and classification. He was exhibiting the influence of the impressionist school. one of the most active members of the Academy of She has exhibited in America The Music Lesson; Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, contributing much to After the Bull Fight; and At the French Theater. its journal. His works include Illustrations of the

CASSELL, John, founder of the English pub- | Birds of California, Texas, Oregon, British and Ruslishing firm of Cassell and Company, the son of a sian America, commenced in 1855; Zoology of the Manchester innkeeper; born Jan. 23, 1817; died United States Exploring Expedition; Quadrupeds and April 2, 1865. He had no early educational ad- Birds (1855); Zoology of Gillies's United States Astrovantages, but fitted himself for his later work by nomical Expedition to Chile (1855); American Ornicareful self-culture while employed as an apprentice thology, a general synopsis of North American ornijoiner. He went to London in 1836, where he was thology, containing descriptions and figures of all for some time established as a tea and coffee mer- North American birds not given by former American chant. Turning his attention to literary work, he authors (1856); etc. He died in Philadelphia, Jan. issued his Working Man's Friend (1850); Illustrated 10, 1869. Exhibitor (1851); Popular Educator (1852), the most CASSINO. Same as Casino, in these Supplepopular of all his works, which, in a revised form, is ments. still on sale; and Family Paper (1853). In 1859 he CASSIOPEIA, a beautiful constellation of the entered into partnership with Messrs. Petter and northern hemisphere, supposed to represent the

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719 wife of Cephus sitting in a chair with a branch in hersion of the Old and New Testaments; and a posthand. In 1572 there appeared in the constellation humous work, in dialogue, on predestination, eleca new star, which was brighter than Venus. The tion, free-will and faith. He died in Basel, Dec. 29, star gradually diminished in luster, and in March, 1563. 1574, it disappeared. See also under ANDROMEDA, CASTANEA, the chestnut tree.

See Vol. V, p. Vol. II, p. 22.

608; ARBORICULTURE, Vol. II, p. 317. CASSIQUIARE, a river of southern Venezuela, CASTEGGIO, a town of Lombardy, northern South America. It is a small effluent of the Orinoco, Italy, 28 miles S. of Milan. It was an important and gradually increases until, at its union with the military position as early as the times of the Gallic Rio Negro, it attains a width of six hundred yards. and Punic wars. Near here was fought, in 1800, the By means of this singular river, water communica- battle of Montebello, in which Bonaparte defeated tion is established, through the Amazon, Orinoco, and the Austrians. Some Roman antiquities still remain, their affluents, between the interior of Brazil and and numerous curious inscriptions and coins have the Carácas in Venezuela.

been found. Population, 3,685. CASSITERIDES, islands. See PHENICIA, Vol. CASTELAR, Emili), a Spanish statesman and XVIII, p. 806.

orator; born at Cadiz, Sept. 8, 1832. He was eduan ore of tin. See MINERALOGY, cated at Madrid, and in Vol. XVI, p. 387.

1856 became professor of CASSIUS PARMENSIS, so named froin his history and philosophy in birthplace, Parma, was one of the murderers of its university. He joined Cæsar, 43 B.C. He took an active part in the war the revolutionary repubagainst the triumvirs, and after the death of Brutus licans, and after the atand Cassius, joined Pompey in Sicily with the fleet tempted uprising in 1866, which he commanded. He followed the fortunes of being condemned to Antony after Pompey's defeat, going to Athens, sub- death, fled to France, but sequently to the battle of Actium, and was put to returned in 1868. On death by the order of Octavianus, 30 B.C. He was the abdication of King a poet whose works were prized, and wrote two | Amadeo, brought about tragedies, Thysetes and Brutus.

in 1873 by his means, he CASSIUS, PURPLE OF, a coloring substance of | became Minister for Forvery ancient use, which is prepared by adding a eign Affairs, and aftermixed solution of protochlorid and bichlorid of ward President of the Cortes and President Dictator tin gradually to a solution of chlorid of gold, when of the Republic. He resigned in 1874, and again a more or less abundant precipitate of double stan- sought France, upon the pronunciamento of General nate of gold and tin is thrown down. Purple of Martinez Campos in favor of Alfonso XII. The cassius is employed by the potter to communicate a same year he resigned the chair of history in the rich purple or rose tint to fine china, and it also im- University of Madrid, through disgust at the educaparts the red color to Bohemian glass.

tional decree promulgated by the Spanish governCASSIVELLAUNUS OR CASSIBELAN, a Cel- ment. He returned to Madrid in 1876, and was tic chief. See BRITANNIA, Vol. IV, pp. 352, 353. again elected to the Cortes. His literary labors

CASSOCK, a long, loose coat worn by the Epis- | include several works of a political and economic copal and Catholic clergy. It has a single upright character, some autobiographical sketches and rocollar, and reaches to the feet. Its common color is

He has been a frequent contributor to black for all orders of the clergy. In the Anglican the prominent magazines, reviews and newspapers. Church, on state occasions, the bishops frequently Among his chief works are La Civilisación (2d ed. wear purple. In the Roman Catholic Church cas- 1865); Cuestiones Políticas y Sociales (1870); Dissocks vary in color according to the dignity of the cursos Parlamentarios (1871); Historia del Movimiento wearer, priests wearing black, bishops purple, car- Republicano en Europa (1874); La Cuestión del Oriente dinals scarlet, and the pope white.

(1876). He contributed, in 1892, a Life of Columbus CASSOPOLIS, village and capital of Cass County, to the Century Magazine. southwestern Michigan, on the Michigan Central CASTELBUONO, a town of central northern and the Chicago and Grand Trunk railroads, 98 Sicily, five miles S. of Cefalù, noted for its mineral miles S.W. of Lansing. It contains manufactories springs. It also has some manna trade. Populaof lumber, iron, sash, blinds and furniture. Popu- tion, 8,945. lation 1894, 1,324.

CASTEL-GANDOLFO, a village of Italy, the CASTALIO, SEBASTIEN, a French theologian; summer residence of the pope. It is situated on a born at Dauphiné in 1515. About 1540 he was in volcanic peak, 14 miles S. E. of Rome. Population, vited to Geneva by Calvin, and appointed humanity 1,684. professor, but having the misfortune afterward to CASTELLAMONTE, a town of Piedmont, northdiffer from the reformer in religious opinion, he was ern Italy, 21 miles N. of Turin. It has an old castle, banished from the city, and went to Basel, where he | manufactories' of earthenware and a trade in the spent the rest of his life in extreme poverty. Among agricultural produce of the district. Population, his various writings may be mentioned De Hareticis, 6,375. etc., a treatise which argues against the right of the CASTELLANA, a town of Italy, in the province magistrate to punish heretical opinions; a Latin ver- of Bari, 25 miles S. E. of the city of that name. The



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