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several journalists suffered imprisonment through camped on its left bank, a little less than a mile 'his orders.

above the north fork. He himself had been CEBIDÆ, a family of apes. See APE, Vol. II, called to Washington, and had left General Wright Pp. 152-155.

in command. During the previous night the ConCECIDOMYIA, a gall-making cereal pest. federates had marched around and taken their See WHEAT, Vol. XXIV, p. 535.

position behind and to the left of the Union line. CECIL, RICHARD, clergyman; born in London, Part of the Union troops were routed, the rest Nov. 8, 1748; died at Tunbridge Wells, Aug. 15, General Wright withdrew about a mile to the 1810. He was ordained a minister of the Church north, taking up a more favorable position. The of England in 1776; minister at St. John's, Lon Confederates followed, though in disorder, and don, and Risley in Surrey. He wrote a series of formed again in front of General Wright's line. biographies, which include some of Rev. John At this time, a little before one p.m., Sheridan, Newton; a series of miscellaneous tracts; a vol- who had heard of the battle, at Winchester, arume of sermons; and a volume of Remains, a rived, and his appearance inspired his men with work eminently useful to ministers.

confidence, so that they drove back the enemy. CECROPIA, a South American and West Indian General Sheridan then prepared for aggressive genus of Urticacea, known as “trumpet-trees." action, and about four p.m. made a spirited attack, The pith is divided into chambers, and these par driving the Confederates completely from the titions being removed, the branches are made into field, and recapturing all the guns and ammuniwater-pipes and wind-instruments. The wood is tion which had been lost on the previous night, very light, and is used to make floats for nets, and capturing, in addition, 24 guns and 56 ambuand by the Indians in kindling fires, by friction lances from the enemy.

lances from the enemy. The Union losses in against a harder piece of wood. The bast yields killed, wounded and prisoners was estimated at a cordage fiber, and the outer bark is astringent. 6,000. The Confederates lost about 3, 100. This The fruit resembles a raspberry, the buds furnish was the last important battle in the Shenandoah a potherb and the juice hardens into caoutchouc. valley. It was this ride of Sheridan's, from WinThe pith-chambers are inhabited by ants, which chester to Cedar Creek, that forms the theme of feed upon small food-bodies formed on the leaf- Thomas Buchanan Read's famous poem. petioles, and serve as a police-protection against CEDAR FALLS, a city of Blackhawk County, dangerous ants and other insects. The leaves are northeastern Iowa, situated on the Cedar River, a favorite food of the sloth.

100 miles W. of Dubuque, on the Burlington, CECROPIA, a moth of the genus Platysamia, Cedar Rapids and Northern, Chicago Great Westwidely distributed in the United States. The ern and Illinois Central railroads. It is the seat wings are brown, with a red and black crescent- of a state normal school, and contains oatmeal like spot near the center. The young caterpillars and paper mills, and various other manufacturing are black, but the mature specimens are of a green industries, most of them utilizing the water-power color. They construct cocoons of very fine silk. obtained from the fall of the Cedar River as it In California an attempt is being made to culti- passes through the town. Population 1890, 3,459. vatė the cecropia silk-worm.

CEDAR KEYS, a seaport and city on one of CEDAR, BASTARD BARBADOS (Cedrela odorata), the Cedar Keys, Levy County, western central a tree of the family Meliacea, a native of the Florida; terminus of the Florida Central and tropical parts of America. It is often upward of Peninsular railroad; 35 miles S.W. of Gainesville, 80 feet high, with a trunk remarkable for its thick- It is on the Gulf of Mexico, and its harbor is ness. The wood has an agreeable fragrance, and, formed by several small islands, on one of which being light and soft, it is used for canoes, shingles stands a lighthouse. The town has an ice factory, and cigar-boxes. In France it is used in making a large trade in lumber, oysters and pencil-wood, black lead-pencils. True Barbados cedar is and has a very healthful climate. Population Juniper barbadensis, and is of much less import- 1890, 1,600.

The true cedar belongs to the coniferous CEDAR MOUNTAIN, a battlefield situated genus Cedrus (q.v.).

the Rappahannock River, in Culpeper CEDAR-BERG, a mountain range in Cape County, northwestern Virginia. The action took Colony, stretching north and south on the east place Aug. 9, 1862, between the Confederates side of Olifant River valley, in Clanwilliam divis- under General Jackson and the Federal forces ion. The name is from the plantations of Cape

under General Banks. The Union army was Cedar (Widdringtonia juniperoides), which are now, greatly outnumbered and defeated, with a loss of however, being fast destroyed. This is the only 1,400 in killed and wounded, 400 taken prisoners, locality where this species is found.

besides the loss of a large quantity of ammunition CEDAR-BIRD. See WAX-WING, Vol. XXIV, and stores. The Confederate loss was 1,314. p. 461.

CEDAR RAPIDS, a city of Linn County, cenCEDAR CREEK, a stream of northern Vir- tral eastern Iowa, on the Cedar River, 79 miles ginia, which rises in the North Mountains and S.W. of Dubuque, at the junction of the Chicago Hows between Shenandoah and Frederic counties, and Northwestern and the Burlington, Cedar emptying into the Shenandoah River. A battle Rapids and Northern railroads also on the Illinois was fought here on Oct. 19, 1862, which takes its Central and on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. name from the creek. Sheridan's army was en

Paul railroads. It is also the terminus of the

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Dubuque and Southwestern railroad. The Coe CELESTINE. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, Collegiate Institute (Presbyterian) is situated p. 400. here. The rapid current of the river at this point CELINA, a village and the capital of Mercer provides ample water-power for flour-mills and County, central western Ohio, situated at the various manufactories of machinery, carriages and junction of the Cincinnati, Jackson and Mackiagricultural implements. It has a pork-packing naw, the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton and establishment, and the extensive car-shops of the the Lake Erie and Western railroads, on the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern railroad. northwest bank of the Great Reservoir. It has Population 1890, 18,020; 1895, 21,555.

several churches, banks and two planing-mills. CEDAR RIVER rises in southeastern Minne- | Population 1890, 2,702. sota, enters Iowa at Mitchell County, runs south- CELLE, a Prussian town. See ZELLE, Vol. east past Waverley, Waterloo and Vinton, and XXIV, p. 775. enters the Iowa River some 25 miles above its CELLIER, ALFRED, English musician and junction with the Mississippi. Its length 'has composer; born at Hackney, England, Dec. 1, been estimated to be between 375 and 400 miles. 1844; died in London, Dec. 28, 1891. He was It flows through a very fertile prairie region. of French parentage; conductor of the Belfast

CEDAR SPRINGS, a village of Kent County, Harmonic Society in 1865; orchestral conductor in the central western part of the southern penin- of the Opera Comique in 1877–79, and with Sir sula of Michigan, on the Toledo, Saginaw and Arthur Sullivan at Covent Garden,

He comMuskegon and the Grand Rapids and Indiana posed Charity Begins at Home; Sultan of Mocha; railroads, 18 miles N. of Grand Rapids. It has Pandora; The Tower of London; The Mountebanks, a number of lumber-mills. Population 1890, 1,038. and numerous other not so well known operas.

CEDAR SPRING, a village of Spartanburg CELL-LIFE, ANIMAL. See EMBRYOLOGY, in County, northwestern South Carolina, about 90 these Supplements. miles N.W. of Columbia, and 4 miles W. of Spar- CELL-LINEAGE. See EMBRYOLOGY, in these tanburg. It is the seat of the state institution Supplements. for the deaf, dumb and blind.

CELLS. See Biology, Vol. III, pp. 681-683; CEDARTOWN, capital of Polk County, north- MORPHOLOGY, Vol. XVI, pp. 840, 841. western Georgia, on the Chattanooga, Rome and CELLS, DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT. See MORColumbus and the East and West railroads, 20 PHOLOGY, in these Supplements. miles S. of Rome. Its principal industries are CELLS, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY. See ELECiron-working, lumber-making and fruit-raising. TRICITY, $97–109, in these Supplements. Population 1890, 1,625.


See ANATOMY, CEILING. See Building, Vol. IV, pp. 505, 506; Vol. I, p. 852. also, for churches, see ARCHITECTURE, Vol. II, p. CELLULOID OR PARKESINE, a substance 462.

consisting chiefly of a dried solution of guncotton CELAKOVSKY, FRANZ LADISLAUS, Bohemian (pyroxylin). A variety of it can be made with poet and professor of Slav philosophy; born in pyroxylin and camphor. It resembles ivory, horn, Strakonitz, March 7, 1799; died at Prague, Aug. tortoise-shell and hardened India-rubber. The

His principal works are Echoes of Rus- pyroxylin is prepared by treating cellulose from sian and Bohemian Folk-Songs (1833-40), and a cycle such vegetable materials as cotton, rags, paperof love-songs and didactic and political poems maker's half-stuff, or paper itself, with a mixture (1840) He also translated the works of Herder, of one part of strong nitric acid and four parts of Goethe and Scott.

strong sulphuric acid. The distillate obtained by CELANDINE, a popular name applied to two distilling wood-naphtha with chlorid of lime is dissimilar plants: (1) Chelidonium majus, a mem- used as a solvent for the pyroxylin. When the ber of the poppy family, common to Europe and excess of solvent is removed from the pyroxylin, the United States. It is a tall perennial branch- it is mixed with a considerable quantity of castoring herb, with pinnate leaves, and small yellow oil or cottonseed-oil, and made into a paste beRowers in umbels. The whole plant is full of an tween heated rollers. For a hard compound, the acrid yellow juice, which has some reputation in quantity of oil should be less than the pyroxylin. medicine. Its nearest ally (Stylophorum diphyllum) In a plastic condition, celluloid can be spread on is known as “celandine poppy. (2) Ranunculus textile fabrics, or it may be made as hard as Ficaria, one of the early" buttercups" of Europe, ivory, for which it is largely used as a substitute. otherwise known as “pile-wort.

Billiard-balls, piano-keys and combs are made of CELAYA, a town in the state of Guanajuato, it. It can be colored to represent amber, torcentral Mexico, situated on the Rio Laja, about toise-shell or malachite. In imitation of red 150 miles, by the Mexican National railroad, N. W. coral it has been a great deal used for jewelry. of the City of Mexico, and about 30 miles W. of CELLULOSE, primarily, the essential constitQueretaro by the Mexican Central.

It has sev

uent of the framework or wall-membrane of all eral fine plazas, handsome churches, and manu- plant-cells. It is a secretion from the contained factories of cotton and woolen cloths and sad- protoplasm, but in the advancing growth of the dlery. Population, 21,000.

plant the walls become incrusted with resin, colorCELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. See Astro- | ing matter, etc. It composes the cells of wood as NOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY, in these Supplements. wax composes the cells of a honeycomb. It is

5, 1852.



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changed to glucose by long boiling with dilute was ordered as a means of protection in the con-
sulphuric acid. A substance resembling parch-struction of ships in Russia, Holland, Japan and
ment is readily obtained by treating unsized paper Greece, as well as in the American navy. Its
with cold sulphuric acid. Cellulose is also said to cost is about $i a cubic foot, or approaching $250
exist in the tunics of Ascidia, and in other inver- a ton. (See FIBRES, Vol. IX, pp. 131, 132; Biol-
tebrates. It is insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, OGY, Vol. III, p. 169; and GUN-COTTON, Vol. XI,
dilute alkalies and dilute acids. It is remarkable p. 277.
for its insolubility, being dissolvable, so far as at CELLULOSE SILK.


See Silk, ARTIFICIAL, present known, only by an ammoniacal solution of in these Supplements. oxid of copper, from which it may be again pre- CELMAN, MIGUEL JUAREZ, Argentine Repub. cipitated. It may be bleached by the action of lic statesman; born in Cordoba, Argentine Repub. chlorin water. Skeleton leaves, so often made lic, September, 1844; governor of the province of in phantom bouquets, consist of nearly pure cellu- | Cordoba in 1880; a member of the National Conlose. They are usually prepared either (a) by gress in 1884. He was elected President of the boiling the leaves in a dilute solution of caustic republic in 1886, and retained the office until soda, and bleaching by an immersion in a solution 1890, when he was compelled to resign, owing to of hypochlorite of lime, or (6) by suspending the the national financial panic and bankruptcy, the leaves in a mixture of nitric acid and chlorate of blame for which was laid on Celman and his potassa for several days. It is isomerous, with Cabinet. starch in its composition, and allied to starch, CELSUS, AURELIUS CORNELIUS, physician. See sugar and inulin.

Cotton and bleached flax, as ANATOMY, Vol. I, p. 802. well as hemp, are nearly pure cellulose. With CELT, the name by which certain weapons or age it becomes largely transformed into lignin, implements of early inhabitants of western Europe suberin, or mucilage. In some filter-paper, nota- are known among archæologists. The term is bly the Swedish, it is in almost a chemically pure generally applied to a stone instrument of wedgestate. Sugar and gum are nearly allied to it in like form found in barrows and other repositories composition. When pure, it is fibrous or spongy, of Celtic antiquities. See ARMS AND ARMOR, white, translucent and often silky. Under the

Vol. II, p. 553. microscope the fibrous varieties appear like spun CELTIC CHURCH. See CELTIC LITERAglass. It is tough and extremely elastic, with a TURE, Vol. V, pp. 303-306; CULDEES, Vol. VI, specific gravity of 1.5.

pp. 693, 694. By dipping paper or cotton or linen fabrics in CELTS OR KELTS. See Celtic LITERATURE, a copper-ammonia solution of cellulose, and then Vol. V, pp. 297–305. passing the sheets between rolls, they are ren- CEMBRA PINE. See Pine, Vol. XIX, pp. dered water-proof. Several layers of such sheets of cloth or fiber pressed together form an artifi- CEMENTATION, a process in metallurgy. cial wood of enormous strength. A plastic mass See Iron, Vol. XIII, pp. 339-343. of this material can be readily prepared, suitable CEMENTITE. See IRON AND STEEL, in these for the manufacture of water-pipes, gas-pipes, Supplements. hats, clothing, boats, etc.

CEMETERIES, NATIONAL. There are eightyCellulose, by reason of its peculiar properties, three cemeteries kept in condition and cared for is being largely introduced into ship-building, as by the United States government. In such cemeit is specially adapted for resisting blows, con- teries are buried soldiers and officers who have cussions, or perforations, either above or below died in battle during a war, or who have died the water-line. Its component parts are carbon, while in active service. Special provisions are dydrogen and oxygen, and its scientific formula made at times to provide for the burying there of is given as C&H "015.

ex-soldiers who die paupers. These eighty-three The material used for ship-protection is usually national cemeteries are scattered throughout the made from the ground fiber of the cocoanut with states of the Union, but are principally near the a small percentage of original fibers. It is ex- larger battle-fields of the Civil War, and near tremely light, and has the property of rapidly | United States army posts. They are in charge swelling when wet. A cubic foot weighs about of the quartermaster's department. seven and a half to eight pounds. It is practi- CENIS, Mont, a carriage pass 6,672 feet in cally free from danger of fire, burning very slowly, height, and a peak of the Alps of 11,451 feet, on and with great difficulty when compressed. In the eastern border of the French department of France, experiments have been made by firing a Savoy. Napoleon I had a road constructed over ten-inch shot through a mattress of cellulose; the the pass from the Isère valley, in France, to fibers came together and swelled so rapidly that Susa, in Italy, in 1803-10, for strategical puronly three and a half gallons per minute of water poses. The Mont Cenis tunnel, on the Francopassed through the aperture, and in a short time Italian railway, was constructed in 1857–71, the aperture was closed entirely. Cellulose was under the neighboring Col de Fréjus, and reaches first used in ship-building in 1884, but so rapidly an altitude of 4,395 feet. See TUNNELLING, Vol. did it obtain favor that in 1890 the French had | XXIII, p. 624. introduced it into the construction of some 40 CENOZOIC, CAINOZOIC OR CÆNOZOIC vessels of their navy, and in the same year its use PERIOD. See GEOLOGY, Vol. X, pp. 360–365.

105, 106.

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CENSER, a vase or other sacred vessel used the arch are supported until they are keyed in. for burning perfumes. Censers were much used In building bridges or other structures, where in the Hebrew service of the Temple, and by the arches of great span are to be constructed, the Greeks. The censer, called also a thurible, is centering is usually made of framed timbers, or used in the Roman Catholic Church at mass, timbers and iron combined. vespers and other offices. It is suspended by CENTERVILLE, capital of Appanoose County, chains which are held in the hand, and is swung central southern Iowa, on

central southern Iowa, on the Chicago, Rock in the air, so as to throw the smoke of the incense Island and Pacific and on the Keokuk and Westin all directions.

ern railroads, 75 miles S. E. of Des Moines.

The CENSORSHIP OF THE PRESS. See Bib- surrounding country is rich in coal, stone and LIOGRAPHY, Vol. III, pp. 658, 659; Press Laws, timber and in agricultural products. Population Vol. XIX, pp. 710-714.

1890, 3,668. CENT, a coin representing the one hundredth CENTERVILLE, a town and the capital of part of a dollar, and of legal tender to the extent Queen Anne County, central western Maryland, of twenty-five in one payment.

The Dutch cent on the Corsica Creek, where it enters an arın of the is a copper coin, the hundredth part of a guilder. Chester River inlet; on the Philadelphia, WilmingIn the United States it is a coin of copper, or ton and Baltimore railroad; 36 miles by water copper alloy, and is nearly equal to an English S. E. of Baltimore. It has a considerable oyster halfpenny.

trade; marl is found in the neighborhood. PopCENTAUREA, a genus of plants of the family ulation 1890, 1,309. Compositæ, containing numerous species of annual CENTIGRADE THERMOMETER. See and perennial herbaceous plants, chiefly natives THERMOMETER, Vol. XXIII, p. 289. of temperate and cold regions. The corn-blue- CENTNER, in metallurgy, a weight of 100 bottle (C. cyanus), common in flower-gardens, has pounds; the pound is divided into 32 parts or Aowers variously modified by cultivation. The half-ounces, the half-ounce into two quarters, generic name has its origin in an ancient legend and each of these into two drams. concerning the cure of a centaur by one of these European countries centner is a common name species. The genus is related to the thistles, its for a hundredweight, but the centner of Germany, numerous species (often called “star thistles,”') | Austria, Sweden, Denmark and Switzerland is belonging chiefly to the eastern hemisphere, many now fixed at 50 kilos, or 110.23 pounds avoirduof them being cultivated.

pois. The cental (100 pounds) of the United CENTAURUS, the Centaur, a constellation in States and Great Britain is often called centner. the southern hemisphere, represented by a form CENTRAL AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. See half man and half horse. The stars in this con- AMERICA, Vol. I, pp. 693, 694. stellation are 37 in number. See ASTRONOMY,

CENTRAL CITY, capital of Gilpin County, Vol. II, p. 817.

northern central Colorado, situated on the DenCENTAURY, the common name of the species ver and Gulf branch of the Union Pacific railof Centaurea, (q.v., in these Supplements); also ap- road, 40 miles W. of Denver, among the Rocky plied to various species of the family Gentianacea, Mountains. It has a fine school, and its proswith pink or rose-colored flowers, notably the perity is due to the gold-mines in the vicinity. European species of Chlora and Erythræa. In Population 1890, 2,480. America the name is applied to the numerous

CENTRAL CITY, capital of Merrick County, species of the gentianaceous genus Sabbatia. southeastern central Nebraska, on the Platte

CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. See Exhibi- | River, and on the Burlington and Missouri and tion, Vol. VIII, p. 804; and World's Fairs, in the Union Pacific railroads; by the latter, 132 these Supplements.

miles W. of Omaha. The surrounding country CENTER COLLEGE, an educational institu- is fertile, producing principally grains and hay. tion for men at Danville, Kentucky; organized Population 1890, 1, 368. in 1819; is under the auspices of the Presbyterian CENTRAL FALLS, a village of Lincoln town, Church. The president is Rev. W. Clark Young. Providence County, Rhode Island, on the BlackIn 1895 there were 16 in the faculty, 269 students stone River, and the New York, New Haven and and a library of 11,000 volumes.

Hartford railroad, six miles above Providence. It CENTER OF GRAVITY. See GRAVITATION,

is an active manufacturing town, producing cotton Vol. XI, pp. 69, 70.

and woolen goods, machinery, leather, thread, CENTER OF OSCILLATION. See Clocks, hair-cloth, and has foundries and copper-refineries. Vol. VI, pp. 14, 15. CUSS

Population 1895, 15,828. CENTER OF PERCUSSION. See MECHAN. CENTRAL FORCES. When a body is once ics, Vol. XV, p. 770.

in motion, unless it be acted upon by some force, CENTERING, the framework upon which an it will move uniformly forward in a straight line arch or vault of stone, brick or iron is supported with unchanged velocity. If, therefore, a body during its construction. The simplest form of moves uniformly in any other path than a straight centering is that used by masons and bricklayers line-in a circle, for instance—this must be befor the arches of common windows and doors. cause some force is constantly at work which conThis is merely a deal board of the required shape, tinuously deviates it from this straight line. If upon whose curved edge the bricks or stones of the deviating force acts toward a point, as, for



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example, the force of gravity in the case of finite so-called centrosphere simply a portion, of planets, the force is called a central force.

the cytoplasm. See figure under KARYOKINESIS, ,

. Marion County, central southern Illinois, on the Centralia and Chester, the Illinois Central, the ecclesiastical annals. See CHURCH History, Vol. Jacksonville, Louisville and St. Louis, and the V, p. 765. Louisville, Evansville and St. Louis railroads. CENTURY, in modern usage, a period of 100 The Illinois Central Railroad Company has its years. It is also used figuratively of any long machine-shops here; there are also various manu- period of time. The term was used originally in factories, and it is the center of the Illinois fruit reference to a division of the Roman tribes for the belt. The fair grounds of southern Illinois are election of magistrates, passage of laws, etc., in located here. Population 1890, 4,763.

which the voting was done by centuries (comCENTRALIA, a city of Lewis County, south- panies of 100 men each). It was soon applied to western Washington, on the Chehalis River, and a company of cavalry; a division of the Roman on the Northern Pacific railroad, 51 miles S. of army. See Rome, Vol. XX, pp. 734, 735. Tacoma. Its industries are coal-mining, lum- CENTURY-PLANT, the popular name of bering and agriculture. Population 1890, 2,026. | Agave Americana, a Mexican plant of the family

CENTRALIA, a city of Wood County, central Amaryllidacea, otherwise known as American aloe. Wisconsin, on the Wisconsin River, directly oppo- It develops a large cluster of very thick and large site Grand Rapids, and on the Chicago, Mil- spiny leaves, from the midst of which, after a waukee and St. Paul, the Green Bay, Winona and varying number of years, dependent on the climate, St. Paul and the Port Edwards, Centralia and a flowering stalk very rapidly rises, attaining a Northern railroads. It has several manufactories, height of 20 to 30 feet, and bearing an enormous principally of wooden articles. Population 1895, cluster of greenish-yellow flowers. After flower2,039.

ing, the plant dies. The popular name arose from CENTRALIA, a town in Boone County, cen- the erroneous impression that a century of leaftral Missouri, on the Chicago and Alton and the formation and food-storage elapsed before the Wabash railroads, 20 miles N.N.E. of Columbia. appearance of the flower-stalk. The surrounding country is a farming and grazing CEPHALOPODA. See MOLLUSCA, Vol. XVI, district. Population 1890, 1,275.

pp. 664-684. CENTRAL PARK. See New York, Vol. CEPHREN, CHEFREN OR KHAFRA, an XVII, p. 466.

Egyptian king. See CHEPHREN, Vol. V, pp. 582, CENTRARCHIDÆ, a family of bold carniv- 583. orous fishes found in the fresh waters of North *CERAMIC ART.--Its Development in the United America. The sunfish, rock-bass and black-bass States since 1880. Ceramic art, or the department are examples.

of the plastic and decorative arts which deals CENTRIFUGAL AND CENTRIPETAL are with objects made of clay, has been developed to terms sometimes used in botany to designate, two its present degree of excellence in the United different kinds of inflorescence, the former term States practically within the last twenty years. being applied when the development of flowers The chief causes contributing to bring about this proceeds from the apex toward the base of the rapid advance were the Centennial Exhibition of axis, and the latter when it is from the base up- 1876 and the tariff act of 1883. The former event, ward toward the apex. Originally applied to flat- with its extensive exhibit of European pottery, top inflorescences in which the order of blooming opened the eyes of the American manufacturer to was really from the center toward the circum- his own inferiority, and fired him with the spirit ference, or vice versa.

of emulation; the latter, by rendering practiCENTRIFUGAL AND CENTRIPETAL cable, commercially, the production of finer wares, FORCES. See MECHANICS, Vol. XV, p. 682. gave opportunity for the acquirement of that

CENTROSOME. See CENTROSPHERE, in these practice and experience which has since ripened Supplements.

into an established and perfected ceramic art in CENTROSPHERE, in botany, a name applied America. Imitation was the first and most natural to a cell-body closely associated with the nucleus. characteristic of the attempt to introduce grace Centrospheres usually occur as a pair of spheri- and beauty into the homely practice of utilitarian cal bodies in contact with the nucleus, each of potting. The first effects of this movement were which consists of a small dense central body seen in the occasional production of ornamental (centrosome), surrounded by a clear layer, and lim- single pieces, patterned closely upon the famous ited by granular substance. The centrospheres faience of Limoges, or the oddly shaped, gorare observed to play an important part in nuclear geously decorated wares of Japan, and in a gradual, and cell-division, in consequence of which they though marked, refinement in the bodies of the are often called “directive spheres”; also called dense and cumbrous stone and earthenwares

asters” from the fact that they are centers of which had contrasted so clumsily in 1876 with radiating lines of structure. Their exact nature the delicate porcelains and semi-porcelains of and function are still obscure. In fact, it is a Worcester, Doulton and Sèvres. A marked imquestion whether the centrosome is not the only provement in the handling of glazes and more essential part, and the rest of the somewhat inde- | frequent use of colors, both body and relief, man

* Copyright, 1897, by The Werner Company.

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