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ifested themselves at this time. Commercially, seen in the increased production and importance the demand for artistic wares was still imperfectly of decorated wares, are more properly discussed met by the liberal use of bands and lines, and the under the heading of POTTERY INDUSTRY (q.v., introduction of a few very cheap and common- in these Supplements), the manifestations of the printed patterns, mainly for toilet-ware. Until dirigent and artistic forces active in shaping 1883 these conditions continued to prevail; por- ceramic progress being more exclusively within celain was produced in quantity by two factories the province of this article. The manufacture of only; plain and cheap-printed wares made up the Belleek porcelain, so called after the little Irish bulk of the crockery produced; and artistic orna- town where its manufacture has long been famous, mental pieces of any pretensions to excellence of was begun in this country, in Trenton, about shape or decoration were produced only by a few 1882. It is the most fragile ware known, and is, enthusiastic experimentalists and at prohibitive hence, often spoken of as egg-shell china, and is prices.

noted for its lightness and translucency of body, The first and most difficult step in the evolution as well as the pearly lustrousness of its glaze. of American ceramics was the substitution of a Originally produced almost exclusively in fancy lighter and more vitreous body for the heavy shell-like designs, American manufacturers have earthenwares then being fired. From the ordi- developed it to a distinctive degree in graceful nary yellow, cream-colored and white granite and simple forms having the most artistic decorabodies, a great variety of intermediate consisten- tion. The extreme thinness of this ware prevents cies has been developed, ranging all the way up its handling by the potter in the plastic clay, and through the semi-porcelains and porcelains to the it is made by the casting process, slip or clay fairy-like fragility of the Belleek or egg-shell mixed with water, of the consistency of cream, china. Ivory-finish and underglaze print decora- being poured into plaster molts, where, a portion tions, fashioned more or less upon the Japanese of the water being absorbed by the porous mold, school, were the earliest original forms of artistic a thin coating of the clay or body adheres to the pretensions, and they were speedily followed sides, and after being sufficiently dried, can be by an increased attention to modeling and the removed and fired. Besides vases and other production of shapes differing from the stereo- ornamental forms, this ware is now made in the typed forms hitherto almost universal. Heavy,

Heavy, most exquisite of cream-jugs, pitchers, cups and colored and transparent glazes were slowly intro- saucers, ice-cream holders, etc. In its decoration duced, blended upon harmoniously tinted bodies. a new feature has been developed by the carving Rich mazarine-blues, relieved with paste and gold in relief of exquisite tracings and designs upon decoration in stipple and solid, were among the the unbaked body. The extreme thinness of this more handsome of the early achievements of the body, which renders the work much like carving improving art. Majolica, in shapes which showed brittle egg-shell, imparts, owing to its transluconsiderable originality of design and artistic cency, a soft moonlight effect to the whole, of treatment, was also soon produced. Spurred by indescribable beauty. In the Belleek porcelains, a growing public demand for art in even the every- or egg-shell chinas, American manufacturers are day form of pottery, printed and colored decora- to-day producing wares which are fully equal to tions supplemented the earlier lines and band- and sell at as high prices as the best of the ings, and the decorating-shop, employing girls imported goods. and women, became a part of every pottery. The Of the other wares distinctively the outcome of transference of the design from the copperplate the ceramic development of twenty years, and to the wares it was intended to decorate was the product of the potteries, exhaustive discussion accomplished by taking upon tissue-paper, with would require far too great a space. Descending specially prepared ink, an etching from the plate. the scale of fineness from Belleek, the porcelains This, while still wet, was applied to the surface and semi-porcelains run through all the varieties of the biscuit-ware, glaze applied over it in turn, of vitrified, thin, Indian, bone, translucent, and and the whole fired, the transparent glaze pro- hard chinas used in every kind of useful and tecting the design and rendering it permanent. ornamental ware, including table-service pitchers, Where colors were further used, the printed ware jugs, vases, punch-bowls, candelabra, clock-cases, after firing went to the decorating-shop, where lamp-bodies, plaques, ornamental figures and deft-handed and skillful girls and women filled in fancy designs. In their modeling and decoration with their brushes those portions of the design has been developed the highest form of the potrequiring embellishment, and the ware was again | ter's art.

The rich iridescence of the nacreous fired in what is technically called the "enamel. Belleek glaze over the soft-toned body-tints; the kiln." The growth of decoration in American true overglaze colors and white enameled porcelain pottery is best shown in the fact that where, only table-service wares; the silver and gold raised a few years prior to 1880, one man could do, and paste and relief work in exquisitely modeled did, the decorating for every pottery in Trenton, traceries, sprays and figures; the deep, rich bodywhich city produces almost one half of the goods colorings, of every degree of mellowness and made in this country, there are to-day over four brilliancy; the soft ivory and vellum finishes; the hundred decorating-kilns in the potteries of the mellow and marble-textured Parian,-all executed United States.

The economic changes resultant with most admirable art and chasteness of color, upon the development of American ceramics, as modeled with a purity of form and graceful sim736


plicity of shape scarcely excelled by the most friezes and facings, are now produced for interior
celebrated European designers, are the evidence decoration, together with floor-tile, glazed and
visible to-day of the progress the American potter unglazed, in arabesque, mosaic and damask-fin-
and ceramic artist has made. And in no branch ished effects. In the modeling of the many de.
of artistic endeavor has success been attained by signs, and particularly in the so-called plastic
such untiring patience, long and discouraging sketch-work, a new and intermediate school of
experiment and research, and the expenditure of art, combining the painter and the sculptor, has
such large sums without return, as in this branch been developed.
of the fictile art. Every piece from the potter's The increased use of tiling for interior decora-
hand, bearing the work of the decorator and tion has been accompanied by a similar growth
glazer, must ultimately be proved, not once and in the utilization of terra-cotta and ornamental
twice, but often thrice, in the fierce heat of brick for architectural purposes. The develop-
the great kilns.

Materials must be mixed so ment of this branch of ceramics has been greatly that a degree of heat or a second of time shall aided by the reduced freight rates of later years. determine their future consistency, and glazes | The different colored clays found throughout the with known co-efficients of expansion must be country can now be obtained in the required adjusted to the varying bodies, while even the quantities at sufficiently low rates by the manumineral colors must be considered by the heat facturer to enable him to produce terra-cotta, the they must withstand.

most enduring of all building materials, at a reaBesides the porcelains, the greatest artistic suc- sonable price. The modeling of the designs for cess has been attained, perhaps, in the manufac- this material has been carried to a point of great ture of faience, several true varieties of which are artistic excellence, panels, mantels, supports, now made in this country, and to which the appli- gargoyles and other architectural details, as well cation of heavy colored glazes in rich transparent as ornate garden vases and statuary, being suptones of amber, olive, red, black, green, and brown plied in well-conceived forms. Red, buff and has been most successfully made in jardinières and white are among the leading colors in architecheavy pieces, while the famous goldstone, tiger's tural terra-cotta, but it is developing steadily in eye and reflecting glazes, together with excellent shades harmonious with the brick now being propâte-sur-pâte work, have produced vases and orna- duced. mental pieces of rare and exquisite beauty. Dec- These last are the latest manifestation of the oration in colored slip has especially been carried development of the public taste and of ceramic to a point closely approaching the famous work art, and, in their yellow, buff and soft white tones, of Limoges. Red earthenware, hammered and are a great improvement in the architectural landdecorated with hand-modeled sprays and figures, scape.

Glazed and enameled fire-brick of a or incised and inlaid with white clay in vivid mo- variety of shades are also being produced extensaic, has been produced, in addition to the more sively. The enameling process is jealously familiar relief-patterns in this ware. Stoneware guarded by the manufacturers as a trade secret, with incised decoration and relief-designs is also the composition of the peculiar enamel required being made at the present time quite equal in being known to but a few. See PoTTERY, Vol. shape and design to the well-known Doulton pro- | XIX, p. 600, and in these Supplements. duct. Rococo-relief and gold and colored decora

W. D. WILLES. tions in porcelain clock-cases and candelabra are CERAMICUS OR CERAMEICUS, an Athenian also among the promising American productions suburb. See ATHENS, Vol. III, pp. 2, 8. of later times.

CERASTES HORNED VIPER See Apart from the production of the pottery prop- Asp, Vol. II, p. 714. er, a most important branch of the ceramic art, CERATITES, a genus of cephalopod mollusks, and one in which America to-day leads the world, belonging to the family Ammonitide. The sutures is the manufacture of art and ornamental tiling. are complex and the lobes serrated. They are The introduction of the so-called “ ' damp-dust found, as fossils, in Mesozoic formations. process, by which the dry, powdered clay, slight- CERATODONTIDÆ, a family of lung-fishes ly moistened, is subjected to great pressure in (Dipnoi), represented by the living genus Ceratodies containing the design, revolutionized the dus, from the Australian rivers. The family was manufacture of tile. Within the four years pre-widely distributed in Europe and America during ceding 1880 this branch of ceramics leapt from Jurassic and Triassic times. Ceratodus, known obscurity into the front rank of excellence. The to the natives as banamunda, is the most archaic process of manufacture after the impression has of the interesting lung-fishes. It resembles the been taken, as above described, is to fire the tilegnoid fishes in general external appearance. and afterward glaze or enamel it in delicate col. Gills persist throughout life, and there is only one

The old “wet-clay” process is still used in lung which shows indications of division in the the so-called plastic sketches, and in some of the median plane. Other lung-fishes have two lungs. encaustic or inlaid floor-tiles. The plastic sketch The fish feeds on decaying vegetable matter, such is almost a picture in clay, and is the highest .de- as leaves.

It reaches a length of five feet and velopment of artistic modeling. Panels in relief a weight of twenty pounds. and intaglio, embossed, enameled and printed CERCARIA, a name applied to one of the tiles, and all the infinite variety of many piece | larval stages of certain trematode worms, as the

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liver-fluke (Distomum). It was formerly supposed CERIUM, a metal. See CHEMISTRY, Vol. V,
to be a distinct animal. See TREMATODA, Vol. Pp. 542, 543.
XXIII, p. 536.

CERNUSCHI, Enrico, a French economist, a
CERCIS CANADENIS. See Judas TREE, native of Italy; born in Milan in 1821; moved to
Vol. XIII, p. 761.

Paris in 1850. Incurring the hostility of the CERCOCEBUS, a genus to which the long-tailed commune, he was obliged to leave France in 1871, African monkey known as “mangebeys"' belong. and was absent for two years. He has traveled The sooty monkey is a good type of the genus. a great deal in Asia and America. He has pub

CERCOPITHECUS. See APE, Vol. II, pp. lished numerous economical writings, among them 151, 155.

The Mechanism of Exchange; Illusions of the CoCERDOCYON, a genus of Canide, apparently operative Societies, and Silver Vindicated. intermediate between dogs and foxes, sometimes CERRO DE POTOSI, a mountain rich in ores. known as aguara foxes, natives of South Amer- See BOLIVIA, Vol. IV, p. 13. ica. · Their aspect is thoroughly vulpine, as are CERRO GORDO, a mountain pass in the Cofra also their manners. Some of them add to the de Perote, southern Mexico, 60 miles W.N.W. dispositions of ordinary foxes a singular pro- of Vera Cruz, on the road to Mexico. Here, on pensity to steal and secrete brilliant and gaudy the 18th of April, 1847, General Scott with 9,000 objects. Some are natives of the coldest parts men, following up his success at Vera Cruz, found of South America, and have a rich fur.

Santa Anna with 13,000 men awaiting him, and CEREALS, in the United States. See AGRI-blocking the pass.

After various futile attempts CULTURE, in these Supplements.

to find or make a route, General Scott decided to CEREBELLUM. See ANATOMY, Vol. I, pp. assault the pass. This he did with remarkable 871, 872; PhysIOLOGY, Vol. XIX, p. 38.

success, utterly routing the enemy, and capturing CEREBRATION, UNCONSCIOUS. The doctrine

3,000 prisoners, 4,000 or 5,000 stand of arms and of unconscious cerebration, as stated by Carpen- 43 pieces of artillery, General Scott lost, in ter, Laycock and others, holds that as there can killed, 63; wounded, 368. Next day he advanced be no doubt that molecular changes in the cere- to Jalapa and occupied it. brum accompany all our conscious mental pro- CERROS OR CEDROS, an island off the coast cesses, so similar changes may go on in the cere- of Lower California, lat. 28° 20' N., lon. 115 ° brum without any consciousness on our part until 20' W., belonging to Mexico. It is rugged and the complete mental result is presented. It is sterile, except at the northern end, where there based on the every-day experience that after one is some vegetation, and herds of goats are plentihas been vainly trying to recall some name or in- ful. The surrounding sea abounds in fish, oysters cident, it will suddenly flash into the mind when and lobsters. one is thinking of some entirely different subject. CERTHIADÆ, a family of birds. See TREE According to Carpenter, the cerebrum has gone CREEPER, Vol. XXIII, P. 534. on working automatically, but unconsciously, until CERTIFICATE, in the law of England and of the processes accompanying the mental operation the United States, is a written statement by a of remembering the name or incident have been person having a public or official status concerncompleted. This doctrine is the same as that of ing some matter within his knowledge and author"latent thought” as expounded by Sir W. Hamity. In the United States the word is commonly ilton. See Hamilton, Vol. XI, p. 417; also Psy- | applied to any formal statement made by a pubCHOLOGY, Vol. XX, pp. 47, 48.

lic servant in the execution of his duty, as by a CEREBRIN OR CEREBRIC ACID, an collector of taxes, a postmaster, etc. ganic acid of very complex composition, found in CERTIORARI is a writ issued by a superior the liver, blood and nerves, but especially in the court to an inferior court, tribunal or officer exerbrain of animals. It is composed chiefly of car- cising judicial powers, requiring such court or bon, oxygen and hydrogen, with small amounts tribunal to send up its records in a proceeding of nitrogen. It is a white solid of a fatty nature, pending or already terminated to such superior obtainable in crystalline grains, soluble in boil- court. The purpose of a writ of certiorari is to ing alcohol or ether, but insoluble in cold ether. bring the records of the inferior court into the The symbol is ('6H12N2016.

superior court or the purpose of determining CEREBRO-SPINAL FLUID. See ANATOMY, whether the former had jurisdiction or had proVol. I, p. 865.

ceeded according to the requirements of law. CEREOPSIS, a genus of birds to which the The granting of such writ is within the discretion New Holland goose belongs. See Goose, Vol. of the superior court, but, in most states, within X, p. 778.

certain limits, prescribed by statute. Certiorari is CERES, a planetoid. See ASTRONOMY, Vol. II, never granted when an appeal may be prosecuted p. 806.

from the decision complained of. But if CEREUS, a plant. See Cactus, Vol. IV, pp. appeal be improperly denied, or the party be 625, 626.

deprived of the right of appeal through fraud or CERITHIUM, a genus of gasteropod mollusks accident, a writ of certiorari is frequently granted, with numerous and highly variable species. It is and the whole case reviewed, both as to the law said to have led Lamarck to speculate upon the and the facts. The writ will lie only for suborigin of species.

stantial errors, and not for mere irregularities or

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informalities at the trial, nor to review matters up his office in 1873, and the next year was killed which are entirely within the discretion of the by the Spaniards. trial court.

Certiorari is obtained by petition to CESSIO BONORUM, a Scotch judicial decree. the superior court, which petition must show a See BANKRUPTCY, Vol. III, p. 344. sufficient ground upon its face for granting the CESSPOOL. See BuildING, Vol. IV, p. 468. writ. The petition is entirely ex parte, and no CESTIUS, PYRAMID OF, a Roman tomb.

See answer or affidavits can be filed to controvert it, Rome, Vol. XX, p. 831. but if the allegations made in the petition be not CESTODA. See TAPE-WORMS, Vol. XXIII, maintained at the rehearing, or sufficient of them pp. 49-56. to show that the writ was properly issued, it will CESTUI QUE TRUST is a legal term denotbe dismissed, without considering the merits of ing a person for whose use another holds the title the case.

If they are sufficient, the case will be to real or personal property. The party holding considered upon its merits, and the judgment of the property in trust is called the trustee, and is the inferior court either sustained or set aside. the legal owner, while the cestui que trust is the Certiorari is often made use of as an ancillary beneficial or equitable owner.

The cestui que process to obtain full return of some writ formerly trust, therefore, is entitled to the rents and profits; issued, as in the case of a writ of habeas corpus. he may defend the title, if attacked, in the name It is frequently employed to bring into court the of the trustee, or he may restrain the trustee from entire record of the case in the court where the committing waste or using the property in any proceedings were had committing the party to manner to the disadvantage of the cestui que trust, prison. The writ of certiorari is an important and See Trusts, Vol. XXIII, pp. 596, 597. useful remedy, and its use frequently prevents CESTUS, a girdle worn by Greek and Roman gross injustice. The right to issue such writs in women. The cestus of Venus was decorated with proper cases has been constantly recognized and beautiful representations and everything that maintained by the courts.

could awaken love. Cestus, or more correctly CERTOSA DI PAVIA, a monastery. See cæstus, is also the name given to a sort of boxingPavia, Vol. XVIII, p. 438, note.

glove worn by the Greek and Roman pugilists. CERUMEN, a wax-like substance secreted by It was at first a mere leathern thong or bandage certain glands lying in the external auditory to strengthen the fist; but afterward it was covcanal, or the passage that leads from the external ered with knots and nails, and loaded with lead opening of the ear to the membrane of the tym- and iron, to increase the force of the blow. panum. It acts as a lubricant. It possesses a

CETEOSAURUS or CETIOSAURUS, a genus peculiarly bitter taste, which is supposed to pre- of large dinosaurian reptiles belonging to the vent insects from entering the auditory canal. It Jurassic system. See GEOLOGY, Vol. X, p. 355. is popularly known as ear-wax.

CETEWAYO OR CETSHWAYO, king of the CERUSITE OR CERUSSITE, a white lead Zulus, was distinguished by the desperate reSee MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 398.

sistance he made to the English in 1879. On CERVIDÆ. See DEER, Vol. VII, pp. 23–25. January 22d he surprised and massacred the

CERVIN, MONT, same as the MATTERHORN; Twenty-fourth regiment at Isandlwhana and atq.v., in these Supplements.

tacked Rorke's Drift. On June ist, Prince NaCESALPINO. See CÆSALPINUS, Vol. IV, p. poleon, who had joined the British army as a 633

volunteer, was killed by Zulus. Cetewayo was deCESNOLA, Luigi PALMA DI, archæologist; feated by Lord Chelmsford at Ulundi, and on July born near Turin, Italy, July 29, 1832. He served 4th was captured and sent to England. He in the Sardinian army in 1849, in the Crimean was restored to a part of his dominions in 1882, War, and on the Union side in the American but in the following year his subjects drove him Civil War, attaining to the rank of colonel. He out. He gave himself up to the English, who was afterward appointed United States consul imprisoned him until his death in 1884. See Zuluto Cyprus, where he made extensive collections LAND, Vol. XXIV, p. 829. of antiquities. These became the property of CEYLON. (See CEYLON, Vol. V, pp. 359-370.) the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York The official returns give the area as 25,365 City) in 1873. On his return from Cyprus, Gen- square miles; population, 3,008,466. The caperal' Cesnola was appointed director of the ital, Colombo, has a population of 120,000.

He has written a work entitled Re- Until recently the chief production for export has searches and Discoveries in Cyprus. See CYPRUS been coffee, but now more attention is paid to Vol. VI, p. 750, note.

tea, cinchona, cocoanut and other palms. There CESPEDES Y BORGES, CARLOS MANUEL, are 230 miles of railway in operation. The total Cuban patriot; born in Bayamo, Cuba, April 18, public revenue for 1894 was 19,485, 310 rupees, and 1819; killed March 22, 1874. He studied and the total expenditures 20,342,899 rupees.

There began the practice of law in Spain; was impli- are 908,309 acres of pasture-land, and under cated in the Prim conspiracy of 1844, and returned cultivation 2,026,606 acres, of which 670,089 are to Cuba. He was exiled in 1852 for several devoted to rice and other grains; 33,048 to coffee; years; in 1868 led the general Cuban insurrec-303,886 to tea; 776,977 to cocoanut-palms; 39,486 tion, and in 1869 was made president of the to Palmyra palms; 4,136 to cinchona; 10,700 to republican organization. He was obliged to give | tobacco; and 39,580 to cinnamon. The live


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stock of the island in 1893 included 4, 207 horses, shrine was placed, and the city is full of memo1,062,776 cattle, 148, 122 goats and 92,362 sheep. rials of him. He died in 672. He became patron Plumbago is a valuable mining product, and in saint of medicinal springs, and his canonical day 1893 there were 525 plumbago-mines. In 1891 is March 2d. the product of the pearl-fisheries was valued at CHAD, TCHAD OR TSAD, an African lake, 960,000 rupees.

Since then the value has been about the center of the Soudan, Its area varies with

The declared value of the imports the seasons, from 10,000 to 50,000 square miles. during 1894 was 178, 113,072 rupees, and of the It is shallow and has a large number of islands; exports, 79,723,791 rupees.

is supplied by a great river called the Shari, which CEZIMBRA, a town in the province of Es- flows in from the south. Until lately it was betremadura, western Portugal, on the Bay of lieved to have no outlet; it overflows to the eastSetubal, about 18 miles S. of Lisbon. It has ward, fertilizing the great wadai, Bahr-el-Ghazal, active fisheries. Population, 3,085.

where the waters, as they approach the arid land CHABANEAU, CAMILLE, French philologist; of the Sahara, become evaporated. It swarms born at Nontron, March 4, 1831; while in the with tropical animals. postal department, became interested in the study CHADBOURNE, PAUL ANSEL, educator; born of dialects, and attracted such attention by his in North Berwick, Maine, Oct. 21, 1823; died in writings that he was appointed, in 1870, to the po- | New York City, Feb. 23, sition of professor of French language in the 1883. He graduated at middle ages at Montpellier. Among his pub- Williams College in lished writings are a Grammar of the Peasantry; 1848, and studied theol. Unpublished Poems of the Troubadours of Périgord; ogy. He subsequently and Provincialisms.

engaged in teaching, and CHABAS, FRANÇOIS, French Egyptologist; was tutor at Williams in born Jan. 2, 1817, at Briançon; died at Versailles, 1851. In 1853 he was May 17, 1882. At first engaged in commerce, he licensed to preach, and found time to become a linguist; but it was not in the same year was until 1851 that he devoted himself to the study of called to the chair of hieroglyphics. The first results of his studies chemistry and botany at appeared in 1856, followed by a series of inval. Williams; and when uable books and papers on two important periods chosen to a similar chair of ancient Egyptian history—the conquest of the in Bowdoin, he per PAUL ANSEL CHADBOURNE. country by the Hyksos, and the time of their formed the duties of expulsion. Among the more important of his both positions, and held two professorships in many books are Les Pasteurs en Égypte (1868); medical schools at the same time. He lectured Histoire de la XIX Dynastie et Spécialement des at several colleges and institutes, and conducted Temps de l'Exode (1873), and Études sur l'Anti- scientific expeditions of Williams students to Newquité Historique d'Après les Sources Égyptiennes foundland in 1855, to Florida in 1857, to northern (20, ed. 1873). From 1873 to 1877 he edited Europe and Iceland in 1859, and to Greenland in L'Égyptologie.

1861. In 1857 he became president of the State CHACABUCO, a pass in the Chacabuco spur Agricultural College of Massachusetts, and from of the Andes, about 25 miles N. E. of Santiago. 1867 to 1870 was president of Wisconsin UniverIt was the scene of a battle in the war of Chile sity. In 1872 he was chosen president of Wilfor independence (1817), which resulted in a vic- liams College, continuing until 1881. The followtory for the insurgents, who ultimately gained ing year he again became president of the their independence from Spain.

Massachusetts Agricultural College.

He was a CHACHAPOYAS, a city of northern Peru, remarkable business man, took considerable part western South America, on the Utcubamba, 220 in politics, and was the author of several works, miles N. of Lima. It is the see of a bishop, and among which are Natural Theology; Instinct in is well laid out and kept. Elevation, 7,600 feet. Man and Animals; and Hope of the Righteous. He Population, 6,000.

edited Public Service of the State of New York. CHACO. See GRAN CHACO, Vol. XI, pp. 46, 47. CHADRON, a city and the capital of Dawes

CHACORNAC, JEAN, French astronomer; born County, northwestern Nebraska, on the Fremont, in Lyons, June 21, 1823; died at Villeurbane, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley railroad. The govnear Lyons, Sept. 23, 1873. He was chief astron- ernment has its land-office for the district-Dawes, omer at the Paris Observatory, and gained a rep- | Sheridan and Sioux counties—here; it is also the utation by his discoveries of asteroids. The atlas site of Chadron Academy. It was founded in of Annals of the Observatory of Paris was entirely 1885, and now has about 3,000 inhabitants. Its nis work.

prosperity is due to commercial activity. CHAD OR CEADDA, SAINT, born in Northum- CHADWICK, Edwin, a social reformer; born at bria; became a pupil of St. Aidan at Lindisfarne, Manchester, England, Jan. 24, 1801; died at East and in 666 became bishop of York. Doubt having Sheen, near London, July 5, 1890. He studied law been cast on the validity of his consecration, he and was called to the bar in 1830. He early devoted withdrew in 669, but was immediately made bishop his attention to questions of social, sanitary and of Mercia, fixing the see at Lichfield, where his political science, and was, by Lord Grey's govern

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