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740

CHADWICK-CHALAZOGAMY

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an

ment, appointed an assistant commissioner to in- it attained statehood, he sat for it in the United quire into the operation of the poor-laws. His States Senate. He was an Independent Repubreport, published in 1833, commanded great at. lican, and chairman of the Republican National tention and laid the foundation of the later Committee in 1884. systems of government inspection. He became CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO, a group of islands secretary of the Poor Law Board in 1834. His in the Indian Ocean, south of the Indian peninreport on interments in towns (1843) laid the sula, between lat. 6° 40' and 9° 40' S., and long. foundation of later legislation on the subject. He 72° 22' and 74° 48' E. They are a continuation brought about the sanitary commission and the of the Maldive groups, and a dependency of the creation of the office of registrar-general. He British colony of Mauritius. They are scantily took great interest in promoting competitive ex- populated; chief product, cocoanut-oil. The laraminations for government offices and in almost gest is Diego Garcia, with an area of about 78 all questions of social economy, and was an active square miles, and 700 inhabitants. It is a coalmember of the Social Science Association.

ing-station for Australian and Red Sea steamers. CHADWICK, GEORGE W., musician; born in CHAGRES RIVER. See PANAMA, Vol. XVIII, Lowell, Massachusetts, Nov. 13, 1854; studied in p. 209. Germany under Reinecke and Judassohn; while CHAGRIN FALLS, a village of Cuyahoga there composed an overture, Rip Van Winkle, County, northeastern Ohio, on the Chagrin River, which attracted considerable notice. Since his 18 miles E.S. E. of Cleveland. It has iron foun. return to the United States in 1880, he has con- dries and various mills, where water-power is ducted in several cities and composed a number applied. It has good flagstone-quarries. Popuof symphonies and overtures. He composed the

lation 1890, 1, 243. music for the Columbian Ode of 1893.

CHAILLU. See Du CHAILLU, PAUL BELLONI, CHADWICK, John WHITE, clergyman; born

in these Supplements. in Marblehead, Massachusetts, Oct. 19, 1840. He CHAIN, in surveying, a measure 22 yards long, graduated in 1864 from the Harvard Divinity composed of 100 iron links; called also Gunter's School, was chosen to the pastorate of the Second chain. See SURVEYING, Vol. XXII, p. 708. Unitarian Church of Brooklyn, New York, and CHAIN-MAIL

CHAIN-ARMOR, has become widely known for the radical doctrines armor much used in the twelfth and thirteenth preached by him and his articles contributed to centuries. . It consisted of hammered iron links Unitarian periodicals. In the list of his published connected into the form of a garment. Such works are Life of N. A. Staples; A Book of armor was much more flexible and convenient to Poems; The Bible of To-day; The Man Jesus; and the wearer than one formed of steel or brass A Daring Faith.

plates, but was less fitted to bear the thrust of CHÆREMON, a Greek dramatist who lived the lance. See ARMS AND ARMOR, Vol. II, p. at Athens about 380 B.C. He was a tragic poet, 556. but has been referred to as a comic poet, a con- CHAINS. See CABLE, Vol. IV, pp. 621, 622. fusion. His plays, it was complained, were For statics and kinetics of a chain or catenary, written for the reading only. The fragments of see MECHANICS, Vol. XV, pp. 738-743. his writings were collected and published by CHAIN-SHOT, destructive missiles formerly Bartsh in 1843.

used in naval warfare. They consisted of two CHÆTODON, a genus of brilliantly colored balls connected by a piece of chain eight or ten fishes, with bristle-like teeth, living among the inches inches in length, and were fired collectively coral reefs of the Atlantic and Pacific. They are

from the gun.

The chain enabled the balls to good food-fishes.

catch and destroy objects which otherwise might CHÆTOYNATHA, a a marine

See have escaped. SAGITTA, Vol. XXI, p. 148.

CHAIRS. See FURNITURE, Vol. IX, pp. 849, CHÆTOPODA. See ANNELIDA, Vol. II, pp. 850. 65-68; WORM, Vol. XXIV, pp. 677–684.

CHALATENANGO, a city of Salvador, capital CHAFER, a common name for scarabæid of the province of Chalatenango, on the rivers beetles, which, either in the perfect or larval state, Tamuiasca and Colco, 45 miles N.N.E. of San are destructive to plants, particularly those which Salvador. The principal industry is agriculture devour the wood, bark or roots of trees. The and cattle-dealing Population, about 6,000. word chafer is seldom used alone, but generally CHALAZA, in botany, that region of the ovule with some prefix; as, rose-chafer, bark-chafer, etc. in which the integuments and nucellus are not

CHAFFEE, JEROME BUNTY, Senator; born differentiated, being the structural base of the in Niagara County, New York, April 17, 1825; ovule. It gradually merges into the stalk (funicudied in Salem Center, Westchester County, New lus) of the ovule, and is traversed by the fibroYork, March 9, 1886. He lived in New York vascular strands coming from the axis. state for about twenty years; removed to Michi- CHALAZOGAMY, a term in botany applied to gan; then to St. Joseph, Missouri; and in 1859 those cases in which the pollen-tube does not became one of the first settlers in Denver, Colo- enter the ovule through the micropyle (the usual rado. Mining ventures brought him wealth, and entrance), but penetrates the ovule at the chalaza he was prominent in organizing the territory. | (q.v.). This was first discovered in Casuarina, He represented it in Congress in 1876, and when an Australian genus, but has since been found to

worm.

CHALCEDONY-CHAMBERLAIN

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occur in species of Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Cory- | amnesty of 1859 and established the Revue Polilus and suglans, all of which are amentaceous tique, in which he had Gambetta and Brisson as plants. Treub, the original discoverer, con- collaborators. After the downfall of the empire, sidered chalazogamy so important as to form the he was made prefect of the Rhône.

He was basis of classification, dividing Angiosperms into elected to the Chamber as a Radical in 1872, and two groups: (1) Chalazogams (including Casuarina), in 1876 became a senator. In 1879 he was sent and (2)Porogams (including allother Angiosperms). as ambassador to Switzerland, and from June, The discovery of chalazogamy, however, in many 1880, until February, 1882, represented France other species, has thrown discredit upon it as a in London. In 1883 he became Minister of basis of classification.

Foreign Affairs. He founded the République FranCHALCEDONY, a variety of quartz which con-çaise. In March, 1893, he was elected to the stitutes the principal part of many agates, and is Academy, and to the presidency of the Senate. generally translucent. It is much used in jewelry He died in Paris, Oct. 26, 1896. and ornaments of all sorts. It occurs in old lavas CHALLENGER EXPEDITION. See and trap-rocks, and is found in all parts of the DREDGE, Vol. VII, pp. 462, 463; THOMPSON, SIR world here these exist. See AGATE, Vol. I, p. CHARLES Wyville, Vol. XXIII, p. 311. 277; MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 389.

CHALY BEATE WATERS. See MINERAL CHALCEDONYX, a name given to agates SPRINGS, Vol. XVI, pp. 434-436. formed of cacholong, or a white opaque chalce- CHAM, the pseudonym assumed by the caricadony, alternating with a grayish translucent chal- turist, Amédée de Noé; born at Paris, April 26, cedony.

1819; died there, Sept. 6, 1879. He studied art CHALCHIHUITL, the Indian name of a blu- under Delaroche, and soon acquired a great repu

, ish-green stone, taken from a quarry near Santa tation as a skillful and witty delineator of the Fé, New Mexico, and by some regarded as a species humorous side of Parisian life. In 1834 he began of turquoise, by others identified with jade. It was his famous connection with the Charivari, in valued above gold by the ancient Mexicans, who which paper and in the Journal des Pélerinages he fashioned it into beads and ornaments. See JADE, continued to delight his fellow-citizens until close Vol. XIII, p. 540.

upon his death.

Two collections of his sketches CHALCIDIDÆ, a small family of short-tongued have been published, Douse Années Comiques and lizards, natives of tropical America. See Liz- Les Folies Parisiennes. ARDS, Vol. XIV, p. 733.

CHAMÆROPS, a genus of palms with fanCHALCIS, a city of Eubia. See EUBIA, Vol. shaped leaves, less exclusively tropical than palms VIII, p. 649.

in general. Two species are known, both belongCHALCOCONDYLES, DEMETRIOS, a writer in ing to the Mediterranean region, C. humilis being modern Greek. See GREECE, Vol. XI, p. 149. the only indigenous palm of Europe. They are

CHALDER OR CHALDRON, an English dry known as “dwarf-palms." The leaves are emmeasure formerly used for any dry goods, but now ployed for various useful purposes, as for thatchconfined exclusively to coal and coke. It was of ing, hats, cordage, chair-bottoms, brooms, pasteuncertain quantity formerly, varying from 60 to board, paper, etc. See Palm, Vol. XVIII, pp. 70 bushels.

To-day it varies in value from 2,500 | 189, 190. to 3,000 pounds. In the terms of the old system CHAMALHARI, a peak of the Himalayas, it was equal to 12 quarters Winchester measure, 23,944 feet high, between Tibet and Bhutan, 140 or 16 bolls.

miles E. of Mount Everest. CHALDÆA. See BABYLONIA, Vol. III, pp. 183 CHAMBERLAIN, DANIEL HENRY, a governor

of South Carolina; born in West Brookfield, MasCHALDEE, a language. See ARAMAIC LAN-sachusetts, June 23, 1835; graduated at Yale in GUAGE, Vol. II, p. 307.

1862, and the Harvard Law School in 1863. The CHALEUR BAY, an inlet of the Gulf of St. following year, as lieutenant of a Massachusetts Lawrence, Canada, having the bold shore of Que-colored regiment, he entered the army, serving in bec on the north and New Brunswick on the south. several of the Southern states. He engaged in It measures 90 miles from east to west and is cotton-planting in South Carolina after the war; from 20 to 25 miles wide; is everywhere deep and was appointed delegate to the constitutional conwell sheltered, and is much frequented for its vention of 1868, and elected attorney-general of mackerel-fisheries.

the state. In 1874 the Republicans elected him to CHALICE, an ancient name for an ordinary the office of governor, and in 1876 he was redrinking-cup, but now only applied to the cup in elected, but the result was opposed and questioned which the wine of the holy sacrament is adminis- by the friends of the defeated candidate, Wade tered. See PLATE, Vol. XIX, pp. 185, 186. Hampton, and after holding office for three

CHALLEMEL-LACOUR, PAUL ARMAND, months, Governor Chamberlain resigned and went French statesman; born in Avranches, May 19, to New York City, where he resumed his legal 1827; became a college professor and was ban- work. ished by Napoleon III after the coup d'état. He CHAMBERLAIN, JOSEPH, statesman; born in was a strong Republican, and lectured on the London in July, 1836, and educated at University continent of Europe on political, social, and scien- College. He joined the firm of Nettlefold & Co., tific subjects; returned to France after the screw-makers of Birmingham, and for many years

et seq.

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CHAMBERLAIN-CHAMBERS

was

devoted himself almost entirely to business. | dia; in 1856, adjutant-general of the Bengal Elected mayor of Birmingham in 1873, re-elect- division; lieutenant-general in 1872; commander

ed in 1874 and again in in-chief of the Madras army in 1875; general in
1875, his term of office was 1877. He retired in 1886.
remarkable for the expe-

CHAMBERLAIN, THOMAS CHROWDER, geol-
ditious dispatch of corpo-ogist; born at Mattoon, Illinois, Sept. 25, 1843;
rate business. About this was graduated at Beloit College in 1866; from
period his name 1869 to 1873, professor of natural science at the
brought prominently be- Wisconsin State Normal School; from 1873 to
fore the public by several 1884, professor of geology at Beloit; in 1887,
articles written by him president of the University of Wisconsin, which
for the Fortnightly Review, position he held until 1892, when he became head
in which he expressed of the geological department at the University of
very advanced political Chicago.
and educational views. CHAMBERS, private rooms attached to most

In 1876 Mr. Chamberlain of the courts, in which the judges and chief clerks JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN.

was elected member of transact a large amount of judicial business. Parliament for Birmingham without opposition, Counsel attend in chambers only in matters which and from that date his career is to be traced in are not required to be done in open court. Parliament and on the public platform. On the CHAMBERS, CHARLES Julius, an American return of the Liberals to power in 1880, he was journalist; born at Bellefontaine, Ohio, Nov. 21, appointed president of the Board of Trade, with a 1850, graduated at Cornell in 1870'; became special seat in the Cabinet. His influence as a political | correspondent in the West Indies, Europe, Canada leader increased rapidly outside of the House, and and the United States for the New York Herald; on his exit from office in 1885 he was elected for equipped a canoe expedition to Lake Itasca in the western division of Birmingham, and held the 1872; and in 1875 simulated insanity, and was office of president of the Local Government Board incarcerated for several weeks in an insane asyuntil his divergence of views on the Irish policy lum, for the purpose of ascertaining how such of Mr. Gladstone caused his resignation (March, people are treated. He is a contributor to cur1886). He was subsequently appointed British rent literature, and has published A&Mad World; commissioner to the conference at Washington On a Margin; and Lovers Four and Maidens Five. for the settlement of the fishery disputes between CHAMBERS, ROBERT WILLIAM, an American Canada and the United States. He revisited the author; born in New York in 1865, the son of a United States on the occasion of his marriage prominent member of the New York bar. In with Miss Endicott (Nov. 15, 1888). In 1892 he | 1885 he went to Paris to study art, exhibiting in was chosen leader of the Liberal-Unionists. He the Salon of 1889, and in eight years spent in Eutook office under Lord Salisbury, in a Tory Cabi- rope gathering the material for his future works. net, as Colonial Secretary. His policy has been His Red Republic, a vivid, realistic, and in some characterized by a constant desire to improve the ways the most valuable, account of the Commune condition of the working classes and by his advo- | that has been written, was one of the results of his cacy of imperial federation of the home govern- visit to Europe. His first story, In the Quarter, was ment and all the colonies. His masterful con- published in 1894, followed by The King in Yellow, duct (1895-96) of the intricate and awkward a collection of remarkable short stories issued in position of the government, owing to the Jameson the same year. Their power and originality was raid into the South African Republic, made him unmistakable. A vein of weirdness running one of the most prominent men of the time in through them all challenged attention and caused the British Empire.

some of the critics to call him a decadent. Then CHAMBERLAIN, JOSHUA LAWRENCE, soldier came A King and a Few Dukes and The Maker of and educator; born in Brewer, Maine, Sept. 8, Moons, the latter a collection of eight remarkable 1828. He graduated at Bowdoin in 1852, and at short stories. The Red Republic, coming after Bangor Theological Seminary three years later. these, established Mr. Chambers's position as From 1856 to 1865 he held professorships in Bow- a writer of fiction of merit and considerable doin College, with the exception of the time of worth. the Civil War, during which he served gallantly, CHAMBERS, TALBOT Wilson, an American being several times wounded; was promoted, on divine; born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Feb. 25, the field, brigadier-general by General Grant, and 1819, graduated at Rutgers in 1834, and studied was brevetted major-general. He was elected theology, being licensed to preach in 1838, and governor of Maine in 1866 and served till 1871, ordained to the pastorate of the Second Reformed being then chosen president of Bowdoin College, Dutch Church, in Somerville, New Jersey. In holding this office till 1883. In 1876 he was 1850 he became pastor of the Collegiate Dutch elected major-general of the state militia.

Church of New York City. He was on the AmerCHAMBERLAIN, SIR NEVILLE Bowles, Brit- ican committee which revised the Old Testament. ish general; born at Rio, Brazil, Jan. 18, 1820; His works include The Noon Prayer-Meeting in entered the Indian army in 1836; in 1843 became Fulton Street (1857); Memoir of Theodore Frelingdeputy quartermaster-general to the army in In-huysen; The Psalter a Witness for the Divine Origin

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CHAMBERS-CHAMBESI

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of the Bible (1876); and A Companion to the Revised | times suppressed, and not till 1650 did its powers Version of the Old Testament (1885).

become fixed. Nearly two centuries later, the CHAMBERS, WILLIAM, publisher, born April first chamber of commerce in Great Britain was 16, 1800, at Peebles, Scotland; died in Edinburgh, established at Glasgow, being incorporated in May 20, 1883 He received a fair elementary 1783. In the New World the first organization of education, but, owing to his father's misfortune, this character was the New York Chamber of his schooling terminated with his thirteenth Commerce, organized April 5, 1768, incorporated year. The family migrated to Edinburgh in by royal charter, March 13, 1770; reincorporated 1813, and next year William was apprenticed by the state, April 13, 1784. Its first important to a bookseller. When his five years were action was to petition the state legislature, in up he started business in an humble way for 1784, to change the method of imposing tariff on himself. Between 1825 and 1830 he wrote imports from ad valorem to specific duties, its the Book of Scotland, and in conjunction with petition being granted. In 1786 it first suggested his brother Robert (see Vol. V, p. 380) a Gaz- the construction of the Erie canal. Its memberetteer of Scotland. His experience gained as a ship at date of organization was 20; in 1896 there bookseller and printer resulted in the founding were 1,000 regular members, the initiatory fee of Chambers's Edinburgh Journal in 1832. This being $25. It was then composed of members of was about six weeks in advance of the Penny the various “exchanges” in the city, the princiMagazine, and may be considered the pioneer of palones being the Mercantile, Coffee, Cotton, Metal, that class of cheap and popular periodicals of a Coal and Iron, Real Estate, Building Material, wholesome kind now so generally diffused. At | Horse and Produce exchanges. The New York the end of the fourteenth number he united with | Produce Exchange, housed in its own stately buildhis brother Robert in founding the business of ing at the head of Whitehall Street, was formally William and Robert Chambers, in which they organized in 1868, being the outgrowth of the were associated in writing, editing, printing and former Merchants' Exchange, the Corn Exchange publishing. W. and R. Chambers issued a series and the old Produce Exchange. In 1884 they. of works designed for popular instruction, includ completed their new “Temple of Commerce, ing, besides the Journal, Information for the building 300 by 150 feet ground dimensions, 116 People (2 vols.); the “Educational Course feet high, with a tower 225 feet high, in all costing ries; Cyclopedia of English Literature (2 vols.); over $3,000,000. Its membership is 3,000 (the Miscellany of Useful and Entertaining Tracts (20 full limit allowed by the rules of the exchange), vols.); Papers for the People (12 vols.); and the new members coming in only by purchase of cerEncyclopædia (io vols. ; 1859-68; new ed. 1888–92). tificates vacated by death or otherwise, the price

In 1859 William founded and endowed an of vacated certificates ranging from $3,000 to institution in his native town for purposes of $5,000. social improvement. Twice elected lord provost Similar organizations, which exist in all the of Edinburgh, he occupied that office for four principal cities of the United States, are variously years, during which he promoted several import- known as boards of trade, merchants' exchanges, ant public acts, including one for the improve- etc. The Chicago Board of Trade, which owns a ment of the older part of the city, which has handsome stone structure at the head of La resulted in a great diminution of the death-rate. Salle street, was organized March 13, 1848, by He also carried out, at his own cost, a thorough thirteen of the leading firms of the young city; restoration of St. Giles' Cathedral. He died was incorporated in March, 1859, and in 1896 shortly after he received the offer of a baronetcy. had 1,850 members. The initiatory fee for new He was made LL.D. of Edinburgh in 1872. A members is $10,000, virtually prohibitory, but statue has been erected to his memory in Edin- | individual memberships are bought, sold and burgh. Besides many contributions to the transferred, the values fluctuating at about $600 Journal, he was author and editor of various to $700. volumes, and wrote the Youths' Companion and CHAMBERSBURG, a town and the capital of Counsellor; Ailie Gilroy; Stories of Remarkable Franklin County, central southern Pennsylvania, Persons; and Historical Sketch of St. Giles' Cathedral. situated on the east bank of the Conococheague

CHAMBERS, WILLIAM SIR (1726-96), an archi. Creek, about 50 miles S.W. of Harrisburg, on tect of Scotch origin, and writer on Civil Archi- the Chambersburg and Gettysburg and the Westtecture. See ARCHITECTURE, Vol. II, p. 444.

ern Maryland railroads.

It is the seat of Wilson CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE, organizations College, and of a great variety of manufacturing of merchants for the promotion of trade; for col

industries. Population 1890, 7,863. lecting statistics bearing upon staple articles of CHAMBESI OR CHASI, an African river trade; for aiding to secure legislation affecting which rises on the southern plateau between lakes trade, and, sometimes, to act as courts of arbitra- Tanganyika and Nyassa and flows southeast for tion in mercantile disputes. The first cham- | about 300 miles into Lake Bangweoli, but when ber of commerce is said to have been founded this lake disappears in the dry season, it flows Marseilles, France,

, in the beginning through the lake bed into its outlet, the Luapula of the fifteenth century.

Its functions in- River. This river carries the waters north into cluded a share in municipal administration of the Lualaba, which conducts them to the Congo. justice, as well as regulating trade. It was several See ZAIRE, Vol. XXIV, p. 763.

744

CHAMBLY-CHAMPION

a

CHAMBLY, a small county in the southern | grant, and the bark and root are employed in napart of the province of Quebec, opposite Mon- tive medicine. treal, on the St. Lawrence. Capital, Longueuil. . CHAMPAGNE WINES. See Wines, Vol. Chief products, oats, hay, wool, flax and tobacco. XXIV, pp. 605, 606. Area, 157 square miles. Population, 10,958.

CHAMPAIGN, a city of Champaign County, CHAMBLY, FORT, was situated on the Riche- central eastern Illinois, 128 miles S.S.W. of Chi. lieu River, at the rapids, 12 miles below St. cago, in the midst of a rich agricultural region, John. In 1775 this was a British post, and Gen- on the Illinois Central, the Wabash, and the eral Carleton, thinking it sufficiently safe, left Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis railonly a small garrison there. General Montgom- roads. It is beautifully laid out, with broad, shaded ery, who was at the time besieging St. John, streets and numerous parks; it has electric and aided by some Canadian scouts, surprised and gas lights, water-works, and electric-carlines, captured the town after a short fight. A large and a large number of factories, chiefly of ropes amount of ammunition was captured; the sur- and twines. The University of Illinois is located render of St. John was hastened by the capture of here. Population 1890, city, 5,839; township, this fort.

6,619. CHAMBORD, HENRI CHARLES DIEUDONNÉ, CHAMPERTY is a bargain with a party to a COMTE DE, and DUC DE BORDEAUX, claimant to suit, or having a right of action, for part of the

the French throne; born property or other matter sued for in case the suit in Paris, Sept. 29, 1820, is successful, whereupon the champertor is to seven months after the maintain the suit at his own expense. A contract assassination of his fa- between an attorney and his client, that the attorther, the Duke de Berri. ney will maintain a suit at his own expense

for His original title, Duc de share of the amount recovered, in some states Bordeaux, was dropped is held champertous, and cannot be enforced. by him in 1844 and that Champerty is an offense indictable at common of Chambord taken, in law. The offense consists of the tendency of honor of the chateau of such contracts to stir up and encourage strifes Chambord, presented to and litigation. Any interest in the subject matter him by the Legitimists. by the party who undertakes to maintain the suit, Charles X, his grandfa- | however slight, will avoid champerty. See Bar

ther, abdicated in his RATRY and MAINTENANCE, in these Supplements. COMTE DE CHAMBORD.

favor in 1830. The elder CHAMP DE MARS of to-day is one of the Bourbons were at that time driven into exile. He public parks of Paris, situated between the Miliassumed the title “Henry V,” and at various times tary School and the Seine. It is about three quarmade futile attempts to regain the throne. He ters of a mile in length by a little over a quarter lived in exile all his life. He was a man of con- of a mile in width. Here are held all outdoor siderable ability, but lacked decision. He mar- meetings, military reviews and public ceremonies. ried the Princess of Modena in 1836, but had no During the Revolution and the first empire many children. He died at Frohsdorf Castle, Lower celebrations were held here. The Paris internaAustria, Aug. 24, 1883.

tional exhibitions of 1867, 1878 and 1889 were CHAMBRE ARDENTE (fiery chamber), a held in this park. It derives its name both from name given at different times, in France, to an the march-fields, or camps for the discussion of extraordinary court of justice, probably on ac- public affairs, of the Frankish rulers of the fifth and count of the severity of the punishments which it sixth centuries and from the Roman Campus Marawarded, the most common being that of death by tius, which had a similar use. fire. In 1535 Francis I established an inquisitorial CHAMFLEURY. See FLEURY, JULES F. F. H., tribunal and a chambre ardente. Both were intended in these Supplements. for the extirpation of heresy. The former searched CHAMPIGNY, a village on the Marne River, out cases of heresy and instructed the processes, a short distance E. of Paris. Here, on the 30th while the latter both pronounced and executed of November and ad of December, 1870, during the final judgment. The chambre ardente was the siege of Paris, occurred a desperate conflict made use of until 1682. Its last victim was between the French and Germans, in which the Voisin, charged with sorcery in 1680.

French were driven back across the Marne. CHAMFER CHAMPFER. See ARCHI- CHAMPION. In the judicial combats of the TECTURE, Vol. II, p. 462.

middle ages, women, children, priests and aged CHAMPAC OR CHAMPAK, an Indian tree persons were allowed to appear in the lists by a (Michelia champaca), family Magnoliacea, possessing representative, and such hired combatant was great beauty both of foliage and flowers, and held called a champion (see ORDEAL, Vol. XVII, p. in high esteem by Brahmins and Buddhists. It 820). In the age of chivalry it signified a knight is planted about their temples, and images of who entered the lists on behalf of any one incaBuddha are made of its wood. Its beautiful yel. pable of self-defense. In England the crown has low flowers and their sweet perfume are much its champion, who, mounted on horseback, and celebrated in the poetry of the Hindus. The armed to the teeth, challenges, at every coronatimber of this and other species is useful and fra- tion at Westminster, all who should deny the

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