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king to be the lawful sovereign. This officer is War of 1812. He commanded successively the a member of the Lord Chamberlain's depart- ship Scorpion, the prize-ships Queen Charlotte and ment, and the office is hereditary.

Detroit, the Tigress, the schooner Porcupine, the CHAMPION HILLS, Hinds County, central receiving-ship Fulton, and the Michigan. In 1855 western Mississippi, 20 miles W. of Jackson, was he was placed on the retired list, and in 1862 the scene of a severe conflict between General promoted to the rank of commodore.

He was Grant's army and the Confederates under General the last survivor of the battle of Lake Erie. Pemberton. General Grant was advancing upon CHAMPNEY, JAMES WELLS, artist; born in BosVicksburg, when he was met at this point by the ton, Massachusetts, July 16, 1843; served for a short Confederate force. The battle which ensued time as volunteer in the Forty-fifth Massachusetts lasted five hours, and resulted in the retreat of regiment. He taught drawing, and spent several the Confederates to the Big Black River, with seasons in Europe studying art, his first teacher heavy losses of men and artillery. It was fought being Édouard Frère of Paris. He is a member May 16, 1863, and is sometimes called the battle of the American Water-Color Society, and an assoof Baker's Creek.

ciate member of the National Academy. His CHAMPLAIN, a town of Clinton County, paintings include IVhich is Umpire? Indian Sumnorthwestern New York, on the Chazy River and mer; Boarding School Green-Room; He Loves Me; on the Central Vermont railroad, 19 miles N. of Griselila; and Song Without Words.—His wife, Plattsburg The river is navigable, and is used Lizzie WILLIAMS (born in Ohio in 1850), is a clever for exporting lumber. The town is the seat of writer, and the author of charming books. Bethe Champlain Academy. Population in 1890, side the “Vassar Girl" series, she has written 1,275

In the Sky-Garden; All Around a Palette; and CHAMPLAIN, a town in a county of the same Sebia's Tangled Web. Her husband has illustrated name, Quebec, Canada, about 58 miles S. of

many of her books. Quebec City, on the Canadian Pacific railroad. CHAMPNEYS, BASIL, an English architect; The county contains about 30,000 inhabitants; ) born in 1842 at Lichfield; was graduated at area, 9, 150 square miles; chief product, lumber. Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1864; studied The town has about 2,000 inhabitants.

architecture under Prichard. He designed many CHAMPLAIN FORMATION. See GEOLOGY, of the buildings at Cambridge, Oxford and Vol. X, pp. 369, 370.

other schools. He was architect of St. Luke's CHAMPLIN, JAMES Tift, educator; born in Church, Kentish Town, and other churches, aided Colchester, Connecticut, June 9, 1811; died in in the restoration of St. Bride's, in Fleet Street, Portland, Maine, March 15, 1882. He graduated St. Dunstan's in Stepney, and was the author of with the first honors in the class of 1834 at Brown A Quiet Corner of England (1875). University, taught there for three years, was CHANAK-KALESSI, a town of Anatolia, pastor of a Baptist church in Portland, Maine, southwestern Asia Minor, situated on the Darfrom 1838 to 1841; was called to a professorship danelles, about 28 miles S.W. of Gallipoli. It of Waterville (now Colby) University, and became derives its name from its manufactures of crockpresident there in 1857, serving till 1873. He

Population, 6,000. edited Demosthenes on the Crown; Demosthenes' CHANCEL, the space in the Roman Catholic Select Orations; Æschines on the Crown; and pub- and Anglican Episcopal churches that is inclosed lished educational works, such as the Text-book of and railed off from the choir, reserved for the Intellectual Philosophy; First Principles of Ethics; clergy; includes the altar, and is often called the and Constitution of the United States, with Brief sanctuary.

The chancel was, and still is in some Comments.

churches, separated from the nave by a screen of CHAMPLIN, John DENISON, author; born in lattice-work, so as to prevent general access Stonington, Connecticut, Jan. 29, 1834; was grad- thereto. Frequently this screen bore a carved uated at Yale in 1856; studied law, and went representation of the crucifixion, and was then into practice in New York City.

He was

termed the rood-screen. It is generally elevated nected with the Bridgeport Standard and The from the body of the church by a few steps. Sentinel until 1869. He edited Fox's Mission to CHANCELLOR, CHARLES Williams, physiRussia, and aided in compiling the American cian; born in Spottsylvania County, Virginia, Cyclopædia. He contributed the article on HAYTI Feb. 19, 1833; was graduated at Jefferson Medical to this ENCYCLOPÆDIA. Among his best-known College, Philadelphia, in 1853. In 1861 he joined published writings are Child's Catechism of Com- the Confederate army and became medical direcmon Things; Young Folks' History of the War for tor for the division under General Pickett. After the Union; The Chronicle of the Coach, a description the war he settled in Memphis, Tennessee, and of a coaching trip in England with Andrew Car- remained there until 1868, when he went to Balti. negie; and, with C.C. Perkins, Cyclopædia of Paint- more, Maryland, to act as professor of anatomy ers and Paintings.

in Washington University. He was transferred CHAMPLIN, STEPHEN, naval officer; born in to the chair of surgery in 1870, but resigned in South Kingston, Rhode Island, Nov. 17, 1789; 1873. He was secretary of the state board of died in Buffalo, New York, Feb. 20, 1870. When health in 1876, and in 1877 was president of the


age he went to sea, and at 23 years state insane asylum. His writings on medical of age engaged in the naval operations of the topics are of much value. Among them ar Con



16 years




tagious and Infectious Diseases; Drainage of the l of the left, Howard the right, Slocum and Sickles Marshlands of Maryland; Heredity; and Sewerage between, and Hancock toward the east. Lee of Cities.

first attacked Hancock, but soon changed to CHANCELLOR. A chancellor is the officer Howard, and with the troops under “Stonewall" who presides over a court of chancery, corre- Jackson drove Howard back upon Hooker in the sponding to the judge in a court of law. He is center. Lee himself kept Meade from going to usually a judge who is selected by the other Howard's relief.

Howard's relief. Again Hooker concentrated his judges of the judicial district to sit as a chancel forces. In the next day's battle Lee united all lor, or by some other authority has the right to his forces and drove Hooker from his position, act in that capacity. A chancellor of a university leaving Sedgwick in a perilous situation. Lee is the chief officer of the institution, but is for attacked Sedgwick, who had defeated Early, and the most part an honorary officer. See CHAN- forced the Federals back across the RappahanCELLOR, Vol. V, pp. 387–389.

nock. Defeated on every side, Hooker called a CHANCELLORSVILLE, plantation in council of his officers, and, contrary to their Spottsylvania County, northeast Virginia, 65 almost unanimous advice, decided to continue the miles N.W. of Richmond. Here was fought a retreat, and thus gave Lee and his troops an battle between the Federal forces under General | opening and confidence for the Gettysburg camHooker and the Confederates under General | paign. Hooker lost, during the three days' fightLee, May 2-4, 1865. The Union army was de- | ing, over sixteen thousand men, and the Confedfeated, sustaining a terrible loss. The fighting erates twelve thousand. During the battle of this battle, and the evident mistakes in general- “Stonewall ” Jackson, thought by some the greatship.displayed by Hooker, brought out the con- est of the Confederate generals, was killed. His demnation of the majority of the people of the loss was irreparable. In the eyes of most miliNorth, and did much toward causing him to tary critics, the entire campaign was an uninresign his command. Hooker succeeded Burn- terrupted series of blunders on the part of Hooker, side in the command of the army of the Potomac who was wounded during the fight, and his after the defeat at Fredericksburg in December, strange conduct of the battle and the ordering of 1862. The army at that time was completely the retreat are excused by some on that account. demoralized by the many desertions and the great CHANDAUSI, a town of the northwest provamount of sickness. He spent the winter in re- inces of India, 27 miles S. of Muradabad, on the organizing and recruiting. When spring came Burjeb and Delhi railroad. Population, 27,521. he had 132,000 men in excellent condition, in- CHANCROID, a disease. See SURGERY, Vol. cluding 12,000 cavalry. Lee, on the other hand, XXII, p. 686. although his men were enthusiastic from the vic- CHANDELEUR ISLANDS, a semicircular tories of the previous campaign, had but 60,000 chain off St. Bernard County, southeastern Louimen, and was in possession of about the same siana, about 20 miles from shore. They separate position occupied by him at the battle of Freder- Chandeleur Sound from the Gulf of Mexico. The icksburg. Hooker decided upon a flank move- northernmost has at its northern extremity a ment, rather than a direct assault. He began the lighthouse 56 feet high; lat. 30° 3' 8" N., long. work of attack April 13th, but heavy rains and 88° 51' 38" W. consequent swollen streams prevented progress CHANDERI OR CHANDHAIREE, a town of before the 29th. Then Stoneman, in command of Gwalior, central India, 105 miles S. of the city the cavalry, was sent across the Rappahannock of Gwalior, once a flourishing manufacturing cento gain the rear of the Confederates. At the ter and an almost impregnable fort. It is now same time, the First Corps under Reynolds, the much decayed, on account of oppression and wars, Third under Sickles, and the Sixth under Sedg- but the beauty and extent of its ruins show its wick, were moved against Lee's right wing, near former importance and splendor. It is said to have Fredericksburg. At that time another divis-contained at one time 14,000 stone houses, 384 · ion, under Slocum, was to turn the other Aank, markets, 360 caravansaries and 12,000 mosques. while Hooker was between the two with a strong It is under British rule.

It is under British rule. Population 1891, 5,100, force. Lee up to this time had not been able to CHANDERNAGAR, a French settlement in discern the purpose of the Federals, but he soon Bengal. See CHANDARNAGAR, Vol. V, p. 391. realized that the main attack was to be directed CHANDLER, CHARLES FREDERICK, an Ameragainst his left, so he concentrated his forces in ican chemist; born in Lancaster, Massachusetts, that direction. Had Hooker continued in his Dec. 6, 1836. He pursued scientific studies at Harflank movement, it is possible that the outcome vard and at foreign universities, and on his return of the battle would have been different, but just to America was for seven years professor of chemat the time for the attack as had been agreed istry in Union College. He was then employed in upon, he sent peremptory orders for all to retire the organization of the Columbia School of Mines toward Chancellorsville. This was a fatal mis- ( in New York City. Since that time he was contake, owing to the disadvantageous position in nected with the college, holding the chair of which the troops were placed and the effect the chemistry in that institution and in the New York retreat had upon the minds of the men. He College of Pharmacy. He has also been chemist massed his forces about the Chancellor House in to the Metropolitan Board of Health, and in 1873 the form of a letter J, with Meade in command was appointed president. In the College of Phy




years later.

sicians and Surgeons he was, in 1876, appointed | clusion that Brook's comet was identical with the professor of chemistry and medical jurisprudence. Lexell comet of 1770. In his investigations of As officer of the board of health, Mr. Chandler variable stars he discovered a relation between has given attention to the subject of food-adulter- the depth of color and the length of period of ation, has compelled the location of slaughter the star. houses to be along a narrow area on the river side, CHANDLER, WILLIAM EATON, a United States and has obtained the passage of the tenement Senator from New Hampshire; born in Concord, house act, which provides that the plans for such New Hampshire, Dec. 28, buildings be submitted to the health board. Aside 1835; was graduated at from the reformatory work which he has accom- Harvard Law School in plished for New York City, he has analyzed the 1855, and in 1862 was waters of several springs, has lectured frequently,

to the New and has investigated the water-supply of Albany, Hampshire house of repNew York, and other cities. He was a member of resentatives, of which several scientific societies, both at home and in he was speaker in 1863– Europe. Reports of his investigations have been 64. He held various published, many of them appearing in the Ameri-positions under the can Chemist, a periodical established in 1870 by United States, including himself and his brother, William Henry Chandler. that of first assistant The latter was a well-known chemist, and has been secretary of the Treasprofessor of this science at Columbia School of ury, and was active in Mines (1868–71) and at Lehigh University. He politics, attending all was a juror at the United States Centennial Exhi- | important conventions. bition of 1876, and at the Paris exhibition two From 1868 to 1876 he served as secretary of the

Republican National Committee.

On March 23, CHANDLER, JOHN, a United States Senator 1885, he was nominated for Solicitor-General of the from Maine; born in Epping, New Hampshire, in United States, but the Senate refused to confirm 1760; died in Augusta, Maine, Sept. 25, 1841. He him. In April, 1882, he became Secretary of the learned the blacksmith's trade, became a member Navy, and held that office until March, 1885. In of Congress from 1805 till 1808, took part in the June, 1887, he was elected to fill a vacancy in the War of 1812 as brigadier-general, was United United States Senate, and was re-elected in 1889 States Senator from Maine from 1820 to 1829, and 1895. and from 1829 till 1837 collector for the United CHANDLER, ZACHARIAH, a United States States for the Portland district.

Senator from Michigan; born in Bedford, New CHANDLER, JOSEPH RIPLEY, an American | Hampshire, Dec. 10, 1813; died in Chicago, Illiphilanthropist and diplomat; born in Kingston, nois, Nov. 1, 1879. He received a common school Massachusetts, Aug. 25, 1792; died in Philadel- education, and went to Detroit in 1833, where he phia, Pennsylvania, July 10, 188o. For several established himself in the dry-goods business. years he taught a successful school in Philadel. His energy brought success, while the same spirit phia; in 1822 became interested in the United in political matters soon made him prominent as States Gazette, which afterward, in 1847, became a Whig and an active supporter of the “underthe North American. From 1849 to 1851 he was a ground railroad,” of which Detroit was a termi- . member of Congress, representing the Whig party. In 1851 he was elected mayor of the city, In 1858 he was sent by President Buchanan as and the following year was an unsuccessful canminister to the Two Sicilies. He published an didate for the office of governor. In 1857 he English grammar and many addresses, and was succeeded General Lewis Cass in the United interested in the subject of prison reform. States Senate, and remained in this official body

CHANDLER, RALPH, an American naval off- till his death, with the intermission of the years cer; born in New York, Aug. 23, 1829; died Feb. between 1875 and 1879. Senator Chandler took II, 1889, in Hongkong, China. He began his naval an active part in debates of Congress, opposing career as a midshipman, attaining to the rank of the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton rear-admiral. He took part in the Mexican and constitution, advocating the war in defense of the Civil wars, conducted several coast surveys, was Union, and insisting that the short term of enlistin charge of the Brooklyn navy-yard, took part ment for the volunteers first called for was a misin scientific expeditions to Tasmania and else- take; he also favored a sweeping confiscation bill where, and was in command of the Asiatic squad- the stern measures of which would deter waverron at the time of his death.

ing persons from taking arms against the governCHANDLER, SETH C., an American astrono- ment. In 1874 President Grant offered him the mer; born Sept. 16, 1845, in Boston, Massachu- position of Secretary of the Interior, which office

While a student at Harvard College he in he held till Mr. Hayes was inaugurated. He was vented the almucantar, an astronomical instru- chairman of the Republican National Committee ment floating on mercury and bearing a telescope in 1868 and in 1876. that always points to the same altitude. recognized authority on variable stars.

He at

descended from a follower of William the Contracted considerable attention in 1889 by his con- queror, the last representative in the direct male




He is a . CHANDOS, the name of an English family



line being Sir John Chandos (died 1428), whose the citizens of that county a jury cannot be prosister married Giles Brydges. Their descendant, cured who will give a fair and impartial verdict. Sir John Brydges, was lieutenant of the Tower | The right to a change of venue is governed by under Queen Mary, and was created Baron statute in the various states. Chandos in 1554.

James Brydges (1673-1744), CHANG SHA FOO, a city of southern China; eighth Lord Chandos, sat in Parliament for Here- capital of the province of Hunan, on the Siang ford from 1698 to 1714, and was created Duke Kiang, about 360 mile of Canton. Its chief of Chandos in 1719. In 1796 the title passed by industry is silk manufacture and trade. Populamarriage to the family of Grenville, the present | tion, 300,000. dukes of Buckingham and Chandos.

CHANK-SHELL, a gasteropod mollusk of the CHANEY, HENRY JAMES, British physicist; genus Turbinella, occurring in Indo-Pacific waters. born in Windsor, England, in 1842; superintend- | It is the sacred shell of the Hindus. Many are ent of standards for the Board of Trade. He | brought to America and Europe for ornamental was active in bringing about the adoption of purposes. international standards of weights and measures, CHANLER, Mrs. AMÉLIE. See Rives, in these and in the enactment of the British laws regulating Supplements. such standards. He published Verification of CHANNING, EDWARD TYRREL, an American Parliamentary Standards of Length and Weight; educator and scholar, brother of Rev. William Mode of Testing Weighing Machines; Redetermina- Ellery Channing; born Dec. 12, 1790, in Newtion of the Scientific Unit of Volume; and many port, Rhode Island; died Feb. 8, 1856, at Camother papers on kindred topics.

bridge, Massachusetts. He was a graduate of CHANG AND ENG, See SIAMESE TWins, in Harvard College and one of the promoters in the these Supplements.

organization of the North American Review. In CHANGARNIER, NICOLAS AME THÉODULE, 1819 he became professor of rhetoric at Harvard a French general; born at Autun, France, April | College, a position he retained until 1851. 26, 1793; died at Versailles, Feb. 14, 1877. He CHANNING, WALTER, physician, brother of distinguished himself in the Algerian campaigns the Rev. William Ellery Channing (q.v., Vol. V, from 1830 to 1847, and became general of division PP. 393-395); born in Newport, Rhode Island, and maréchal-de-camp. In May, 1848, he suc- April 15, 1786; died in Boston, Massachusetts, ceeded Cavaignac as governor-general of Algeria. July 27, 1876. He studied at Harvard, but on In the same year he was recalled and became account of a “rebellion'' in 1807 did not graduate. commander-in-chief of the national guard of He pursued the study of medicine in Boston, Paris. Louis Napoleon, then prince-president, Philadelphia, Edinburgh and London. In 1812 he deprived him of his command in January, 1851, began to practice in Boston, and from 1815 to 1854 and at the coup d'état of December 2d of that occupied the chair of obstetrics and medical jurisyear he was arrested and exiled. During the prudence at Harvard. For nearly 20 years he Franco-Prussian war he offered his sword to was physician in the Massachusetts General HosFrance, was made a general, and sent to Metz. pital.

pital. He published poems, books of travel and He strenuously opposed the surrender of that medical works, among them Reformation of Medifortress and of Bazaine's army, but was cal Science; Professional Reminiscences of Foreign ruled. After the war he became a senator.

Travel; and Miscellaneous Poems. CHANG-CHAU, a town of the province of CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, JR., author; Fuh-Reen, southeastern China, on a branch of a son of Dr. Walter Channing, and nephew of the the Kiulung-Kiang, 35 miles W. of Amoy. The Rev. William Ellery Channing; born in Boston, city is well built, but dirty; it is surrounded by a Massachusetts, June 10, 1818, and studied at Harwall 472 miles in circumference. The river is vard, but did not graduate; lived in a log hut in crossed by a bridge 780 feet long, which is sup- Illinois, removed to Cincinnati, where he was conported on 25 stone piles about 31 feet apart. Innected with the Gazette, then came to Massachuthe city is a magnificent Buddhist temple, built setts, married Margaret Fuller's sister, and in the eighth century. There is a large silk trade settled in Concord. He was on the staff of the in the city, and it has manufactories of sugar, New York Tribune and the New Bedford Mercury; paper and porcelain. These articles and tea are and has published Near Home; Eliot; A Poem; its principal exports. Population, about 900,000. The Wanderer-all in verse; and in prose, Thoreau,

CHANGE OF VENUE is the change of the the Poet- Naturalist. place of trial of a suit to another county or to an- CHANNING, WILLIAM HENRY, Unitarian clerother court of like jurisdiction in the same county. gyman and orator, son of Francis Dana ChanThe rule is, that if the venue is changed the case ning, and nephew of the Rev. William Ellery must go to the nearest county, or if to another court Channing; born in Boston, May 25, 1810; died in in the same county, then to the nearest of such London, Dec. 23, 1884. He was graduated at Harcourts to that in which the suit is brought. The vard in 1829, and at the Divinity School four years usual grounds for changing the venue are, that later. He held pastorates in Cincinnati, Boston, the judge of the court wherein the suit was Rochester and New York. As a platform brought is disqualified to try the case, through in speaker it is said he has never been surpassed. terest in the result or prejudice against the de- He was interested in Fourierism and other fendant, or that on account of the prejudice of schemes for social reorganization. He wrote a




In 1850

memoir of his uncle, and was chief editor of the CHAPEL HILL, a town of Orange County, memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli. The last central northern North Carolina, on a branch of years of his life were spent in England, and his the Southern railroad, 26 miles N.W. of Raleigh. eldest daughter is the wife of the poet Edwin The University of North Carolina is located here. Arnold.

Population 1890, 1,017. CHANT. See Plain Song, Vol. XIX, pp. CHAPIN, AARON Lucius, an American educator 168-170.

and clergyman; born Feb. 4, 1817, in Hartford, CHANTILLY, a post hamlet of Fairfax County, Connecticut; died July 22, 1892, in Beloit, WisVirginia, about 20 miles W. of Washington, Disconsin. He was graduated at Yale in 1837 and at trict of Columbia. It is famous on account of a Union Theological Seminary in 1842.

He was a battle, the final encounter in the second battle of professor in the New York Institute for the Deaf Bull Run. In this action Generals Stevens and and Dumb in 1838; in 1844 pastor of a Presbyterian Phil Kearny were killed. See Bull Run, in these church in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; from 1850 to Supplements.

1866 president of Beloit College, and from 1866 CHANTRY. See ARCHITECTURE, Vol. II, p.462. professor of civil polity. He held many offices of

CHANUTE, a city of Neosho County, south- honor in various societies and academies. eastern Kansas, on the Atchison, Topeka and CHAPIN, EDWIN HUBBELL, an American UniSanta Fe and the Missouri, Kansas and Texas versalist clergyman; born in Union Village, Washrailroads, 14 miles N.W. of Erie. It is the center ington County, New York, Dec. 29, 1814; died in of the southern Kansas division of the former New York City, Dec. 27, 1880. railroad. Industry, principally handling agricul- Bennington Seminary, Vermont, studied law tural products. Population 1895, 3,551.

in Troy, New York, edited The Magazine and AdCHANUTE, OCTAVE, civil engineer ; born Feb. vocate in Utica, and studied for the ministry, be18, 1832, in Paris, France. He moved to the ing ordained in 1837. He preached afterward United States in 1832, and after a time spent in at Richmond, Virginia, for three years; at Charlesschool in New York, began his engineering work. town, Massachusetts, for six years; at Boston, He was first employed by the Hudson River rail- where he was the colleague of Hosea Ballou; and road and afterward by the Chicago and Alton and in 1848 became pastor of the Fourth Universalist Erie railroads. His principal single work was the Church of New York City. Dr. Chapin was conconstruction of a bridge across the Missouri River, sidered a powerful orator, and his services on in 1868, at Kansas City. He has written numer- / public occasions were in great demand. ous .papers on engineering topics, among which he was a delegate to the peace congress at Frank:

The Elements of Cost of Railroad Freight fort-on-the-Main. In 1872 he became editor of Traffic; The Preservation of Timber; and Progress the Christian Leader. Among his publications in Äärial Navigation.

are Hours of Communion; Moral Aspects of City CHANZY, ANTOINE EUGÈNE ALFRED, French Life; True Manliness; Humanity in the City; and general; born at Nouart, Ardennes, March 18, A Crown of Thorns: A Token for the Suffering. . 1823; died at Châlons, Feb. 5, 1883. He entered | The last mentioned was the most popular of his the artillery as a private, received a commission works. in the Zouaves in 1841, and served almost uninter- CHAPLAIN, originally an ecclesiastic who acruptedly in Africa till 1870. He was elected to companied an army and carried the relics of the the National Assembly, and narrowly escaped patron saint. The word now signifies the spiritual being shot by the Communists in 1871. În 1873–79 adviser of any organization or person. Legislative he was governor-general of Algeria. Chosen a life bodies, military and naval organizations, public senator in 1875, he was put forward for the Pres- institutions in general, and noblemen and soveridency in 1879. He was ambassador at St. eigns have such

an officer.

In the United Petersburg from 1879 to 1881, and afterward States most prisons have chaplains to look after commanded the Sixth Army Corps at Châlons. the comfort and needs of the inmates. In the

CHAPALA, the largest lake in Mexico, lies in United States army the chaplain generally holds the state of Jalisco, in the western central part the rank of captain, and in the navy ranks from of the republic, and has an area of about 1,300 lieutenant up to captain, according to the numsquare miles. It is an expansion of the Rio ber of years of his service.

For the British army Grande de Santiago, and contains numerous chaplain, see ARMY, Vol. II, p. 584. islands.

CHAPLEAU, JOSEPH ADOLPHE, Canadian CHAP-BOOKS, tracts of a homely kind, which statesman; born in Ste. Therèse-de-Blainville, at one time formed the only popular literature of Terrebonne, Quebec, Nov. 9, 1840. He was adGreat Britain and the American colonies. They mitted to the bar of Lower Canada in 1861, and were of a miscellaneous kind, including theolo- soon made a brilliant reputation in the criminal gical tracts, lives of heroes, martyrs, wonderful courts. In 1867 he represented his county in the personages, fortune-telling, interpretations of first legislature of the province of Quebec. He dreams, stories of ghosts, witches, histories in became queen's counsel in 1873, held the office verse, songs, ballads, etc. They were sold by of solicitor-general in Mr. Ouimet's cabinet, and chapmen, or peddlers—hence the designation. two years later (1875) was champion speaker of

CHAPEL. See ARCHITECTURE, Vol. II, p. the Conservatives, winning such success that he 462.

was called into the De Boucherville ministry as


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