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provincial secretary and registrar. In 1878 Mr. from 1866 to 1869. During the greater part of his Chapleau was elected leader of the party, and the life he has paid attention to the study of botany. following year became premier of Quebec and The genus Chapmannia is named for him. He minister of agriculture and public works. He has published Flora of the Southern United States. was invited to enter the Dominion cabinet, but CHAPMAN, ELIZABETH RACHEL, Miss, a British for political reasons did not do so until the invita- novelist and poetess, was born in Woodford, Essex. tion was renewed in 1882, when he became mem- Her writings treat chiefly of those social moveber of the Privy Council and Secretary of State ments that have for their object the improvement of Canada. The following month, August, he of the condition of woman. . Her published works was elected to the House of Commons by his include The New Godiva; A Comtist Lover; A county; in June, 1891, again became Secretary Little Child's Wreath: and A Sonnet Sequence. of State of the Dominion, which office he held CHAPMAN, John GADSBY, American until 1892; and in January, 1892, Minister of painter; born in 1808 at Alexandria, Virginia; Public Works. In December of 1892 he became studied in Italy; a founder of the Century Club, lieutenant-governor for the province of Quebec. New York; went to Italy again in 1848, and re
CHAPLET, a garland or head-band of leaves sided in Rome until his death, Nov. 28, 1889. The and flowers. See also ROSARY, Vol. XX, p. 848. work by which he is best known is The Baptism of
CHAPLIN, CHARLES JOSHUA, portrait-painter; Pocahontas, now in the rotunda of the Capitol at born in Les Andelys, France, June 6, 1825; died Washington. Others of his paintings are Sunset in Paris, Jan. 30, 1891. His father was English, on the Campagna; Last Arrow; and Valley of Mexico. his mother French. He studied at the École des His etchings are highly valued. Among them are Beaux-Arts and under Drölling; became a chev- The Gleaner; A View in the Vicinity of Rome; and alier of the Legion of Honor in 1877. Among his A Monk Asking Alms. portraits are Soap Bubbles; A Bather; and Girls CHAPPAQUA, a small village of Westchester Kneeling at a Shrine.
County, southeastern New York, on the Harlem CHAPLIN, HENRY, an English statesman, the railroad, where Horace Greeley had his summer farmers' member of the British Parliament, was home. Here is a good boarding school under the born in 1841 and educated at Harrow School and control of the Society of Friends. Population, Christ Church, Oxford University. From Novem- 733. ber, 1868, to November, 1885, he represented CHAPPELL, William, an English music pubMid-Lincolnshire in the House of Commons, since lisher, was born Nov. 20, 1809; died in London, which date he sat for the northern division of the Aug. 20, 1888. His first work of importance was Parts of Kesteven or Sleaford, in the same county. A Collection of National English Airs (2 vols., The tenant farmer of England was always the ob- 1838-40). This work ultimately grew into the ject of his legislative solicitude. He was prominent greater and entirely rewritten work, Popular in the councils of the Conservative party, a fre- Music of the Olden Time (2 vols., 1855-59). The quent and incisive debater and an authority on first volume forms a complete collection of Eng. all matters agricultural. His politics were of the lish airs, so far as known, down to the reign of old Tory stripe and his adherence to his party Charles I; the second is rather a selection, conprocured him several important offices. In June, taining, however, all the more interesting or im1885, he was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy portant airs of later date. He took a principal of Lancaster, and in 1889, on the formation of the part in the foundation, in 1840, of the Musical Board of Agriculture, Mr. Chaplin was appointed Antiquarian Society, and the Percy Society, and its first president, with a seat in the Cabinet. In edited some of Dowland's songs for the for1885 he was sworn of the Privy Council. In 1876 | mer, and several rare collections for the latter. Mr. Chaplin married Lady Florence Leveson- He published papers in the Archæologia, contribGower, daughter of the third Duke of Sutherland. uted valuable notes to a reprint of the Percy She died in 1881.
Folio MS. (1867–68), and annotated the first CHAPLIN, WINFIELD Scott, an American civil | three volumes of the Ballad Society edition of engineer and educator; born in Glenburn, Maine, The Roxburghe Ballads. He published, in 1874, Aug. 22, 1847; was graduated at West Point in the first volume of a History of Music. See Music, 1870; spent two years in the army, and devoted Vol. XVII, p. 77, note. two years to civil-engineering. In 1874 he was CHAPRA, a town of Bengal. See CHUPRA, appointed professor of mechanics at Maine State
Vol. V, p. 758. College; in 1877 in the Imperial University of CHAPTER See CATHEDRAL, Vol. V, p. 228; Tokyo, Japan, as professor of civil engineering; and CoNGE D'ELIRE, Vol. VI, p. 265. first in Union College, New York, and then in CHAPTER-HOUSE. See ARCHITECTURE,
Vol. Harvard College as professor of civil-engineering. II, p. 462. In 1891 he became chancellor of Washington CHAPULTEPEC, a rock two miles S.W. of the University, St. Louis, Missouri.
City of Mexico, rising to a height of 150 feet, and CHAPMAN, ALVAN WENTWORTH, an Ameriean crowned by a castle which was erected by the botanist; born Sept. 28, 1809, in Southampton, Spanish viceroy in 1785, on the site of the palace Massachusetts; was graduated at Amherst in 1830; of Montezuma. Here was fought the decisive practiced medicine until 1846. He was collector battle of the Mexican War. This rock and castle of revenue for Florida in 1865-66, and of customs formed a stronghold, the possession of which was CHARACEÆ-CHARITY ORGANIZATION
essential to the capture of the City of Mexico. lieutenant in the Royal Engineers, July 15, 1868. General Scott decided to carry it by direct assault. After service at home, in Bermuda and Malta, he 'He engaged the attention of the Mexicans at the was ordered to Zululand with his company on the south end of the city by a heavy fire from the outbreak of the Zulu war. Here, on the disasbatteries. This fire was kept up for two days, ter of Isandlwhana, he held the near-by commisand on the third (Sept. 13, 1847), under the cover sariat post at Rorke's Drift with eighty men, many of the guns, two storming columns of picked men of them wounded, against an impi of 3,000 of the assaulted the castle and captured it. The Amer- flower of the Zulu military system. Six times the ican loss in killed and wounded during the two little band of English soldiers drove the savages days' battle was less than 900. The fall of out of the barricade around the hospital at the Chapultepec obliged the Mexicans to give up point of the bayonet, killing 351 and wounding the war. The President of the republic now oc- over 1,000. The heroic defense saved the towns cupies the castle as a summer residence, while of Helpmakaar and Grey Town from the horrors adjoining it is the West Point of Mexico, the of a Zulu raid, and its incidents formed the subMexican Military School.
ject for a noted picture by Lady Butler. LieuCHARACEÆ, a group of green Algæ of complex tenants Chard and Bromhead were decorated with structure. They grow in dense masses at the bot- the Victoria Cross for their valor. The former tom of fresh and brackish water, and being often was promoted to the rank of captain in 1879, incrusted with lime, and hence rough and brittle, major in 1886 and lieutenant-colonel in 1893. are sometimes called “brittle-worts or “stone- CHARDON, a village and the capital of worts.” The plants are from a few inches to Geauga County, northeastern Ohio, 37 miles more than a foot long, the stem having long N. N. E. of Akron, on the Pittsburg and Western internodes (each internode in Nitella being one railroad. It has considerable trade in dairy and cylindrical cell, in Chara being a similar cell sur- farm products. Population 1890, 1,084. rounded by a layer of smaller ones), the leaves CHARES, an Athenian general. See TIMOand branches appearing in whorls at the nodes, THEUS, Vol. XXIII, p. 398. and the conspicuous sex-organs (antheridia and CHARES OF RHODES, sculptor. See Colosoögonia) borne on the leaves. The circulating sus, Vol. VI, p. 166. movement of protoplasm is easily seen in the CHARGE. See HERALDRY, Vol. XI, pp. internodal cells.
698, 704 CHARADRIIDÆ, a family of birds compris
CHARGÉ D'AFFAIRES, a diplomatic agent, ing the plovers and similar forms. The repre- accredited, not to the sovereign, but to the desentatives of the family are cosmopolitan in dis-partment for foreign affairs; he also holds his tribution. See CURLEW, Vol. VI, p. 711.
credentials only from the minister. The term is CHARAES OR XARAYES, a district of inun- also applied to a representative at an inferior dations. See BRAZIL, Vol. IV, p. 222.
court. CHARCOT, JEAN Martin, French physician; CHARITABLE USES. See Trust, Vol. born in Paris, Nov. 25, 1825; died in the Morvan, XXIII, PP. 597, 598. central France, Aug. 18, 1893. He obtained his CHARITES, Greek myths. See GRACES, Vol. diploma as M.D. in 1853; was called to a place on XI, p. 26. the staff of the Salpétrière in 1862, from which time CHARITON, a river which rises in Clarke he continually devoted his attention to the study County, central southern Iowa, flows east, past the of the nervous system, and came into interna- city of Chariton, then southeast, enters Missouri, tional prominence through his experiments in and with many windings finds its way southward to hypnotism and mental suggestion. Besides his the Missouri River, two miles above Glasgow. principal works on various forms of disease, his The country through which it passes is fertile and Leçons Cliniques sur les Maladies du Système Ner- undulating Its length is about 250 miles. veux, and his Leçons du Mardi à la Salpétrière, he CHARITON, capital of Lucas County, central founded, in 1880, and edited the Archives de southern Iowa on the Chariton River, and on Neurologie, and took a leading part in the direc- the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad, tion of the Revue de Médecine, Archives de Pathol- 50 miles S. of Des Moines.
It is in an agriculogie Expérimentale, and the Nouvelle Iconographic tural district. Population 1890, 3, 122. de la Salpétrière. He was a member of the Insti- *CHARITY ORGANIZATION, a term that has tute of France, of the Royal Irish Academy, of come into general use to denote a recent movethe Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society of ment for bringing the relief agencies of large comLondon, and of a great number of other scientific munities into administrative co-operation. Parsocieties in various countries.
ticular associations bear different names, as asCHARD AND CARDOON, vegetables. See sociated charities, united charities, bureau of HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, pp. 278, 280.
charities, etc.; but the phrase charity organiCHARD, JOHN Rouse MERRIOTT, an English sation is a popular abbreviation of the title of soldier, famous for his heroic defense, with Lieu-the parent society in London. This association tenant Bromhead, of the post of Rorke's Drift, in was instituted in 1869 under the cumbrous style the Zulu war; was born in the county of Somer- of the “ London Society for Organizing Charitaset, England, Dec. 21, 1847. He was educated ble Relief and Repressing Mendicity."
It is a at Plymouth and Woolwich, and was gazetted a general characteristic of this movement that it
* Copyright, 1897, by The Werner Company.
did not proceed from various relief societies unit- teaching them to rely upon artificial and irregular ing to form boards or councils of their own dele- means of support, rather than upon the employgates, but from an independent movement to ment of their own faculties as a means of subprovide a distinct agency to which these societies sistence. Investigation showed that children might adhere voluntarily, and through which they abandoned aged parents, and husbands wives, might act in concert. Hence arises a distinct and parents children, in proportion as hospitals character for those associations that adopt pure and asylums were founded; that applications for charity organization principles. They do not aim relief grew as the tax rate increased; that want to create funds for distribution amongst the was always exceeding the provision made for it necessitous, but rather to promote an economic | by the benevolent. and salutary distribution of the funds provided The humanity of men forbade the suppression by the entire benevolence of a community for the of pecuniary relief, but it was clearly desirable relief of want. In some instances charity organi- that such relief should be administered in the zation societies have taken up the work of dis- most prudent and efficacious way, so that misforpensing funds directly to applicants for aid. In tune might be succored with the least corruption this case, the proceeding has grown out of the of the poor. The problem had been attacked neglect or failure of relief societies to co-operate; many times and in many places with success. but it is a deviation from the original scheme and Chalmers had solved it in Glasgow, and Von der basal principles of charity organization.
Heydt at Elberfeld, in Prussia.
The operations For two generations before the London society of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul and the was established, thoughtful men had come to work of Octavia Hill in East London had shown deplore the mischiefs wrought by an indiscrimi- | that much could be done for the necessitous by nate almsgiving They discovered that alms other means than alms. Experience also had created the very conditions they were supposed to been gained in the especial relief of the Lancacure; that benefits to be obtained for nothing shire mill-operatives during the cotton famine in produced a crop of applicants greedy to obtain England caused by the American Civil War. An an unearned share of the provision made for the undoubted impulse to the organization of the poor. As Chalmers stated the problem, to those London society was found in the mission of who were in want the accumulation of the many Edward Dennison to Stepney
, East London
, in gifts of the benevolent into a few treasuries in- 1868, where he resided eight months, visiting and tended for their succor seemed a munificent pro- studying the conditions of wretchedness there. vision. The poor did not consider the numbers He wrote: “I am beginning seriously to believe among whom the money was to be divided, but that all bodily aid to the poor is a mistake; only the total, and this seemed to them inex- whereas, by giving alms you keep them permahaustible. These sums were disbursed, not by nently crooked. Build schoolhouses, pay teachthe donors, but by officials who became profes-ers, give prizes, frame workman's clubs, help sional in their dealings with the multitude, and who them to help themselves, lend them your brains; were only almoners of others to whom the bene- but give them no money except what you sink in ficiaries of these funds owed neither gratitude such undertakings.” His high personal and nor respect. To the poor, each such almoner was social standing influenced his friends, and they a Cerberus guarding the gates of plenty. Under joined together in 1869 to form the society such an administration, the destitute, who were named. too often so rather from defects of character It was impossible to bring the vast number of than from real misfortune, acquired arts of beg- various organizations of the metropolis, parish gary with dissimulation, and that is the spirit of relief, asylums, work houses, voluntary societies, pauperism. They became shameless, mendacious, to organize themselves into a unity. In many brazen. Not only this, but they told others of cases they did not see the need of better methods; the relief to be had, and of the arts by which it in others they were unwilling to have their adwas to be obtained. No system could well be ministration criticised; altogether they were too devised for corrupting the weak and penniless, multitudinous, unwieldy and inert to construct and for extending pauperism. It was immaterial for themselves measures of practical co-operation. whether the funds to be given away were raised by To draw them into unity the London society protaxes and dispensed by the parish, or were con- posed a bureau where each of these independent solidated into the foundations of hospitals and agencies might register every case of its own asylums, or were dispensed by voluntary societies, relief, where their thousands of reports could be or came from the ree hand of personal gene- consolidated, and whence each might learn the rosity. The material defects of the whole scheme result of these collated records. By such a regiswere these: Gifts of money were treated by the tration bureau the whole field of London misery community as a panacea for all the ills of poverty, might be disclosed and the various societies made whereas what the poor sorely needed was the auxiliary to each other. The London society help of brave, spirited, well-disposed and potent further proposed to send out friendly visitors, friendship; in other words, society substituted who should not give relief, but should befriend cash for sympathy, a stone for bread; again, the with their brains and counsels those who applied temptation of ample treasuries to be tapped by for aid, and whose reports upon each case should begging was spread in the face of misfortune, be available to all sorts of relief officials and CHARITY ORGANIZATION
private benefactors for the direction of their | Ottawa to New Orleans and from Maine to Calialmsgiving
fornia. Some of them were old relief societies The society organized district committees, one that adopted charity organization principles and for each poor-law union in London. These com- came into accord with the general movement; mittees consisted of clergymen, guardians of the most of them were new foundations, offering the poor and representatives of local charities. their services to the communities in which they The district committees by delegates constituted were located. These communities embrace a a council, of which there were some few ex officio population of nearly fourteen million souls. members. The functions of the council were to Charity organization societies are in correspondgive unity of principle and method to the district ence with each other, as well in America as committees; to aid them in every way, as by sug- throughout the British Empire. By this means gestion, by repression of imposture, through the they are able to follow a case from Australia to agency of the law when necessary, and by seeking Puget Sound, sometimes returning a destitute systematic co-operation from London's municipal person to family friends, sometimes recovering a and voluntary agencies of relief. The district pension, and sometimes putting a stop to depredacommittees were to aim at the prevention of tions upon benevolent society throughout the overlapping aid, were to investigate all cases of English-speaking world. need made known to them; were to obtain, if In theory, a charity organization society propossible, from existing provisions, suitable and poses to do everything requisite for the permaadequate succor for the deserving; were to place nent relief of destitution and the reformation of their knowledge of particular needs at the service character that ingenuity can devise, and to find of charitable agencies and private persons; were the means therefor, if possible, in the provisions to promote social and sanitary reforms and habits for succor that each community has already of thrift; and were to advise the public concern- founded. It aims to establish everywhere a corps ing matters they thought desirable to accomplish, of visitors who shall attach themselves to families and for which suitable provision was not made. and to individuals, with a view to acquiring a In substance, this plan has been followed wherever complete understanding of the nature of their charity organization principles have been adopted wants and of suitable proceedings to restore them in the United States.
to independence. This visitation work is largely, The first movement of this nature known in the and most appropriately, the function of women. United States is to be credited to Boston, where Where mendicity is encountered, it is resisted. the city, in combination with private citizens, Efforts are made to suppress corrupting relief by erected an edifice, known as the Charity Building, invoking labor-tests, such as woodyards and in Chardon Street, to be the official home of mu-wayfarers' lodges. Labor-tests consist in the renicipal and private relief organizations. Here a quirement of a certain amount of coarse but simcertain amount of co-operation was obtained, and ple work in return for food and lodging. Those the way prepared for the fuller development of a who endure the test are retained long enough for wise and efficient system. This building was them to find employment; those who refuse it are erected in 1869 and was contemporary with the treated as vagrants. formation of the London society. The first con- Various devices have been found, such as scious adoption of the methods of the English savings funds, small loans for the purchase of society took place in Germantown, a suburb of tools, workrooms for unskilled women, laundries, Philadelphia, in 1873. This was a rural suburb crèches for the care of children, while the mothers and a distinct ward, characterized by consider- are at work, employment bureaus, etc., to place able unanimity of social sentiment and local pride, needy persons in conditions of temporary selfhaving wealth and intelligence as well as poverty.
maintenance, etc., until a better way of self-supThe success of the Germantown association at- port may be found.
Provision is also made to tracted attention, and began to be widely quoted secure suitable sanitary conditions in tenements, throughout the city and elsewhere. In 1878 an
and to afford children and young mothers outEnglish clergyman, who had been an active official door excursions, or a short sojourn in country of the London society, came to Buffalo and estab- homes. lished a charity organization society there, which, It is also a principle of charity organizations from the outset, obtained the co-operation of the to bring into concert of administration to the executive government. Results were immediate-/ utmost extent, not only the large charitable and ly seen in the improved administration of the penal institutions of municipal departments of civic charities, and the movement was warmly charity and correction, but churches, voluntary supported by a body of intelligent and patriotic societies and beneficent individuals. Such co-opcitizens. In the same year, a new movement in
eration is hard to obtain, on account of the vast Philadelphia, in which Germantown was merged, extent of the field and the sluggishness arising resulted in the establishment of a large and high- from the established traditions and persistent ly successful society there, with branches spread habits of a community. Considering the inertia throughout the wards of the city. From these to be overcome, this branch of work has made points the organizations spread year by year to reasonable progress, and the ground once covered the principal cities of the Union, until in 1895 is seldom wrested away. there were 132 such associations, extending from Recently a new phase of the work has sprung up,
full of promise, both for the working out of charity of orphanages, and in some places the manage-
whole. The Sisters of Charity of St. Paul was
second time, but also, on other occasions, when The influence of this movement has been very the performers desired to annoy or insult any one. wide-perhaps wider and more potent in its influ- In some districts of the United States, this rough ence on the legislation of many states, on the kind of serenade is common at any marriage, and administration of municipal charities, and in is generally rather a token of good feeling than stimulating new enterprises, such as university of any desire to insult either bride or groom. As settlements, kindergartens, trade schools, etc., synonomous with ridicule, the name has been taken than in the results of direct contact with the des- for several comic journals, the Paris Charivari, titute. Still, these latter results are by no means etc. See CARICATURE, Vol. V, p. 105. small, and have introduced a new criterion of CHARLES I (CHARLES EITEL FREDERICK humane succor. It is more and more widely seen ZEPHYRIN Louis), king of Roumania, was born that the type of true benevolence is not in the April 20, 1839, being the magnitude of things given away, but in the second
of Prince recovery of souls from personal depression and Charles Antoine of Hodegradation.
henzollern - Sigmaringen, Charity organization is simply a distinct recog- head of the house of the nition of the facts that real misfortune, as a rule, same name. He became is but temporary; that a sound society rests more Prince of Roumania in upon character than circumstances; and that the April, 1866, and in 1881 only effectual method of eradicating social evils king. He married Pauline is moral—that is, that the strong and the healthful Elizabeth Ottilie Louise, and the wise shall make their poorer brethren daughter of Prince Herparticipators in these qualities.
mann of Wied, in 1869, Literature. The proceedings of the National Conference who has achieved considof Charities and Correction, published annually, con- erable reputation as the tain an account of the Charity Organization Section authoress of several novsessions and the papers read there. The leading periodi
els and some verse under the nom de plume of cals devoted to this work are monthlies, and, in the order of their founding, are The Monthly Register (Philadelphia)
“Carmen Sylva.” See ELIZABETH OF ROUMANIA, Lend a Hand (Boston) and The Charities Review (New in these Supplements. York). The larger societies keep on hand a list of small
CHARLES I, an eccentric king of Würtemtreatises of practical character concerning various phases
berg; born March 6, 1823; succeeded his father, of charity organization, and their reports contain much general information. The two most compact histories of
William I, on June 25, 1864. He married, July the movement in America are by S. H. Gurteen and 13, 1846, the Grand Duchess Olga, daughter of Charles D. Kellogg.
D. (. KELLOGG. Nicholas I, czar of Russia. Originally an oppoCHARITY, SISTERS OF, one of the sisterhoods nent of the unification of Germany, at any rate of the Roman Catholic Church. The mem- to the extent of Prussian pre-eminence, he conbers of this order are sometimes called “Gray ceded to the inevitable, and supported his fellowSisters,” “Daughters of Charity” and “Sisters Germans with an army corps in the sharp and of St. Vincent de Paul.” The order or congre
The order or congre- decisive struggle with France in 1870. Though gation was founded by St. Vincent de Paul at Paris trained to militarism, his bent was toward art and in 1634. Its first object was to be the nursing of literature. Stuttgart benefited architecturally, patients in hospitals. There have since been added musically and scientifically by his reign, the last to the duties of the members, the taking charge ten years of which were rendered ludicrous by