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CHICAGO SANITARY AND SHIP CANAL-CHICKAMAUGA
iron and wood; brewing, distilling and tobacco; | thousand men at Shelbyville and WarTrace, while manufactures of wood; leather; printing; brick and Buckner, at Knoxville, had ten thousand more. terra-cotta.
Rosecrans's first scheme was to turn the Confederate The trade and commerce of the city is extensive, right. Bragg fell back and destroyed all the lines the value of the wholesale business for 1895 aggre- of communication behind him as he retreated gating $504,675,000. The leading lines were dry toward Chattanooga. Rosecrans's movements were goods and carpets; groceries; boots and shoes; lum- greatly impeded by the necessity of repairing the ber; clothing; manufactured iron; jewelry, watches damage thus done, meantime suffering sharp critiand diamonds; books, stationery and wall-paper; cism from the government at Washington. Bragg, $178,913,809 worth of flour and grain were received too, came in for his share of dictation from his govin 1895, and $162,602,137 worth shipped. The ernment, and when he had been reinforced by total value of produce received during the year was Generals Polk and Longstreet, he was peremptorily close to $400,000,000. See also CHICAGO, Vol. V, ordered to make a stand and fight. In obedience pp. 610-613.
to these directions, he posted Polk in and around CHICAGO SANITARY AND SHIP CANAL. Chattanooga, while Hardee held the Knoxville railSee CANAL, in these Supplements.
road. This disposition of the Confederate forces CHICAGO, UNIVERSITY OF. See UNIVERSITY rendering Chattanooga too strong for direct attack, OF CHICAGO, in these Supplements.
Rosecrans moved down the river and crossed on CHICKADEE, a name popularly applied to the pontoons and a bridge which had been repaired, black-capped titmouse (Parus montanus or atrica- hoping thus to turn the Confederate left and gain pillus) and related birds. They remain in the
Meantime the Federal left, under CrittenNorthern United States during all the year, and in den, was ordered to make a direct attack on Chattawinter are often called “snow-birds."
nooga, while Thomas was to march upon Lafayette, CHICKAHOMINY, a river in eastern Virginia, and McCook was to threaten the Confederate comwhich rises some 20 miles N.W. of Richmond; flows munications with the south. On the 21st of Auin a southeasterly direction for some 75 miles and gust, Crittenden was before Chattanooga and began then empties into the James River. The banks of a bombardment, and by the 1st of Septeruber the the Chickahominy were the scene of several conflicts entire Union army was in the positions designated in McClellan's campaign against Richmond in May by Rosecrans. Bragg was not slow to take advanand June, 1862. In its swamps and morasses, or in tage of the fact that in the execution of these moveproximity to them, occurred the battles of Seven ments Rosecrans had separated his army and interPines and Fair Oaks, May 31-June 1, 1862; Me posed between them difficult mountain country. In chanicsville, June 26; Savage's Station, June 29; order to take advantage of this fact, Bragg ordered White Oak Swamp, June 30, 1862; and Cold Har- Hill to march upon Lafayette, at the same time bor, June 3, 1864. In the seven days' fight at the evacuating Chattanooga-intending to crush Roseend of June, the Confederate loss was double that of crans's left center before he could concentrate his the Northern army, and if McClellan had but fol- forces. Rosecrans seemed wholly unaware of the lowed up his advantage he could have taken Rich- intention of Bragg, believing him to be in retreat, mond and ended the war.
instead of contemplating an attack on the weakened CHICKAMAUGA CREEK, a tributary of the Union center and left. Bragg made all the preparaTennessee River, rising in Walker County, Georgia, tion possible for the success of his plans, and there which, after flowing northeastward and northward, is no doubt that had he received the co-operation of enters the Tennessee River about six miles above his subordinates, he would have succeeded. As it Chattanooga. Here, on September 19-21, 1863, was, his success was too near fruition to give the was fought the BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA (9.v.). Union army anything but a disputed tactical victory.
CHIČKAMAUGA, BATTLE OF. The city of Chat- | The delay caused by lack of co-operation gave tanooga, Tennessee was, in 1863, the bone of con- Thomas and McCook opportunity to effect a junction tention between the Northern and Southern armies. of their forces-not a moment too soon. Crittenden The town was the key to the fertile country to the had encountered the Confederates at Ringgold, and south, and its railroad connections made it invalua- had retreated across the Chickamauga; and on the ble to either side. After the battle of Stone River-18th of September the entire Union army was placed won by Thomas and Miller-Rosecrans had re- in position on the right bank of the Chickamauga. mained for months inactive, until at last, in response On the night of the same day the army moved north to pressure from Washington, he began his prepara- by the flank, Thomas being in front and McCook to tions for a southern movement. His army was divided his right, the two commands overlapping. Critteninto three corps—those of Thomas, Crittenden and den was in the rear of the center, Gordon Granger's McCook, At the outset the heavy rains and conse- command being held in reserve at Rossville, while quent rise in the rivers intersecting the country over the other reserves were scattered about in positions which the Federal army moved, necessarily rendered near Chattanooga. The Confederate forces lay on Rosecrans's movements somewhat slow.
the other bank of the Chickamauga River that night. under his immediate command numbered about It had now become clear that the intention of Bragg sixty thousand, while Burnside, who was supporting was to attack the Union center, turn its left, and cut the army
of the Cumberland by concurrent move- Rosecrans off from Chattanooga. Polk, with two ments, was in command of twenty thousand more. divisions, held the Confederate right, while Hood To oppose these two bodies of men, Bragg had fifty | occupied the left. The battle was begun by Bragg
throwing thirty thousand men across the Chicka- tionate loss of life was undoubtedly compensated by mauga and projecting and concentrating division the fact that the possession of this stronghold pracafter division on Thomas's front. At first Thomas's tically decided the war in the far South. On the advance wavered and retreated, but on the reserve 16th of the following month General Rosecrans was coming up, the Confederates were in turn driven relieved of his command. The subsequent battle of back. The attack was renewed by the Confederates, Chattanooga is described in these Supplements, under and Thomas was again forced back. At this junc- its appropriate heading. In 1896 the Federal govture General Hazen, by a well-directed artillery fire, ernment, having purchased the site of the battle-fields, forced the Confederates to retire. Another attack opened a handsome national park. See NATIONAL of less strength than the preceding was made, when Parks, in these Supplements. night put an end to the conflict. During the darkness CHICKAREE, a popular name of the red or new disposition was made of both forces, and on the Hudson Bay squirrel (Sciurus hudsonius), which innext morning (20th) at ten o'clock the entire Con- habits British America and the northern part of the federate right was thrown against Thomas, who now United States. occupied the extreme left of the Union army. Re- CHICKEN OR CHICKEN-ITZA. See AMERinforcements were hurried up to him, and in closing ICA, Vol. I, p. 694; YUCATAN, Vol. XXIV, p. 759. up from the right center a gap was left in the Fed- CHICKEN-POX, a contagious febrile disease, eral front. Into this gap Longstreet poured his chiefly of children, and bearing some resemblance men, sending the right and center flying in the to a very mild character of smallpox. Chicken-pox utmost confusion from the field, leaving Thomas on is distinguished by an eruption of vesicles or blebs, the left to his fate; which then seemed to be certain which rarely become pustular or yellow, and leave defeat. Rosecrans and his staff were swept from the only a very slight incrustation, which falls off in a field by the uncontrollable rout, and Thomas was few days, leaving little or none of the marking left in command. Far to the rear, at the intersec- or pitting which is such a prominent feature in smalltion of two roads, one leading to Chattanooga pox. From its vesicular character it has been called and the other to Thomas's position, Rosecrans the crystal pock. It has been argued that chickenhalted long enough to send back his chief of staff, pox is in fact only smallpox modified by previous Gen. J. A. Garfield, to ascertain the import of the vaccination; but this opinion, though maintained heavy firing still heard from Thomas's command, and on good authority, is not accepted by most medical then continued his flight to Chattanooga, to prepare
It is a disease of little or no danger, the for the holding of that town at all events. Mean- fever being often hardly perceptible and never lasttime, Thomas, termed thenceforth “the Rock of ing long. Chickamauga,” was receiving a terrific hammering, CHICKERING, JONAS, an American piano manPolk assaulting his right and Longstreet his left. ufacturer; born in New Ipswich, New Hampshire, He was slowly forced back, and at one time having April 5, 1797; died in Boston, Massachusetts, Dec. a gap left in his line, Longstreet rushed in, and for 6, 1853. His father was a blacksmith. Young a time disaster and defeat seemed to be the inevita- Chickering received a common-school education ble result for the Union army, but Granger hurried and was apprenticed to a cabinet-maker. In 1818 up his reserves and strengthened the weak place, he went to Boston, became employed with a pianothus averting the impending danger. Nightfall put forte maker, and in 1823 set up for himself, in a an end to the second day's fight, and Thomas fell small way, as a manufacturer of pianos. This busiback slowly and in good order, capturing five hun- ness, in course of time, became greatly extended, dred prisoners as he retired. It is yet an unex- until he furnished annually about 2,000 instruments
. plained circumstance why Bragg did not continue In 1852 his factory was burned, and before the new the fight during the night of the 20th, when Thomas one had been completed Mr. Chickering died. He was exhausted and had resisted to the last extreme made many valuable improvements and for many of his tenacity, and had not one more effort in re- years kept the lead of all other makers in this coun
The night was one on which the full moon try and in Europe. He was noted for his business shone unobscured by a cloud, and the battle could enterprise, public spirit and benevolence. After have been continued to the irreparable damage of his death the business passed into the hands of his the Union army. This was not done, and the next three sons; the eldest, Thomas Edward (born in morning found Thomas in a new position, from Boston, Oct. 22, 1824; died there, Feb. 14, 1871), which he offered battle to Bragg, the offer being de- succeeded his father as head of the firm, and disclined. On the evening of this day Thomas re- tinguished himself in the Civil War. Charles Frank, joined the army at Chattanooga.
second son (born in Boston, Jan. 20, 1827; died in The battle of Chickamauga was undoubtedly a New York City, March 23, 1891), after receiving his tactical victory for the Confederates, but this victory education, entered his father's factory. He reprehad been dearly bought. Bragg stated his losses as sented his father at the World's Fair in London in two fifths of his entire force. But of far greater im 1851, and made many improvements in the manuportance to the Confederacy was the loss of Chatta
facture of pianos. nooga, to which the Federal army had retired, and CHICK-PEA, a leguminous plant. See GRAM, which they now proceeded to fortify. The Federal (Vol. XI, p. 36. losses were in the neighborhood of seventeen thou- CHICKWEED (Stellaria media), one of the most sand men, and arms in proportion, but Chattanooga common weeds of gardens and cultivated fields. It is was worth the price, and this seemingly dispropor- | a native of most parts of Europe and of Asia, appear.
CHICLAYO - CHILD
ing during the colder months even on the plains of attends at least one term of the circuit court in each
An exonly by the poor to make poultices, for which it is very traordinary ship-railway, designed to transport laden useful, or for feeding cage-birds, which are very fond vessels, has been partially completed across this of its leaves and seeds. A number of species of isthmus. It is quite straight, laid with two pairs of a nearly allied genus, Cerastium, also bear the 110-pound steel rails, 16 feet apart, and designed name of chickweed, or mouse-ear chickweed, and for vessels up to 2,000 tons. It is said that $4,000,the name is occasionally given to other plants, ooo have been spent, and $1,500,000 more will be either botanically allied, or of somewhat similar required to complete it, but it is now tied up, awaitappearance.
ing the necessary funds. CHICLAYO, a town of northwestern Peru, 12 CHIGOE OR JIGGER. See FLEA, Vol. IX, p. miles S.E. of Lambayeque; it is the center of a valu
301. able sugar district. Population, 11,325.
CHIH-LI OR PECHIHLI, PROVINCE OF. See CHICO, a town and the former capital of Butte China, Vol. V, p. 633. County, central northern California, situated on CHIHUAHUA, the largest state of Mexico, Chico Creek, 95 miles N. of Sacramento, on the bounded on the north and northeast by New MexSouthern Pacific railroads. It is the trade-center of ico and Texas; has an area of 83,746 square miles, a fertile district, and an important shipping-point and a population of about 226,000. In the east is for lumber. It is the seat of an academy, and con- the Bolson de Mapima, a vast desert of sand and tains a variety of manufactories. Population 1890, alkali plains; in the south and west the surface is 2,894.
mountainous, and there are numerous rivers. The CHICOPEE, a city of Hampden County, south- state is better adapted for stock-raising than for western Massachusetts, on the Boston and Albany agriculture; the fertile districts are mainly confined and the Boston and Maine railroads, four miles N. of to the valleys and river-courses. Cotton is grown in Springfield. Among the principal industries are the south. The silver-mines were for centuries the cotton-mills of the Dwight Company, with a among the richest in Mexico, and though many are capital of $2,000,000. The Chicopee River affords now abandoned, mining is still the chief industry. ample water-power for the numerous mills and The state is traversed by the Mexican Central railmanufactories. A convent a high school and sey- way. The capital, Chihuahua, 225 miles south of El eral churches are located here, and national and Paso by rail, rises like an oasis in the desert, among savings banks. Population 1890, 14,007; 1895, roses and orange-groves. It is well built, and is the 16,420. See also CHICOPEE, Vol. V, p. 614.
center of considerable trade with Texas. Founded CHICOUTIMI, a village of Chicoutimi County, in 1691; population 1890, 12,116. northern Quebec, on the Saguenay River, about 75 CHI HWANG TI OR CHE HWANG-TE. See miles W. of its mouth, and on the Quebec and Lake CHINA, Vol. V, pp. 643, 644. St. John railroad. There is here a convent of the CHILBLAINS. See MORTIFICATION, Vol. XVI, Good Shepherd. Large quantities of lumber are
p. 849. shipped direct from here to Great Britain. Popula- CHILD, FRANCIS JAMES, an American scholar tion 1891, 2,277
and educator; born in Boston, Feb. I, 1825. He CHIEF JUSTICE, the principal judge of the was graduated at Harvard in 1846, traveled and United States or a state supreme court, correspond studied in Europe in 1849-50, and in 1851 became ing in rank and dignity with the English Lord Chief professor of oratory and rhetoric at Harvard. He Justice (q.v., under JUSTICE, Vol. XIII, p. 789). The held this position until 1876, at which date he chief justice of the supreme court of a state in the exchanged the chair for that of English literature. Union has, as a rule, few functions other than to He especially distinguished himself in Anglopreside over the sittings of the supreme court of his Saxon and the earliest English literature, having state.
The chief justice of the United States few, if any, superiors as a Chaucerian scholar. He supreme court ranks next to the President in official edited the works of Spenser and issued his first coldignity. He receives a salary of $10,500; presides lection of English and Scottish Ballads (1857–58), over the sessions of the supreme court; administers and superintended the American edition of the the oath to the President and Vice-President at their British poets. Other works included Four Old Plays inauguration; presides over the Senate when the (1848); a collection of Poems of Sorrow and Comfort President is tried on articles of impeachment, and (1865); Observations on the Language of Chaucer and
Gower, made a part of Early English Pronunciation, can churches on the 28th of December, to commempublished in London (1869). His reputation mainly orate the slaughter of the children in Bethlehem by rests on his collection, The English and Scottish order of Herod. It is one of the anniversaries Popular Ballads (1882-92), which has passed through which were retained in the Anglican Church at the many editions and enlargements since 1858. He Reformation. died at Harvard, Sept. II, 1896.
CHILDERS, Hugh Culling EARDLEY, an EngCHILD, SIR JOSIAH (1630-99), a London mer- lish statesman; born in London, June 25, 1827; was chant. See POLITICAL ECONOMY, Vol. XIX, p. 357. educated at Cambridge, went to Australia, and sat
CHILD, LYDIA MARIA, authoress; born in Med- in the legislature of Victoria. In 1857 he returned ford, Massachusetts, Feb. 11, 1802; died in Wayland, to England as agent-general of that colony, and in Massachusetts, Oct. 20, 1880. The daughter of David 1859 was elected to Parliament as a Liberal from Francis, a baker, she was educated in common schools Pontefract. He was a Lord of the Admiralty under and by her brother, the Rev. Convers Francis, D.D. | Palmerston and Gladstone; became Chancellor of She taught for one year in a seminary in Medford, the Duchy of Lancaster in 1872, Secretary of War Massachusetts, and kept a private school in Water- in 1880, Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1882 and town, Massachusetts, from 1824 till 1828, when she Home Secretary in 1886. He died in London, Jan. was married to David Lee Child. At the age of
29, 1896. seventeen she wrote her first novel, and five years CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY. See REFORafterward became editress of the Juvenile Miscellany. MATORIES, in these Supplements. William Lloyd Garrison interested Mr. and Mrs. CHILDREN, SOCIETIES FOR THE PREVENTION Child in the subject of slavery, and soon after OF CRUELTY TO, had their origin in the resolve of Mrs. Child began to write on the question. With her Henry Bergh, who, in 1874, established, in his New husband she became early interested in the anti- York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Chilslavery movement, and she published An Appeal to dren, the first society of the kind in the world. For That Class of Americans Called Africans (Boston, a while he had tried to help the children by the 1833), which was the first antislavery work printed officers of his Society for the Prevention of Cruelty in America in book-form. In 1841 she removed to to Animals (q.v., in these Supplements), but he New York, where she was editress of the National Anti- speedily found the scope of work ample enough for a slavery Standard until 1843, when her husband be separate organization. It was incorporated as the New came editor-in-chief, and she acted as assistant until | York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Chil1844. Mr. and Mrs. Child spent the remainder of dren in 1875, with John D. Wright as president their lives in Wayland, Massachusetts.
She con- until his death in 1879. Then Elbridge T. Gerry tributed largely to aid the Union soldiers during the gave the society his service, and with G. Fellows Civil War, and afterward helped the freedmen, and Jenkins as secretary, it has proved potent enough gave lavishly for the support of schools for the to secure much beneficial legislation, including a negroes. Her antislavery writings contributed revision of the penal code of the Empire State in greatly to the formation of public sentiment, and her the interests of its wards, and has been prolific letters replying to rebukes from Governor Wise and enough to be the parent of 154 American and 32 Mrs. Mason, published in Boston in 1860, had a cir- foreign societies, scattered through the principal culation of 300,000. When John Brown was a cities of the world. prisoner at Harper's Ferry, she sent a letter offering As regards the parent society, the annual report her services as nurse. Mr. Brown declined, but shows that during an existence of 21 years, up to asked her aid for his family, and she responded to 1895, 95,481 complaints were received and inthe request. Mrs. Child was the author of many vestigated, involving the care and custody of books, among which were Hobomok: The Rebels; The 286,443 children; 38,318 cases were prosecuted; History of Women; Letters from New York; Fact and 35,270 convictions secured; 62,535 children rescued Fiction; Looking Toward Sunset; and The Progress and relieved. of Religious Ideas.
In the year 1895, 8,523 complaints were received CHILD, THEODORE, an author and general writer; and investigated, 3,301 prosecuted, 3,249 convicted, born in Liverpool, in 1846. After graduation at and 5,350 children rescued and relieved from destiOxford in 1877, he went to Paris as correspondent tution and vicious surroundings. The reception of the London Telegraph, and in addition to writing rooms sheltered, fed and clothed 3,994 children, for that paper contributed many able articles on art and 2,058 cases were investigated at the request of and literature for English and American magazines. the city magistrates and courts. These cases inHe also acted as correspondent of the New York volved applications for the commitment of 3,455 Sun and the London World. He was the European children; 1,645 of these were committed and 1,810 literary agent of the publishing house of Harper found to be improper cases--thus saving to the city and Brothers for a number of years before his death, and county of New York, at the per capita allowwhich took place Nov. 2, 1892, at Ispahan, Persia, ance of $104 per year for each year the children whence he had gone to prepare the data for a book remained therein, the total sum of $188,240. With on India and the Afghan question. He had traveled the co-operation of the city magistrates, the society much in Asia, and published a history of the South was able to collect from the parents of children American republics after an extended visit to them. committed to the institutions $5,416.10, and that CHILDERMAS
HOLY INNOCENTS' amount was paid to the comptroller of the city and DAY, observed in the Roman Catholic and Angli- | county of New York, to be credited to it.
Of kindred societies outside the United States, tempting this, together with other nigh-handed pro-
A fierce and vindictive war ensued, in which great
cruelty, as well as bravery, was displayed on both
12, 1829. In his boyhood of Balmaceda's forces in the month of August, the
our own government. This was acceded to after
phia Public Ledger, which, estly entered on the task of reconstruction left for
under his management, it by civil war. Don Jorge Montt, the patriotic
lute to our flag, and an indemnity paid to the vic-
CHILLICOTHE, a city of Peoria County, north-
Population 1890, 1,632.
. V, p. 624).