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CHILLON, a celebrated castle and fortress of CHINA, the great empire of eastern Asia. (See Switzerland, in the canton of Vaud. It is situated Vol. V, pp. 626-672.) A statement of its area and on the east end of the Lake of Geneva, on an population, made in 1896, was as follows: isolated rock, almost entirely surrounded by deep water, and is connected with the shore by a wooden Subdivision.
English square miles. Population. bridge. The castle is said to have been built in China Proper.
386,000,000 1238 by Amadeus IV of Savoy. It long served as Dependencies,
362,310 7,500,000 a state prison, but is now used as a magazine for
1,288,000 2,000,000 military stores. It is celebrated as the place of con- Tibet---
6,000,000 finement of FRANÇOIS DE BONNIVARD (q.v. Vol. IV, Jungaria
East Turkestan. p. 36), the “ Prisoner of Chillon” and subject of
580,000 Byron's poem.
4,218,401 402,680,000 CHILLS. See Malarial Fever and Pneumonia, under PATHOLOGY, Vol. XVIII, pp. 394, 396.
The island of Formosa was ceded to Japan under CHILOGNATHA AND CHILOPODA. See the treaty of peace ratified at Chefoo, May 8, 1895, CENTIPEDES, Vol. V, pp. 340, 341.
and formally transferred, June 2, 1895. At the end CHILTERN HUNDREDS. See ChilTERN of 1894 the total number of foreigners resident in Hills, Vol. V, p. 626.
the open ports of China was 9,350, including 1,294 CHILTON, a city and the capital of Calumet | Americans, 3,989 British and 780 Portuguese. Nearly County, central eastern Wisconsin, 95 miles N.W. one half of these resided at Shanghai. of Madison, on the Manitowoc River, and on the The present sovereign is Tsai'TIEN (emperor) Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad. It is HWANGTI (of China), born in 1871, who succeeded chiefly an agricultural station. Population 1890, to the throne by proclamation on the death of his 1,424.
predecessor, T'UNG Chi, Jan. 22, 1875. Like his CHIMÆRIDÆ, a family of fishes. See Ich predecessor, he is a grandson of the Emperor TaouTHYOLOGY, Vol. XII, p. 686.
KWANG. After he became of age, the young
EmCHIMALTENANGO, a city and the capital of peror nominally assumed government in March,1887, the department of Chimaltenango, southern Guate- but did not take full control until the withdrawal, mala, 25 miles W. of the city of Guatemala. The in February, 1889, of the Empress Dowager, known inhabitants are mostly engaged in handling the as the “Western ” Empress, widow of T'Ung Chi. products of the district. Population, 4,100. The He was married Feb. 26, 1889. department has an area of 800 square miles and a The amount of the public revenue of China is population of 61,013, engaged in agriculture and not definitely known, but is estimated at from the manufacture of cotton cloths, tissues, woolen $75,000,000 to $125,000,000. Of the estimate of goods, hats, baskets, ropes and pottery. Some gold $75,000,000, the land tax (which does not exceed 75 is found by washing the sand of the river-beds. cents per acre yearly in the north, while it some
CHIMBORAZO, a conical peak of the Andes, in times reaches $3 per acre in the south) is supposed Ecuador, 20,517 feet above the sea.
The first suc- to yield upward of $26,000,000; maritime customs, cessful attempt to reach the summit was in 1880, $13,500,000; inland duty on foreign opium, $3,500,when Whymper twice made the ascent. See ECUADOR, 000; inland transit dues, about $9,000,000; native Vol. VII, p. 645.
customs, and duty on native-grown opium, $7,500,CHIMERE, a bishop's upper robe, to which the ooo; the salt monopoly, $7,500,000; and miscellalawn sleeves are attached. That of Anglican bishops neous sources the remainder. is of black satin, that of Roman Catholics is of The expenditures of the Chinese government are purple silk.
mainly for the army, and the existing debt has CHIMMESYANS OR TSIMSIANS, Indians. A arisen almost entirely out of the war of 1894-95 with tribe of Indians in British Columbia, estimated to Japan. (See JAPAN and COREA, in these Supplenumber 5,000. They resemble the natives of south- ments.) At the outbreak of the war, China's outstandern Alaska in many particulars, are expert fisher- ing debt was about $2,500,000.
It is understood men, but indifferent hunters, and reside in wooden that it now reaches the sum of $265,000,000, three houses, similar to the Alaskan Indians. “ Potlatch,” quarters of which is in consequence of payments to or the giving of great feasts, is one of their customs. Japan of the war indemnity and of the price of the
CHIMNEY. See Building, Vol. IV, p. 466; retrocession of the Leao-Tong peninsula. STEAM-ENGINE, Vol. XXII, pp. 496-500.
According to Chinese official statistics, the army CHIMPANZEE. See APE, Vol. II, pp. 149, 150. is composed of-1. “The Eight Banners," includ
CHIMU OR GRAN CHIMU, an ancient city ing Manchus, Mongols and the Chinese who joined of northwestern Peru, on the coast, four miles N. of the invaders under Emperor Sunchih, A.D. 1644, Truxillo. It was the chief town of the Chimu or with a total of 323,800, of whom 100,000 are supYuncas people. Its ruins are the most extensive in posed to be reviewed by the Emperor at Peking once America, covering some 72 square miles, and are year. 2. “The Ying Ping,' or national army, from 12 to 15 miles in length. The ruined palaces having 650,000 men and 6,500 officers.
These and temples, immense reservoirs which were filled figures, however, relate to the year 1892, and it is by an aqueduct 14 miles long, its rich ornaments impossible to obtain reliable information of a later which have been found among its ruins, show that date; but it is understood that great improvements it was a city of grandeur and importance.
have taken place and that large quantities of foreign
CHINA CLAY - CHINCHILLIDÆ
made arms have been purchased, while the Chinese recent years. Japan has been an especially formidaarsenals, under foreign supervision, are turning out ble competitor for the American market. both arms and ammunition. The active army com- China has an extensive and rapidly increasing prises, first, the army of Manchuria, with 70,000 telegraphic service, but almost no railways. Peking men, divided into two army corps, having their head- now has direct overland telegraphic communication quarters at Tsitsihar and Moukden, respectively, and with Europe by way of the Amoor valley, Siberia to a large extent armed with the Mauser rifle and and Russia. Krupp eight-centimeter field-pieces; secondly, the The viceroy, Li Hung Chang, who has been called army of the center, numbering, in time of peace, the Gladstone and the Bismarck of China, has shown 50,000 men, with headquarters at Kalgan, an import- a liberal and progressive spirit in adopting for his ant town northwest of Peking. These men are of country, during recent years, many of the improved a hardy race, and are armed with Remington rifles. methods and enlarged ideas of Western civilizations. Their number can be doubled in case of war; and CHINA CLAY. See KAOLIN, Vol. XIV, p. 1. thirdly, the army of Turkestan, employed to keep CHINA GRASS. See RHEA FIBRE, Vcī. XX, order in the extreme western territories, and prob- p. 506. ably not available for service farther east in the event CHINA, GREAT WALL OF. See China, Vol. V, of war with a European foe.
pp. 637, 644. The territorial ariny, or “ Braves,” is a local CHINAMPAS, the floating market-gardens which militia, capable of being raised to 600,000 men, but the Spanish conquerors of Mexico found in great kept at 200,000 in time of peace.
numbers upon the lakes in the vicinity of MonteThe Tatar cavalry of the north, mounted on un- zuma's capital. They were constructed upon masses dersized but sturdy ponies, and wretchedly equipped, of grass and weeds, strengthened with poles or piles, are no match for European cavalry.
and often had a superstructure resembling a house The Chinese navy, during the war with Japan, dis- or raft, in which their owners lived. The chinamappointed those who regarded it as an effective fight- pas were very beautiful, and in time became attached ing force. Being required to remain in Chinese to terra firma. Their occupants were Indians, who waters, it was practically condemned to uselessness. took the name of Chinampenecs, and were probably Its seamen were brave, but demoralized under the of Aztec descent. command of inefficient officers, and in the various CHINANDEGA, a town and the capital of the engagements of the war a dozen or more vessels department of the same name in western Nicaragua; were sunk, burned or run ashore. The organization 12 miles from the sea, 18 miles N.W. of Leon. The of the fleet in distinct squadrons, severally raised and department is very fertile, and produces large quantimaintained by the provincial viceroys, operated as ties of cotton and sugar, the handling of which is a bar to combined action.
the chief industry of the townspeople. The popuThe naval strength of China after the war included lation in 1888 of the department was 23,719; of no battle-ships, 3 port-defense vessels, 7 second-class the town, 12,500. cruisers, 9 third-class cruisers of 12 knots' speed or CHINA-ROOT. See SARSAPARILLA, Vol. XXI, more, and 33 of less than that speed; and 7
p. 314. class, 25 second-class and 2 third-class torpedo-boats. CHINA SEA. See PACIFIC OCEAN, Vol. XVIII, There are arsenals or dockyards at Port Arthur, p. 116. Wei-Hai-Wei, Port Li, Canton and Shanghai.
CHINA WAX. See Wax, Vol. XXIV, p. 459. China is essentially an agricultural country, although
CHINCH-BUG (Blissus leucopterus), a hemipteno statistics as to its cultivated areas or crops exist. rous insect common in the Mississippi valley regions, Cereals are raised in the north, rice in the south, tea and found in almost every state. Probably no insect in the south and west, and the mulberry tree grows causes greater damage to the cereal grains and the in all portions of the country. Opium has become grass crops. The mature chinch-bug is three sixa crop of increasing importance. Coal underlies teenths of an inch long. The wing-covers are white, every province, and the coal-mines at Kai-P'Ing and with large black spots, and the rest of the body is Hankow have been worked to advantage. There dark brown. Some of the bugs remain alive during are considerable stores of iron and copper, and cop- the winter. In the spring the eggs are deposited in per-mining is an ancient industry in the province of the ground. The larvæ suck the sap from the roots Yünnan, where, however, modern methods are now of plants. The perfect insects travel from field to being employed.
field, and destroy the plants in their path. There In 1894 the foreign imports amounted to $121,- are two broods in a year, one in early summer and 000,000, and the foreign exports to $96,000,000. one in autumn. Several infectious diseases are peThe imports from Great Britain were $22,500,000,
culiar to the chinch-bug. Within the last five years against $7,000,000 from the United States; while the this fact has furnished the basis of a successful exports to Great Britain were only some $9,000,000, method of preventing their ravages. Bugs artifiagainst $12,000,000 to the United States. These cially infected with one of these diseases are placed figures, however, do not include the trade to and in fields where the insects are numerous, and within from these countries via Hongkong, which is of a few days the disease becomes epidemic. This considerable extent. The chief imports in 1894 method of extermination has been applied in sevwere opium and cotton goods, and the chief exports eral states. tea and silk. In the tea trade China has seriously CHINCHILLIDÆ, a family of rodents. See felt the competition of India, Ceylon and Japan in | Mammalia, Vol. XV, p. 420.
CHINCOTEAGUE BAY-CHIPPEWA FALLS
CHINCOTEAGUE BAY AND ISLAND, See | facts. Additional time for the return may also be ASSATEAGUE, in these Supplements.
granted in special cases. CHINDWARA. See CHHINDWARA, Vol. V, p. CHINESE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 608.
See CHINA, Vol. V, pp. 653-667. CHINESE EXCLUSION. The Burlingame
CHINESE WHITE, a pigment consisting simply treaty of 1868 between the United States and China of the oxid of zinc (Zno). It is prepared by passprovided for the enjoyment by the Chinese in Amering air through a burning mixture of zinc ore and ica of all rights, in respect to travel and residence, coal; the resulting oxid is white, insoluble in water, accorded to the most favored nation. The experi- and incapable of reduction by heat. It has a shiny ence of the people of this country with Chinese appearance, and is often used in place of white lead. laborers during many years subsequent to the date CHING-TU, a city of western China, and the of that treaty was voiced by a notorious demagogue capital of the province of Sze-Chuen; on the river in the curt dictum, “The Chinese must go”; and in Min, about 200 miles N. of its junction with the Yang1880 a new treaty was concluded with China, whereby | Tse River. The city is well laid out, and well built, the government of the United States might suspend, clean and prosperous. It is surrounded with a wall but not absolutely prohibit, their coming to our 12 miles in circuinference. The viceroy has his
In accordance with the provisions of this residence here. The surrounding country is very treaty, Congress passed an act in 1882, with amend fertile. Population, 800,000. ments in 1884, which suspended the coming of CHE-KEANG, province. See China, Vol. V, p. Chinamen to this country for ten years, but which 636. also provided that if Chinamen already here desired CHINKAPIN, an American Indian name applied to revisit their own country and return here again, to sweet acorns and their allies, and also to the trees they might do so upon certificates of residence, to be which produce them. Probably the original "chinobtained from certain officials before their departure, kapin" is Castanea pumila, a dwarf chestnut with a and to be presented by them at their port of arrival solitary nut in each involucre, or “husk.” The when they returned. It was soon discovered that name is commonly given also to the oak Quercus the purpose of the law was being circumvented, and prinoides, also called "dwarf chestnut-oak," as well that new immigrants were constantly gaining admis- as to the large"chestnut-oak," Q. Prinus. Also writsion to this country by the fraudulent transfer and ten “chinquapin" and "chincapin.” use of these certificates, and a law was passed in CHINOOK, a wind. See WASHINGTON, Vol. 1888 which forbade their issuance and declared all XXIV, p. 385. outstanding certificates void.
CHINOOK OR CHINUK INDIANS, a nearly When the exclusion act of 1882 was about to ex- extinct family of North American Indians, formerly pire, Congress passed an act, approved May 5, 1892, inhabiting the country along the Columbia River commonly known as the Geary Law, the main from Oregon to Vancouver. They were expert provisions of which were that all prior exclusion laws fishermen, subsisting chiefly on fish, berries and were extended for a further period of ten years, roots; were not given to the chase, but secured skins and that all Chinese laborers, or those of Chinese and other articles for clothing by barter with other descent, should, within one year, obtain a certificate tribes. They were indolent and thievish, and kept of residence from the collector of internal revenue slaves. Only a few scattered families, barely suffiin their district; should, by regulation of the Secre- cient to keep up tribal relations, remain in parts of tary of the Treasury under authority of this act, each Oregon and Washington. prove his identity by registering and filing three CHINTZ, a certain kind of cotton cloth, printed proof-sheet photographs of his face; and that all in a number of colors with a design usually of leaves failing to comply with the provisions of this law or flowers, and having the printed surface made should be deported from the United States. A fine smoother than the other by sizing or glazing. Beof one thousand dollars or imprisonment for five fore cotton could be cheaply made, chintz was years was imposed for altering or substituting a name considered an elegant and tasteful material for in a certificate or for forging or fraudulently uttering ladies' garments. It is now largely used as a summer a certificate. The Chinese generally failed to com- covering for upholstered furniture and for curtains. ply with the provisions of the law within the time CHIO OR CHIOS, a Greek island. See Scio, limit, and owing to the wholly insufficient appro- Vol. XXI, p. 465. priations made for carrying it into effect the depor- CHIPMUNK. See SQUIRREL, Vol. XXII, p. 438. tations could not be made. In 1893 an amendment CHIPPAWA, a village and port of entry of Welwas passed extending the time for registration six land County, southern Ontario, on the Niagara months. The total number of Chinese registered River, three miles above the Falls; noted for the under the Geary Law up to 1895 was 105,312.
In battle of July 5, 1814, between the United States 1894 a new treaty with China was sent to the Senate forces under General Joseph Brown and the BritMarch gth, and ratified August 13th, which prohibits ish under Major-General Riall, in which General absolutely for ten years the coming of Chinese Winfield Scott participated and won distinction. laborers into the United States, but permits such as The United States troops won a signal victory. depart from this country leaving property or near General Brown's command numbered about 1,900 kin, to return within one year, if, before their de- men, the British forces some 300 more.
The British parture, they shall have obtained from the proper loss was over 500; the American, 328. official of the United States a certificate reciting the CHIPPEWA FALLS, a flourishing city and railCHIPPEWAS-CHIZEROTS
road junction and the capital of Chippewa County, CHITON, a family of gasteropods. See Mol-
somewhat tion 1895, 9,196.
vaguely used by cabinet-makers; usually the wood CHIPPEWAS. See INDIANS, Vol. XII, pp. 827- of Chickrassia tabularis, a tree of the family Melia831.
cee, a native of the mountainous countries to the CHIPPING-BARNET. See BARNET, Vol. III, east of Bengal. It is often beautifully veined and p. 379.
mottled. CHIPPING-BIRD (Spizella socialis), a small CHITTENANGO SPRINGS OR WHITE SULNorth American bird of the sparrow family (Frin- PHUR SPRINGS, a resort in Sullivan township, gillida). It is also known as chipping-sparrow and Madison County, central New York, four miles S. chippy.
of Chittenango station, on the New York Central CHIQUICHIQUI PALM, a native South Ameri- and Hudson River railroad. There are accommocan name applied to the Leopoldinia piassaba, or dations for a large number of visitors in the vicin"piassaba” palm. Its leaf fibers, obtained from the ity. The springs are a sulphated saline solution. petioles, are extensively used in the northern part of CHITTENDEN, RUSSELL HENRY, an AmeriSouth America for making cables. This fiber has can physiological chemist, a graduate of Yale and become also an article of commerce.
Heidelberg universities; born at New Haven, CHIQUIMULA DE LA SIERRA, a town and Connecticut, Feb. 18, 1856; has been instructor the capital of the department of the same name in and professor at Yale for many years; is a memGuatemala, northern Central America; it is on a
ber of the National Academy of Sciences; tributary of the river Motagua, 68 miles S.S.E. of author of several works based on scientific investiGuatemala. Population, 9,000.
gation, and an occasional writer of periodical
CHIRIQUI, the name of a lagoon, river and were for many years the highest authority upon
CHIVALRY. See KNIGHTHOOD, Vol. XII, p.
CHIVES. See HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. 281. S.E. of London. Sir Nicholas Bacon was a native CHIVILCOY, a city of southeastern Argenof Chiselhurst. Camden Park estate (now built tine Republic, on the Western railroad; about 110 over) was the residence of Camden the antiquary. miles W. of Buenos Ayres. It is in a rich grazNapoleon III died at Camden Place in 1873; his ing district, and is well built and clean. Popularemains and those of the Prince Imperial were tion, 12,000. removed to Farnborough in January, 1888. There
CHIZEROTS AND BURINS form one of those are here an orphanage and a governesses' benev- peculiar races in France that live isolated in the olent institution..
midst of the rest of the populatio and are deCHITIN, an organic substance which forms the spised and hated by their neighbors. They are basis of the hard parts of arthropods and many found in the arrondissement of Bourg-en-Bresse, other invertebrates. It is a nitrogenous non
in the department of Ain, and the communes of crystalline compound, allied to the proteids. It is Sermoyer, Arbigny, Boz and Ozan belong to only soluble in strong mineral acids (hydrochloric them. According to tradition they are deor sulphuric). In the crustaceans and insects it scended from the Saracens. Although industrious is seen in a quite pure condition at the joints of and prosperous, they are held in the utmost conthe body and appendages, but elsewhere it is im- tempt and detestation by their peasant neighbors, pregnated with mineral salts, forming a hard sub- who are themselves often indolent and destitute. stance.
They are looked upon as covetous and malicious.
and scarcely would the daughter of a small farmer liant talents immediately won high rank in the or well-to-do day-laborer become the wife of one profession, and in 1871 became known to the of them, so that they mostly marry among them- entire country by his selves. From time immemorial they have been vigorous and successful field-laborers, cattle-dealers, butchers, and the campaign against the like.
“Tweed” ring in the CHLADNI, ERNST FLORENS FRIEDRICH, a Ger- New York City governman scientist, author of Discoveries on the Theory ment. His forensic triof Sound (1787); born in Wittenberg, Saxony, umphs as counsel_for Nov. 30, 1756; died in Breslau, April 3, 1827. General Fitz-John PorHe was a pioneer discoverer in the science of ter and in the conduct of acoustics, and was the first to illustrate the other weighty causes theory of vibrations by means of the figures into brought him fame as the which free sand upon a vibrating plate of glass foremost of American or metal groups itself. See also TUNING-FORK, advocates. He was
JOSEPH H. CHOATE. Vol. XXIII, p. 619.
president of the New CHLADNI'S FIGURES. See Acoustics, Vol. England Club in New York; was president of the I, p. 113
New York constitutional convention in 1893; and CHLAMYDOSAURUS. See LIZARD, Vol. was chiefly instrumental in accomplishing the XIV, p. 736, 737
overthrow of the income tax by an argument beCHLAMYS. See CoSTUME, Vol. VI, p. 456. fore the supreme court of the United States.
CHLORANTHACEÆ, a small group of aro- CHOATE, RUFUS, an American statesman matic and stimulant plants, chiefly tropical, allied and brilliant advocate; born in Essex, Massachuto the peppers.
Chloranthus inconspicuus is the setts, Oct. 1, 1799; was chu-lan of the Chinese, who use it for perfuming graduated at Dartmouth teas.
College in 1819; studied CHLORASTROLITE, a dark green stone of law with William Wirt, the quartz or agate family; a hydrated silicate of and was admitted to the alumina, occurring as an amygdule in a Lake bar in 1823; was a memSuperior trap formation, and found only at Isle ber of Congress in 1831, Royale, Lake Superior. It is of a deep green and again in 1833, but in color, radiate (or testudinate) in structure, is 1834 removed to Boston extremely hard, very lustrous and chatoyant, and and continued the praccuts handsomely for jewelry-mounting. It is tice of his profession with locally known as the "turtle-back greenstone, distinguished success. from its tortoise-like markings. Fine specimens In 1841, when Daniel have a good commercial value.
Webster was called to the CHLORATES. See CHEMISTRY, Vol. V, pp. Cabinet of President Harrison, Mr. Choate was 494, 495.
made his successor in the United States Senate, CHLORIC ACID. See CHEMISTRY, Vol. V, and while there made a number of able and brilpp. 494, 495.
liant speeches upon the issues of the day. In CHLORINATION PROCESS. See GOLD AND 1845 he resumed the practice of law in Boston, Gold MINING, in these Supplements.
and from that time until his death he was recogCHLORITE, an abundant mineral occurring nized as the foremost advocate at the Massachunow and again crystallized in minute hexagonal setts bar. He also delivered public orations on plates, or in aggregates of small leaflets, either many important occasions; was a member of the singly or disposed in radial groups, which are Whig convention at Baltimore in 1852 and of the scattered over the joint surfaces of certain schis. Constitutional convention of Massachusetts in tose rocks, or may occur in a thin incrustation 1853. He died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, where upon other minerals. It is rather soft, and is illness had compelled him to land while on a vacaeasily broken or scratched with a knife. See tion voyage to Europe, July 13, 1859. His popuMINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 413.
lar qualities as an orator shone forth in personal CHLOROPHANE. See Fluor SPAR, Vol. IX, magnetism and in quaint humor, to which were p. 350.
added a large stock of learning, a musical voice CHLOROPHYLL. See Botany, Vol. IV, p. and a gentle and attractive disposition. 87; PHYSIOLOGY, Vol. XIX, p. 52, 53.
CHOIR, in architecture, denotes the portion of CHLOROSIS. See PATHOLOGY, Vol. XVIII, p. a church between the transept and the apse, 375.
being the place usually occupied by the seats of CHLOROXYLON. See SATIN-WOOD, Vol. the singers. In familiar language the word is XXI, p. 317.
also used to denote the company of singers who CHOATE, JOSEPH HODGES, an American law. | take part in the church service. Until about a yer; born at Salem, Massachusetts, Jan. 24, 1832; generation ago, church music in the United States was graduated at Harvard College, 1852; be- was commonly supplied by both male and female came the law partner of William M. Evarts in voices joined in quartettes, sextettes, etc.; but New York City, 1857, and by reason of his bril- since the general introduction in the Protestant