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Episcopal Church of the English custom of having shores, regardless of the danger to millions of choral choirs, that innovation has been largely | American people. The infection was carried to adopted by the congregations of other denomina- Hamburg and Havre, and thence to various points tions. In surpliced choirs the soprano and alto in Germany, to Paris, and to other Continental parts are usually taken by boys, and the bass and cities. Hamburg suffered especially from the tenor by men. All are drilled by a choir-master, plague, and had at one time 5,000 cases. From who conducts several “practices " or instruc- there, in the fall, it made its passage by emigrant tions during the week; the men usually sing steamers to New York Harbor, where a quarangratuitously, while the boys receive a small com- tine of unsparing rigor effectually checked its pensation for each service and practice which progress beyond the shores of the lower bay. they attend. Among the many advantages of The United States government temporarily surpliced choirs, as these are called, not the least stopped the admission of emigrants, and with the is the good effect which the incidental discipline, advance of cold weather the disease died out. In instruction and familiarity with Christian worship 1893 and 1894 cholera again broke out in many have upon the boys themselves.
places in Europe, but by a strict quarantine its CHOKE-CHERRY, the common of introduction in the United States was prevented. Prunus Virginiana, a small American tree or See CHOLERA, Vol. V, pp. 682-684. shrub, with rather dense racemes of white flowers CHOLERA INFANTUM, a dangerous disease and a dark-red astringent fruit.
of children which commences in the intestinal CHOKE-DAMP OR FIRE-DAMP. See Light- canal and ultimately pervades the entire system. ing, under COAL, Vol. VI, p. 72.
It is most common in children two years of age CHOKING COIL. See ELECTRICITY, $78, in and under, and more common among children of these Supplements.
the poor than of the rich. It usually originates CHOLERA. "It is now generally accepted,' in errors of diet during very hot weather, but an says Dr. S. T. Armstrong, “that Asiatic cholera unhealthful atmosphere caused by decay of garis a specific, infectious disease that is caused by bage or by imperfect drainage, or a close, moist, the comma bacillus of Koch. It is not conta- and overheated atmosphere, is often a predisposing gious in the same sense as smallpox or typhus cause. Dr. Benjamin Rush characterized this disfever, but in the manner of its propagation is ease as an infantile bilious remittent fever. A similar to typhoid fever. The premise of a withered, weak and senile appearance of the skin is specific infection leads to the conclusion of some a characteristic symptom in the later stage of the definite method of introduction, and the disease disease, while its earlier manifestations are prosis chiefly propagated by the contamination of tration, vomiting and diarrhæa. See CHOLERA, water used for drinking, cooking and washing, Vol. V, p. 682. by the contamination of articles of food, and CHOLESTERIN, a substance (CHO) cryspossibly by the superficial inhalation and sub-tallizing in leaflets, with a mother-of-pearl luster sequent swallowing of dust containing the comma and a fatty feel. It occurs in the blood and bacillus. This latter statement is based on the brain, in the yolks of eggs, and in the seeds of report of many cases of the disease, the origin buds and plants. It has also been found as a fat of which is explicable by no other tenable hy- occurring in the feathers of birds, and is present, in pothesis." In 1892 the United States narrow- considerable proportions, in wool. It was, until ly escaped a visitation of this dread disease, 1887, regarded as of no value when occurring in which, in that year, entered Europe through Rus-feathers and wool, except as a combustible. Liesia. Starting from India in the early weeks of brich has experimented with it and produced an the year, it followed the caravan routes, and, cross- extremely pliant, soft mass, absorbable by the ing the mountains by the Khyber Pass, it visited skin, and capable of being readily incorporated Cabul and the Afghan cities, reached the north- | with various medicaments. It is now being manern line of Russian Transcaspian travel, and made ufactured commercially, and has come into general its way westward both by the Merv route and also demand as a basis for salves and cosmetics. See by way of Persia. It passed across and around also NUTRITION, Vol. XVII, p. 675. the Caspian Sea and broke out in Astrakhan, on its CHONETES, a brachiopod shell found in PaEuropean side, at the mouth of Russia's great læozoic formations of Europe and America. river, the Volga, whence it made its way up the CHONOS ISLANDS. See PATAGONIA, Vol. Volga valley to Nijni-Novgorod, the city of mar- XVIII, p. 352. kets and fairs, and from there it went to Moscow, CHORAL. See Music, Vol. XVII, p. 85. St. Petersburg and the Baltic Sea. From the CHORAL SERVICE, in the Church of EngBaltic Sea it spread to other parts of Europe, and land, and in the Protestant Episcopal Church of to America, aided by the great emigration of the United States of America, service with inRussian Jews to the United States and elsewhere toned responses and the use of music throughout, which was then in progress under the auspices of wherever it is authorized. A service is said to be Baron Hirsch. Arrangements had been made for partly choral when only canticles, hymns, etc., are the transportation of many thousands of these sung; wholly choral when, in addition to these, poor people, and even after the cholera had brok- the versicles, responses, etc., are sung. en out among them, every effort was made to carry CHORAL SOCIETIES. See MUSIC IN AMERout the contract and dump them on American ICA, in these Supplements.
CHORDATA. See VERTEBRATA, Vol. XXIV, represent the true faith and practice of apostolic p. 179.
. CHOREPISCOPUS. See Dean, Vol. VII, p. York, the leading advocate of their views, was 14.
born in England in 1805, and died in 1871. They CHORLEY, HENRY FOTHERGILL, a playwright, believe that God will raise all who love him to an musical critic and accomplished man of society; endless life in this world, but that those who do born at Blackley Hurst, Lancashire, England, Dec. not love him shall absolutely perish in death; 15, 1808; was educated at Liverpool; became that Christ is the son of God, inheriting moral musical critic of the Atheneum in 1833, and re-perfection from the Deity and human nature tired from that post in 1868. He also wrote lite- from his mother; and that there is no personal rary reviews and the libretti for new operas, and devil. They insist on the plenary inspiration of was the author of one hundred or more songs and the Bible; the real death of Christ as a sacrifice three acted dramas. His most attractive works are for sin; his resurrection and ascension; and they Music and Manners in France and Germany (1841) | look for his return to the earth to reign on the and Thirty Years' Musical Recollections (1862). He throne of David over the converted, and restored died Feb. 16, 1872.
twelve tribes of Israel, and all nations. They CHOROGI, the native name of a Japanese mint believe that death is a state of entire uncon(Stachys sieboldi) recently introduced into the sciousness, terminated by a corporeal resurrecUnited States for its edible tubers.
tion for those who have become related to Christ CHOROID COAT. See ANATOMY, Vol. I, p. through faith and obedience, or are not responsi
ble for his rejection. Those accepted after the CHORRILLOS, a city of central western Peru, judgment reign forever with Christ, over the on the Pacific coast, 30 miles below Lima, and nations; those rejected die the second death. connected with it by rail.
It is used as a summer Communities of Christadelphians exist in the resort. The Peruvians were defeated before principal towns of Great Britain, Ireland and Chorrillos on Jan. 13, 1881, by the Chileans, losing the United States. 5,000 men as prisoners.
CHRISTIAN II, King OF DENMARK AND CHORUS See DRAMA, Vol. VII, pp. 403, Norway, son of King John, and grandson of 404.
Christian I; born 1480; died 1559; attained the CHOSE AND CHOSE IN ACTION. See throne of Denmark, 1513; usurped the throne of PERSONAL ESTATE, Vol. XVIII, p. 665.
Sweden, 1518; and having assembled the nobles CHOSEN FRIENDS, ORDER OF. See BENE- and prelates of Stockholm on the occasion of his FIT SOCIETIES, in these Supplements.
coronation, had them suddenly arrested and CHOUGH. See Crow, Vol. VI, p. 618. publicly executed. He also massacred a number
CHOUTEAU, AUGUSTE, an American pioneer; of the citizens of Stockholm. The occasion is born in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1739; died in referred to as the “ bath of blood,”and his crimes St. Louis, Missouri, Feb. 24, 1829. His brother have gained for him the name of “Nero of the Pierre was born in New Orleans in 1749; died in North.” He was expelled from Sweden by GusSt. Louis, July 9, 1849. The young men made tavus Vasa in 1522; deposed by his Danish subjects a trip northward from their native city in 1763, in 1523; and retired to the Netherlands, whence, and passing Ste. Géneviève, Missouri, ascended by the assistance of Charles V, he returned with the river some 60 miles farther and founded a an army in 1531, and attempted to regain his trading-station on the present site of the city of Danish dominion, but was defeated at the battle St. Louis, where they permanently settled. of Aggerhus in the next year, and kept in confine.
CHRISM, an ecclesiastical term signifying the ment until his death. See SWEDEN, Vol. XXII, ointment used by the Roman Catholic and Greek
TIAN churches in confirmation, baptism, ordinations, CHRISTIAN IV, KING OF DENMARK AND consecrations, etc., which, in modern times, is NORWAY, son of Frederick II and Princess Sophie blessed and consecrated at a service called of Mecklenburg; born in Zealand, 1577; succeeded “Missa Chrismatis,” on Maunday Thursday. to the throne as a minor, 1588; died in 1648. He It consists of olive-oil mixed with balm, to which assumed the government of the kingdom in 1596; it is the custom of the Greek Church to add labored earnestly for the improvement of his spices. The significance of the oil is “fullness country, and has been called the ablest of all of grace," and of the balm, "incorruption." Danish rulers. His legislative and financial re
CHRISOME, an ecclesiastical term signifying forms and his patronage of the arts and sciences the cloth or robe annointed with chrism, laid by gained him the affection of his people. In the the priest upon the child in holy baptism, to sig- Thirty Years' War he was beaten by Tilly at nify its regeneration and innocence. As the Lutter, in 1626, but afterward, in conjunction robe was often used for a shroud in case the child with Gustavus Adolphus, obtained the treaty of died soon after baptism, the phrase chrisome-child Lübeck in 1629. He has the merit of having laid came to be applied to such children as died within the foundation of the Danish navy, extended the the month of birth.
trade of his subjects to the East Indies, and fitted CHRISTADELPHIANS, a small religious body out several expeditions for the discovery of a which arose in the United States about the mid-northwest passage. dle of the nineteenth century, and who claim to CHRISTIAN VII, KING OF DENMARK AND CHRISTIAN IX-CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR
NORWAY; born 1749; succeeded his father, Garter, and has held other important honorary Frederick V, in 1766; married Matilda, sister of and lucrative positions with credit to himself George III of England; died in 1808.
He was a
and with the good will of the British public. weak-minded ruler, and his son was appointed CHRISTIAN, HELEN AUGUSTA VICTORIA, regent in 1784. For an account of his reign, PRINCESS, third daughter of Queen Victoria of which was adorned by the fame of Thorwaldsen, England; born May 25, 1846; married at Windsor the sculptor, and the poets Baggesen and Oehlen- Castle, July 5, 1866, to Prince Frederick Chrisschlager, see DENMARK, Vol. VII, p. 87.
tian Charles Augustus of Schleswig-Holstein; CHRISTIAN IX, KING OF DENMARK, born received from the British Parliament on the occaApril 8, 1818, fourth son of William, Duke of sion of her marriage a dowry of $150,000 and an
Schleswig-Holstein; annuity of $30,000. She resides at Cumberland
His acces from the date of its organization. Its membership, sion rekindled certain as described by its founder, “consists of all propolitical disputes of long fessing Christians who subscribe to its principles standing, concerning the and enroll their names." Its objects are stated status of the duchies of to be “wide diffusion of the Gospel in its fullSchleswig-Holstein, and ness, the promotion of a deeper and higher Chris
he was soon involved in tian life, and the work of evangelization, espeCHRISTIAN IX, KING OF
an unequal war with cially among the neglected classes, by highway
Austria and Prussia, missions and any other practical methods.” The from which he withdrew by releasing all claim to organization is said to be rapidly extending, the disputed territory (which amounted to about especially throughout the United States and one third of his dominion), leaving the other Canada. Auxiliary to the parent alliance is the contestants to fight for the prize between them- "International Missionary Alliance,” with a misselves in a war which ended with the battle of sionary training-school located at 690 Eighth Sadowa in 1866. To obtain money for the re- Avenue, New York City. At the end of 1895 organization of his army, he desired to sell to the the organization had established 265 missionaries United States, in 1867, the islands of St. Thomas, in India, China, Japan, Haiti, and Congo Free St. Jean and Ste. Croix of the Antilles. In 1869 State. In New York City special work is done he cemented the union of the Scandinavian peo- for fallen girls by means
of “The Door of ples by the marriage of his eldest son to the only Hope," a branch “home” opened by the allidaughter of Charles XV, King of Sweden. As
As ance, at 102 East Sixty-first Street, and another, a ruler he has striven for the moral and material known as “ Door No. 2,” in Tappan, New York. improvement of his people, for their increase in CHRISTIAN COMMISSION, an organization personal and religious liberty, and for the removal formed at the call of the Young Men's Christian of feudal encumbrances from their laws. The Association in New York City, Nov. 14, 1861, for two legislative houses voted a new constitution in the purpose of looking after the spiritual and 1866, and in 1874 a new constitution was granted temporal welfare of the volunteer soldiers in the to Iceland upon the thousandth anniversary of Union army. George H. Stuart, a well-known its national existence. In 1892 was celebrated Christian merchant of Philadelphia, was president with becoming splendor the fiftieth anniversary of the organization throughout the war; and of the marriage of King Christian with his con- thousands of the ministers and most active laymen sort, the Princess Louise of Hesse-Cassel. Among of the churches of the North gave their personal their children are: Frederick, the Prince Royal; services in connection with the humane work of Alexandra, Princess of Wales; George I, King of the commission upon the field of battle, on the the Greeks; and Dagmar, Dowager Empress of march, in camp, and in the hospital. Russia.
CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR, THE UNITED SoCHRISTIAN, FREDERICK CHRISTIAN CHARLES CIETY OF, is the headquarters and general bureau AUGUSTUS, PRINCE, a younger son of the late Duke of the Young PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES OF CHRISTIAN Christian Charles Frederick Augustus of Schles- ENDEAVOR, the first of which was formed at Wilwig-Holstein, who ceded his duchy to Denmark, liston Church, Portland, Maine, Feb. 2, 1881, and brother to Prince Frederick Charles Augus- and which, in April, 1896, had increased to 44,596 tus, whose claims to the sovereignty of that societies, with a membership of 2,630,000 in the duchy, as against the King of Denmark, were United States, Canada, Great Britain and mismade the pretext for the Schleswig-Holstein sionary lands. The United Society's offices are at War on the part of the German powers; born 646 Washington Street, Boston, Massachusetts, Jan. 22, 1831; married the Princess Helen Au- and is managed by a board of trustees, who repregusta Victoria of England, July 5, 1866; is a sent the chief evangelical denominations, and who general in the British army and a Knight of the meet quarterly. It levies no taxes and assumes
CHRISTIAN ERA-CHRISTMAS ISLAND
no authority over the Young People's Societies, | ington. It has a college for young women, an each of which is in some local church and manages academy, and factories of tobacco and of shoes. its affairs in its own way. The purpose of the Population 1890, 1,176. local societies is to promote an earnest and useful CHRISTIANS OF ST. THOMAS. See St. Christian life on the part of each member, to THOMAS, Vol. XXIII, p. 308. increase mutual acquaintance between members, CHRISTIANSTED. See St. Croix, Vol. XXI, and to train young converts in the practical duties of Christianity. The annual gatherings of the CHRISTIAN UNION CHURCHES OR Young People's Societies, held under the auspices CHRISTIAN UNION CHURCHES OF THE of the United Society, have had a phenomenally WEST, an organization formed at Columbus, large attendance, and have done much to increase Ohio, in 1863. They have no creed, but assert the popularity of the institution.
the oneness of the Church, with Christ as its only CHRISTIAN ERA. See CHRONOLOGY, Vol. head, and the Bible the only rule of faith and V, pp. 712, 713.
practice. Each of their churches is self-governed CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, The Society and “good fruits ” are the only condition of FOR PROMOTING, is the oldest of a number of membership. They reported 183 ministers, 294 great religious
religious associations connected with churches and 18,000 communicants in 1894. the Church of England. It was founded in CHRISTIE, WILLIAM HENRY MAHONY, asLondon in 1698, and has for its main objects the tronomer royal, born at Woolwich, England, Oct. 1, establishment of schools, churches and libraries, 1845; entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 1865; and the publication and circulation of religious B.A., 1868; M.A., 1871; chief assistant at the and moral literature. It is still in active opera- Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 1870; astronomer tion and publishes a great number of religious royal of England and director of Greenwich Obserand instructive works. It has recently estab- vatory (1881), in which offices he has been a worthy lished a training college for schoolmistresses. successor of Sir George B. Airy; was the invenThe society has had a vast development, and tor of a recording micrometer, and of numerous within a few years past reported the establishment photometric instruments; also the author of a of 25,000 schools, attended by 1,500,000 children. Manual of Elementary Astronomy (1875), and of It sent missionaries to India as early as 1749, and many important papers read before learned sociehas contributed largely to the endowment of ties. colonial bishoprics.
CHRISTINA, the name of two queens regent CHRISTIANS OR CHRISTIAN CONNEC- of Spain. See MARIA CHRISTINA, in these SupTION, the name adopted by a religious denomi- plements. nation in the United States, which originated, in CHRISTISON, Sir ROBERT, Scottish physi1793, in a secession from the Methodists of Vir- cian and toxicologist; born at Edinburgh, July ginia and North Carolina, led by the Rev. J. 18, 1797; died Jan. 23, 1882. In 1819 he proO'Kelley, and at first called “Republican Methoceeded to London and Paris, and in the French dists. The name was changed that it might ex- capital studied toxicology under the celebrated press their renunciation of all sectarianism. They Orfila. He was, in 1822, appointed professor of must not be confounded with the “ Christian medical jurisprudence in the University of EdinChurches" or "Disciples of Christ." In 1800, | burgh, and in 1832 was promoted to the chair or soon after, they received accessions from Bap- of materia medica, which he occupied till 1877, tist churches in Vermont, under Dr. Abner Jones when he retired. He was appointed physician and others, and from Presbyterians in Kentucky. in-ordinary to the Queen in 1848; president They are widely scattered throughout the United of the Edinburgh Royal Society (1868–73); and States, and in 1895 had 1,300 churches, 1,380 created a baronet in 1871. Besides contributing ministers and 9,500 communicants. Antioch papers on various subjects to medical journals. College, Ohio; Lincoln College, Nebraska; Union Christison wrote a Treatise on Poisons (1829); Christian College at Meron, Indiana; and the Biographical Sketch of Edward Turner, M.D. Christian Biblical Institute of Stanfordsville, New (1837); a treatise on Granular Degeneration of the York, are among their institutions. Their princi- Kidneys (1839); and The Dispensatory: A Comples make each church an independent bodyand the mentary on the Pharmacopæias of Great Britain Bible their only rule of faith, with every person at (1842). liberty to interpret it for himself. Membership CHRISTLIEB, THEODORE, German theologian; is obtained by a simple profession of belief in born at Birkenfeld, Würtemberg, March 7, 1833; Christianity. As a rule, they are antitrinitari- became minister of a German evangelical conans and immersionists. They have annual congregation in London, and afterward pastor at ferences and quadrennial general conventions. Friedrichshafen, and since 1868 has been profesTheir periodicals are The Christian Sun (Suffolk, sor of practical theology at Bonn. Among his Virginia), The Herald of Gospel Liberty (Newbury- published works are Leben und Lehre des Johannes port, Massachusetts), and “The Gospel Herald Scotus Erigena (1860); and Modern Doubt and (Dayton, Ohio.)
Christian Faith (1870). CHRISTIANSBURG, a town of Montgomery CHRISTMAS ISLAND, a large, low atoll in County, Western Virginia, on the Norfolk and the Pacific Ocean, lat 1° 57' N., long. 157° 27' Western railroad, about 100 miles S.W. of Lex- W. It has good anchorage, and is the headquar
799 ters of an American guano company.—Another | in Christ to the human nature in Christ. There CHRISTMAS ISLAND, annexed to Britain in 1888, lies were long and bitter controversies, leading to the about 250 miles southwest of Java. It is six miles condemnation of the doctrine of Apollinaris, that long by four broad, composed of coral masses piled the Logos took the place of the human reason up on a volcanic substratum, and is partially in Christ, leaving only a partial humanity; of the covered with luxuriant vegetation.
Nestorians, that while there are two complete CHRISTOLOGY. From Greek Xplotos, Christ, natures in Christ, the divine and the human, they and doyos, a treatise. The doctrine of the per- are united only morally, somewhat like a husson of Christ, or a treatise relating to it. The band and wife well adapted to each other; of doctrine, as now generally held, was developed Eutyches, that while the two natures in Christ slowly. The early Christians usually contented were originally complete, the human was quickly themselves with the employment of Biblical lan- absorbed by the divine, leaving in fact only the guage in regard to the person of Christ, without latter, slightly modified by the appropriation of much attempt to explain it. The Jews and the former; and several other unacceptable pagans who heard them understood it to teach | theories. The resultant doctrine is, that in his deity, and the Jews attacked them for preach- Christ the two natures are whole and entire, and ing two Gods, and thus contradicting the mono- so perfectly united as to constitute but a single theism of the Old Testament. This led them to person. a study of the Scriptures, and an effort to con- 3. The doctrines of the trinity, and of the strue their statements carefully.
relation to each other of the divine and human in We may divide the history of the doctrine into Christ, as they were thus early set forth, are now two main periods, and a third period must be generally held in the Christian world.
The secadded to embrace the recent labors of theo-ond, however, has led to certain difficulties, logians in this field.
which some modern writers have sought to The first period extends from the debate remove without disturbing the doctrine itself, so of Justin Martyr with Trypho the Jew, about that it is now passing through another stage of 140, to the Council of Nicæa, 325, during which development, which promises good fruit. the church labored to define the relation of the Until recent times it was taught by theologians Logos in Christ to the Father, and incidentally to in general that the divine nature in Christ did the Spirit also. Justin, in his debate with Trypho, not suffer, since it is impossible for God to suffer. maintained that “God, before all creatures, begot Moreover, the divine nature in Christ retained of himself a certain reasonable power called the all its attributes, and continued to perform all its glory of the Lord, the Son, the Logos.” This accustomed offices, during the whole of his earthly generation was at a certain definite period in life and death—his infancy, his childhood, his eternity, and its product, the Logos, was sub- maturity, his waking, his sleeping, his final ordinate to the Father, not only in functions, but unconsciousness on the cross. His divine nature in nature. Tertullian carried the doctrine much had infinite knowledge, and if his human nature further; he was the first to use the word trinity, ever ignorant of anything, there would and to teach that God is a tripersonality in him- seem to have been an imperfect union of the self. Yet he held that the Logos, though in- | two,—a supposition which the creed pointedly herent in God, did not become a personal being excludes. Did Christ, then, only seem to be till the work of creation was to begin, and is limited in knowledge, as when he looked for always subordinate in nature. To Origen we owe fruit on the barren fig tree? Still further, there the statement that the Logos is without begin- are passages of Scripture which lead naturally to ning, and is always personal, and that Christ is the conclusion that the entire being of Christ "the God-man.' Yet he also held that the suffered, like the record of the agony in the Logos is inferior to the Father in nature. All the garden. There are others which lead to the conpreceding writers maintained that the Logos was clusion that in the incarnation a change took generated by an act of the divine will. Thus far place in the Logos himself, so that the life of had the Christian world advanced in its interpre- | Christ was a humiliation, or an “emptying," to tation of the Scriptures, when the Arian contro- use the Greek word of Phil. ii, 6, 7, of the divine versy burst upon it, and led it to the conviction, nature which he possessed: “Who, being in the never since shaken, that the Logos is equal to the form of God, thought it not a thing to be clutched Father in nature, being of the same numerical at to be on an equality with God; but emptied substance; that he is generated eternally, and himself, and took upon himself the form of a had no beginning; and that he is always gen- slave." erated by the nature of the Father, and not by a Considerations such as these led Thomasius to determination of the divine will. The doctrine the belief that in the incarnation the Logos so limis, in other words, that it is the nature of God to ited himself that he laid aside his omnipotence, omexist as a trinity of persons in a unity of sub- niscience, and omnipresence, and became as fully stance.
unconscious as the human nature of the new-born 2. Having defined the teaching of the Bible babe; that he gradually grew into the consciousconcerning the relation of the Logos in Christ to ness of his divine nature; that he possessed himthe Father, it remained for the Church to define self of so much of divine power and knowledge its teaching concerning the relation of the Logos as he needed for the accomplishment of his