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mission; that he exposed himself to all the suffer- | bridge. There are about thirty instructors at the
CHRISTOPHE, HENRI, KING OF Haiti; born substance, and a more solid fibrillar network in
CHROMIC IRON. See republic in Haiti, and a civil war of many years' MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 386; CHROMIUM, Vol. duration ensued, in which Christophe headed the V, p. 705. negroes against the rule of the mulattoes, led by CHROMO-LITHOGRAPHY. See LITHOGPétion. In 1811 Christophe had himself pro- RAPHY, Vol. XIV, p. 700. claimed king of Haiti by the name of Henri I, CHROMOMETER. In the petroleum indusand also sought to perpetuate his name by the try, chromometers are used to determine the compilation of the Code Henri, a digest founded colors of oil, and separate it into the commercial upon the Code Napoléon. His cruelty finally pro- grades known as water white, superfine white, voked a revolt which he was unable to quell, prime white, standard white and good merchantand finding himself deserted by his body-guard able. The Wilson chromometer is much used, and all his nobles, he shot himself, Oct. 8, 1820. but the Stammer chromometer is much more ac
CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, popularly known as curate. The latter has a cylindrical case within the Blue-Coat School, from the picturesque dress which is a cylinder with a glass bottom, so arranged of the boys educated there, which consists of a that the oil is looked at lengthwise of the cylinder. blue tunic and yellow breeches and stockings, is By turning a screw, the length of this cylinder is situated in Newgate Street, London (occupying altered, and the inspector is able to bring it to a the site of the old Greyfriars monastery), and ac- tint matching a sample, and then by noting the commodates 700 boys. It was founded by King length of the column of oil on a scale he finds its Edward VI, in 1553, as a hospital for poor orphans color-value in terms of the standard. . This and foundlings, but it has gradually become a chromometer has also been used to test lubricatpublic boarding school for the sons of London ing oils. It has been somewhat improved in defreemen and Anglican clergymen. It has also a tail by Robert Redwood. girls' and boys' preparatory school at Hertford, A form of chromometer is also used by metalfounded in 1683, where there are 120 boys and lurgists, in assaying, to compare the intensity of 350 girls, the boys only coming up to the London the color of the bead, when an ore is fused with school when old enough. In 1890 two day schools, borax, with the color given by a known quantity for 600 boys and 400 girls, were opened. The of the metal. original endowment has been largely increased, CHROMOSOMES. In nuclear division the notably by King Charles II, and the income fibrillar network (see CHROMATIN) breaks up into amounts to some three hundred thousand dollars a definite number of segments, to which the per year. The education is essentially classical, name chromosomes has been given. The move. but modern languages and literature are also ments of these chromosomes during nuclear taught. Boys leave the school at 15, except the division are an essential feature of the process. mathematical scholars and the “Grecians," who Much interest is attached to chromosomes, as are sent on scholarships, either to Oxford or Cam- | they are claimed by many biologists to be the
material carriers of hereditary tendencies. For | An inferior quality occurs in granite at Haddam, illustration, see KARYOKINESIs, in these Supple- Connecticut, and elsewhere in New England and ments, and also see the article on REPRODUCTION New York. Cat's-eye is a popular name for one in the same.
variety. See also MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. CHROMOSOMES. See EMBRYOLOGY AND HE- | 386. REDITY, in these Supplements.
CHRYSOCOLLA, copper ore.
See COPPER, CHROMOSPHERE. See ASTRONOMY, Vol.
Vol. VI, p. 347. II, p. 788.
CHRYSOLITE. See PERIDOTE, Vol. XVIII, CHRONOGRAM CHRONOGRAPH, a p. 534; MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 410. whimsical device of the later Romans, by which a CHRYSOPRASE, a kind of quartz which condate is given by selecting certain letters from stitutes a costly variety of chalcedony. It is among those which form an inscription, and generally apple-green in color, often extremely printing them larger than the others. The princi- beautiful, and highly prized in jewelry, being ple will be understood from the following example, sometimes set with diamonds and pearls. It is made from the name of George Villiers, first nearly as hard as flint, translucent, and someDuke of Buckingham:
times semitransparent, and occurs in Oregon, GEORGIVs DVX BVCKINGAMIÆ.
California and elsewhere. See MINERALOGY, The date MDCXVVVIII (1628) is that of the Vol. XVI, p. 389. year in which the Duke was murdered by Felton CHRYSOTYPE, a photographic process inat Portsmouth. Another well-known example vented by Sir John Herschel as an embellishment conveys the date in the inscription upon a medal of his well-known “cyanotype, or “blue-print" struck by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632:
process. It consists in treating the sensitized CHRISTVs DVX; ERGO TRIVMPHVs. paper with a neutral solution of chlorid of gold CHRONOGRAPH See GUNNERY (Vol. XI, pp. after the image has appeared, but before washing. 297–301) and Ballistics, in these Supplements. This gives a purple tint to the image, which, after
CHRONOSCOPE, an instrument contrived by being freely washed in water, is then “fíxed" Sir Charles Wheatstone to measure the duration with a weak solution of iodid of potassium, which of certain short-lived luminous phenomena, such converts any unaltered chlorid of gold into a as the velocity of light, the electric spark, or the soluble salt easy to remove by a final washing. velocity of projectiles, of which the eye itself can CHUB (Leuciscus cephalus). See ANGLING, Vol. be no judge, owing to the persistence of im- II, p. 42; Roach, Vol. XX, p. 582. pressions on the eye after the cause of sensation CHUBB, CHARLES, English inventor, who died has ceased. The phenomenon is observed by re- May 16,1845. See SAFES, Vol. XXI, p. 144; also flection in a mirror in such rapid motion that the Lock, Vol. XIV, pp. 746, 747. image of the luminous object would appear to de- CHUBUT OR CHUPAT. See PATAGONIA, scribe a circular arc, the length of which must be Vol. XVIII, p. 353. a measure of the duration of the light.
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW. See GOATSUCKER, CHRYSALIS. See BUTTERFLIES, Vol. IV, p. Vol. X, p. 711. 594.
CHUDLEIGH, CAPE, on the north coast of CHRYSANTHEMUM. See HORTICULTURE,
Labrador, at the entrance of Hudson Strait, lat. Vol. XII, p. 254.
60° 12' N., long. 65° 25' W. CHRYSELEPHANTINE, sculpture in gold CHUFFUCK, SAMUEL W., inventor; born in and ivory; a fashion which prevailed in Greece Vermontin 1800; died in Utica, New York, June 28, and Asia at an early day. Two celebrated works 1875. In 1845 he engaged in the manufacture of in these costly materials were the statue of Athene telegraph instruments in Utica, and is said to have in the Parthenon and that of the Olympian Zeus made the first one. The "pony" sounder and in his temple at Elis-masterpieces of Phidias. circuit-closer attachment to the key were his inThe exposed portions were done in ivory, the ventions. He was also a collector of rare coins. drapery and accessorial enrichments in gold. CHU HI OR CHU HE, a Chinese philosopher Upon the statue of Athene, 26 feet high, the enor- and statesman who flourished during the Sung dymous amount of fifty talents of gold was used. nasty in the twelfth century.
Born A.D. 1130, CHRYSIS, a genus of hymenopterous insects. at Hihchau, in the province of Nganwui, he early They are popularly known as cuckoo-flies" in became a studious and precocious child, and was England, and as “golden-wasps” in Germany. an ardent reader of Confucius.
When about 24 They are remarkable for their brilliant metallic years old he became a submagistrate, and from colors.
that time exhibited such qualities of forethought, CHRYSOBALANUS, a genus of trees and careful observation, diligence, and integrity that shrubs of the family Rosacea, natives of tropical his suggestions as to the needs of the empire and and subtropical America and Africa. The cocoa- the welfare of the people were not only received plum (C. İcaco) of tropical America produces an with favor by the emperor, but, on important occaedible fruit.
sions of famine or pestilence, were asked, and he CHRYSOBERYL, sometimes called Cymo- became a confidential adviser of the government. PHANE, a valuable gem, very hard, occurring as His public life was marked by industry, force of round pebbles in Brazil and Ceylon, and as fine character and moderation. His name signifies crystals called alexandrite in the Ural Mountains. “brilliant vermilion,” and was bestowed in child
Yor and Aca
hood as being characteristic of great talents; but CHUQUISACA. See Sucre, Vol. XXII, p.
mathematical department of the Military AcadCHU KIANG OR PEARL RIVER, a river of emy, in which position he served nearly forty Kwangtung province; rises in the central part of years, being pre-eminently distinguished for his the province, flows southward, past Canton, into personal and scholarly qualities. He received the Li Kiang. Its length is about fifty miles. At the degree of LL.D. from Yale in 1852 and that Canton it is a broad, tidal river; lower down it of A.M. from Washington, now Trinity, College, becomes separated into numerous delta-like out- Connecticut, and from the University of Pennlets.
sylvania, in 1837; was a member of several scienCHULALONGKORN I, KING OF SIAM, born tific societies, and the author of Elements of the Sept. 21, 1853; succeeded to the throne of his Differential and Integral Calculus, and numerous father, Oct. I, 1868; died Aug. 16, 1894; was a other well-known mathematical text-books. just and high-minded ruler, a Buddhist, and a CHURCH, ALFRED John, an English clergyscholar. Among the important reforms which he man and author; born in London, Jan. 29, 1827; inaugurated were the partial abolition of slavery educated at King's College, London, and at Linand the reform of the calendar, by which he estab- coln College, Oxford; graduated 1851; ordained lished a new astronomical year, to commence priest, 1853; assistant master at the Royal InstiApril ist.
tution School, Liverpool, and at the Merchant CHULPAS, ancient burial towers of the South Taylors' School, London, 1857–70; head master American Incas. See illustration of ruins, under at Henley Grammar School, 1870-72; and RetARCHITECTURE, Vol. II, p. 451.
ford Grammar School, 1873-80; Professor of CHUMBUL, a river of central India, rising in Latin in University College, London, 1880-89; the Vindhyan Mountains at a height of 1,800 rector of Ashley, Tetbury, Wilts, 1892; published feet above the sea, and entering the Jumna after a number of translations from and editions of a generally northeast course of 514 miles. It is the Greek and Latin classics, but is best known subject to sudden floods, and is not navigable. by a series of volumes in which he sought to
CHUMASHAN INDIANS, a nearly extinct make the classics popular with the young, among linguistic stock of North American Indians origi- which were Stories from Homer; Stories from nating in the Santa Barbara Islands of the Pacific Virgil; The Story of the Persian War; Stories coast of North America, and at one time congre- from Livy. He also wrote The Chantry Priest of gating around the California missions of Santa Barnet; Il'ith the King at Oxford; Stories of the Barbara, San Luis Obispo, San Buenaventura and Magicians; and to the Lions, á tale of the early their vicinity.
church; and translated a number of Tennyson's CHUNAM, the Indian name for a very fine kind poems into Latin verse, published under the of quicklime made from calcined shells or from title Hore Tennysoniane. very pure limestone, and used for chewing with CHURCH, ARTHUR HERBERT, an English betel and for plaster. When chunam is to be used chemist; born June 2, 1834; educated at London for plaster, it is mixed with fine river sand and and Oxford; professor of chemistry in the Royal thoroughly beaten up with water. A little jaggery Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1879; well (coarse sugar) is also added.
known as the discoverer of turacin, an animal CH'UNG-K’ING, a city of the province of Sz pigment containing copper, and of several new Chuen, western China, on the west bank of the mineral species, including the only British cerium Yang-Tsz, immediately below the point where the mineral. “Among his writings are Precious Stones Kialing joins it, about seventeen hundred miles (1883); English Earthenware (1884); English Porfrom the sea. It is walled, and was built in its celain (1886); and of the Laboratory Guide for present form between 1368 and 1398. It is six Agricultural Students, which reached its sixth edihundred miles above the head of navigation, and tion in 1888. He was elected fellow of the Chemthe intervening part of the river is a series of dan- | ical Society in 1856 and of the Royal Society in gerous rapids, which is only available for trans- 1888. portation when great skill and boats built espe- CHURCH, FREDERICK Edwin, an American cially for the purpose are used. The chief exports artist; born at Hartford, Connecticut, May 14, of the city are silk, salt, wax and tobacco. Popu- 1826; began to paint when quite young, and first lation, 250,000.
studied under Thomas Cole at Catskill, New
York. He next made his home in New York, had practically no existence, being merely a showand in 1849 was elected a member of the National place—an architectural monument. Dean Church Academy. In 1853 and again in 1857 he traveled aroused popular enthusiasm, and before his in South America. His great picture of Icebergs death he had made St. Paul's the very heart was painted after a visit to Labrador, and of the religious life of the city of London. He attracted much attention when exhibited in Lon- combined two singular elements of attractiveness: don in 1863 A journey through the West Indies, he was at once a link with the past and the most Europe and Palestine, made in 1866, furnished widely reverenced ecclesiastical authority of his the suggestions of some of his greatest works. day. Among his works are university sermons, in His best-known piece is The Great Fall at Nia- a volume entitled Human Life and its Conditions gara (seen from the Canadian side), which he (1878); the series of St. Paul's and Oxford serpainted in 1857, and which is now in the Corcoran mons, in The Gifts of Civilization (1880), and the Art Gallery at Washington, District of Columbia. five St. Paul's sermons forming The Discipline of In 1867 it received a medal of the second class at the Christian Character (1885); all profound conthe Paris Exposition, and it was exhibited else- tributions to religious thought.
Other works are where in Europe. His works include The Andes his Life of St. Anselm (1871), an amplification of of Ecuador (1855); Niagara (1857); Heart of the two essays in his first volume; The Beginning of Andes (1859); Icebergs (1861); St. Thomas in the the Middle Ages (1877); an introduction to the Vale, Jamaica; Niagara from the American Side series of Epochs of Modern History; Dante: An (1866); Damascus (1869); Rainy Season in the Essay; Spenser (1879) and Bacon (1879), two of Tropics, Jerusalem (1870); The Parthenon (1871); the best books in the series of “English Men of El Kasna Petra (1872); Tropical Moonlight (1874); Letters ''; and a monograph, published after his Ægean Sea; Valley of Santa Isabel (1875); El Ayn death, upon The Oxford Movement. (1876); Morning in the Tropics (1877); and many CHURCH, SANFORD ELIAS, jurist; born in since. He was well represented at the Chicago Milford, Otsego County, New York, April 18, World's Fair, 1893.
1815; died in Albion, New York, May 14, 1880. CHURCH, FREDERICK STUART, an American He became a lawyer and settled in Albion, whence painter; born at Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1841; | he was called to the assembly in 1842. He was member of the National Academy and of the district attorney (1846-47); lieutenant-governor American Water-Color Society; resides in New from 1851 to 1855; comptroller of the state York; affected fantastic effects in color; animals (1868–69); and member of the state constiand allegories were among his favorite subjects. tutional convention in 1867. In 1870 he was Mad as March Hares and The Sea Princess are elected chief justice of the court of appeals of two of his best-known pictures.
the state of New York, and held the office until CHURCH, IRVING PORTER, an American edu- his death. He was an influential politician of the cator; born at Ansonia, Connecticut, July 22, Democratic party, and was respected for his up1851; graduated as civil engineer at Cornell in rightness and conservatism. 1873; continued there as instructor and assistant CHURCH-ALE, an obsolete English merryprofessor until 1892, when he was appointed pro- making church festival, usually held at Easter or fessor of applied mechanics. He was the author at Whitsuntide, with a view to making money of several text-books upon engineering, hydrau- for church purposes.
for church purposes. Ale and other refreshments, lics and mechanics, among them Mechanics of contributed by the parishioners, were on sale in Engineering and Notes and Examples in Me- the vicinity of the church, and the festivals, being chanics.
largely attended, attracted peddlers, jugglers, CHURCH, JOHN ADAMS, an American mining morris-dancers and other strollers, until the engineer; born at Rochester, New York, April 5, church-ales became very like the modern fairs. 1843; a graduate of the School of Mines in New CHURCH CONGRESS, a popular and sucessYork City; was several years professor in the ful organization within the Church of England, same institution, and has participated in govern- which has held annual gatherings since 1861, ment surveys of mines in Nevada and elsewhere, designed to promote among the clergy and laitý and was the author of several practical works on a free interchange of views upon practical relimetallurgy, and of a treatise on The Comstock gious questions of the day. A somewhat similar Lode (1880)
institution within the Protestant Episcopal Church CHURCH, RICHARD WILLIAM, dean of St. of the United States was established in 1875, and Paul's London; born in Lisbon, April 25, 1815; holds its sessions in the years when the general died in Dover, Dec. 9, 1890; passed his early convention does not meet. It has also met with life in Italy; was educated at Oxford, and in great favor and accomplished gratifying results. 1838 became fellow of Oriel College and an inti- CHURCH GOVERNMENT. See ERASTUS,
1880publisha ditions de
Smith colleges and the Harvard Divinity School.
CHURCHILL FAMILY. See MARLBOROUGH, He contributed to the magazines and was asso- Vol. XV, p. 553, and in these Supplements. ciate editor of the Andover Review.
CHURCHILL RIVER, of Canada, rises be-
sixth Duke of Marl-erally northeast through a series of lakes, first as
in debate soon made him- (Lev. xii, 6), and the earliest express mention of
Churchill likewise assailed the “old ” | Reformed churches at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Tory party, and sought to make his clique of under the leadership of Pastor John Winebrenner. “Conservatives " popular by declaring in favor | The first congregation was organized in 1829, of universal suffrage and other advanced ideas, with no creed or discipline but the Bible, and with after the manner of Bismarck. With this design the practice of baptism (adults only) by immerhe founded the Primrose League, of which he sion. They practice, as a church ordinance, the became president, and which had a large mem- washing of one another's feet, in imitation of bership throughout England. In 1885 Churchill Christ's washing the feet of his disciples. They became Secretary of State for India in the Mar- are spread over the Western states, but are prinquis of Salisbury's first ministry, but the speedy cipally in the Ohio valley. They have a college downfall of that administration gave him little at Findlay, Ohio. In 1894 they had 450 ministime to adjust the Afghan boundary question. ters, 560 churches and 36,000 communicants. In July, 1886, with Salisbury again in power, he CHURCH RATES, a tax levied in England became Chancellor of the Exchequer and leader upon the occupants of parochial lands and houses of the House of Commons. He found the finances for the purpose of maintaining the church and its in great disorder, and sought to put an end to services. The tax is voted in the first instance certain administrative abuses, but only succeeded by the vestry, and must be affirmed by a majorin drawing upon himself the anger of his fellow ity vote of the parishioners. In 1868 an act was workers, especially of Lord Wolseley. He resigned passed abolishing compulsory church rates, except Dec. 23, 1886. He afterward made several trips such as under that name were applicable to secuto the Continent, which excited the curiosity of lar purposes. every government in Europe, notably one to CHURCHWARDENS, in England, two ofiRussia in December, 1887. He sought to bring cers annually elected by the parish to superinEngland into an alliance with the anti-German tend the church, its property and its affairs. In party in Russia, and he made significant advances the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United to General Boulanger. He figured conspicuously States two churchwardens are annually chosen as the promoter of “Democratic Toryism," and in each parish, who, with the vestrymen, constisought to create a conservative democracy by tute what is called the vestry of the parish, and enabling farmers to acquire land and workmen to have charge of its property and material affairs. acquire homes. To this end he proposed to make CHURCHYARD BEETLE (Blaps mortisaga). land transfers less costly and less complicated, to See COLEOPTERA, Vol. VI, p. 133. suppress entail, and to lessen taxes by diminish- CHURN. See DAIRY, Vol. VI, p. 770. ing public expenditures. In 1891 he made a CHURUBUSCO, a village of Mexico, six miles journey to South Africa, where he had financial S. of the capital, Here, on the 20th of August, interests, and in the following year published 1847, General Winfield 'Scott, with the United Men, Mines and Animals in South Africa. In 1874 States forces, on his way to the City of Mexico, he married a daughter of Lawrence Jerome of met the Mexicans under Santa Anna, who were New York. He died Jan. 24, 1895. His Speeches guarding this approach to the city, and comfrom 1880 to 1888 have been published in two pletely defeated them. In this battle, and in that volumes (1889).
of Contreras on the same day, General Scott