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CIVICS-CIVIL LIST

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Andrews as “the doctrine of duties in society”; in ate direction of its affairs is intrusted to a presiother words, the study and setting forth of the con- dent and faculty, now numbering 12 members. ditions of human character which are essential to CIVIL DAMAGE ACTS, the name given to the welfare of the citizen, society and government. measures passed in several of the United States, As right character is the natural source of right | giving to persons who have sustained injury, in action, the science of civics first concerns itself with person or property or means of support, by any the facts which underlie and account for these es- intoxicated person, in consequence of such insential characteristics of the good citizen. That the toxication, the right of action against the person citizen may be qualified to act the part of an intel- who sold or gave away the liquor which caused ligent juror in all affairs submitted to the decision such intoxication. See LIQUOR LAWS, in these of the suffrage, it is essential that he be adequately Supplements. informed as to other facts in civics, as follows: CIVIL ENGINEER. See ENGINEERING, Vol. 2. Civil Polity. Government methods and ma- VIII, p. 215. chinery; suffrage rights and obligations; the quali- CIVIL ENGINEERING SCHOOL. See Techfications and duties of public officials; executive, NICAL Schools, in these Supplements. legislative and judicial affairs; and all other mat- CIVILIS, CLAUDIUS. See GERMANY, Vol. X, p. ters having relation to the orderly and proper ad- 478. ministration of government.-3. Law. The prin- CIVILIZATION. See ARCHÆOLOGY, Vol. II, ciples and facts of the law in applications most p. 342; ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. II, p. 120. directly involving the interests of society, and CIVIL LIST is the annual allowance provided especially of the citizen and the government. -- for the use of the sovereign of a constitutional 4. Economics. The principles or laws which ex- monarchy for the support of the “household” plain or control the production, distribution and and court. In England the grant is annually ownership of that which constitutes or is tech- voted by Parliament. Previous to the Restoranically called wealth; the facts relating to the tion, in England, all the expenses of the governdevelopment of natural resources, to manufac- ment were defrayed from what was called the factures, and to internal and foreign commerce; royal revenue, which was derived partly from querons of supply and demand, labor and capi- crown lands and partly from other sources, and tal, and matters of like character, considered was at the disposal of the crown. At the Restorawith reference, to their effects upon the citizen, tion, a distinction arose between the “civil” and and in their relations to government.-5. History. the “military” lists, the expenses of the latter Collateral facts illustrative of tendencies and being partly defrayed from the crown lands still results growing out of given conditions, consid- available, and partly by an annual grant voted by ered in connection with ethics, civil politics, law Parliament. During the reign of William III, and economics. Civics offers an opportunity for after the war with France in 1698, the civil list the differentiation of facts hitherto considered was £700,000, the expenses being for the followwithin the scope of the sciences which it included, ing: The royal household; the privy purse; the as well as for corresponding exactness in deduc- royal palaces; the salaries of the chancellor, tions. It differs from what is called social science judges, great officers of state and ambassadors; in general, or sociology, in confining itself to the the incomes given to the other members of the consideration of sociological facts in their bear- royal family; the secret-service money, pensions ings on affairs of citizenship and government. and other irregular claims. On the accession of

CIVICS, AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF, a national George IV, the civil list was fixed at £850,000, educational institution, with a charter from the besides the transference of £255,000 of expendiUnited States government. Founded in 1885 ture to other funds. On the accession of Queen by the late Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite and Victoria, the sovereign surrendered the hereditary Justice William Strong of the United States

revenues of the crown for life, receiving in lieu supreme court; Noah Porter, late president of thereof a yearly sum of £385,000, to be devoted Yale University; John Bigelow, Mellen Chamber- solely to the support of her Majesty's household, lain, Theodore W. Dwight, John Jay, Ex-Governor and distributed as follows: To the Queen's privy Hugh S. Thompson of South Carolina; General purse, £60,000; salaries and expenses of the H. B. Carrington, W. E. Sheldon, the late Dr. royal household, 4.231,260; retiring allowances Alexander Winchell, Henry Randall Waite, Gen- and pensions to officers, etc., of the household, eral William Preston Johnston of Louisiana; Gen- £44, 240; for royal bounties, alms and special eral Joseph R. Hawley, Bishop J. H. Vincent, and services, £36,300; general expenditure of the other distinguished citizens. Assuming that the court, £13,200. This list does not include the voter is a trustee, charged with sacred responsibili annuities to the Prince of Wales, etc., nor other ties, the institute aims to secure such attention to grants made by Parliament to members of the the facts of civics on the part of all citizens as shall royal family; and besides this sum, the further surround the suffrage with the safeguards which

sum of £1,200 is appropriated for a pension fund grow out of a proper sense of obligations, integrity for those deserving of recognition on account of of purpose, and an adequate degree of intelligence their services to the public, or in literature, as to affairs in issue. The institute is controlled science or art. The Queen has, also, at her disby 33 trustees, and has auxiliaries, styled “coun- posal the revenues of the Duchy of Lancaster, cils, in every state and territory. The immedi. £50,000.

CIVIL RIGHTS-CIVIL SERVICE RULES

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The civil list of the Emperor of Austria is “Jim Crow cars,' exclusively for colored citi$3,875,000; of the Czar of Russia (estimated), zens, and to require them to travel therein. $12,000,000; of the King of Prussia, $3,852,770, CIVIL RIGHTS BILL, an act passed in 1866 besides a vast amount of private property, out by the United States Congress, conferring citizenof which the expenses of the court and royal ship upon all persons born in the United States, family are defrayed; of the King of Italy, not subjects of other powers, “ of every race and $2,858,000.

color, and without regard to any previous condiIn republics, such as Switzerland, France, the tion of servitude." United States, Brazil, etc., there is no civil list CIVIL SERVICE AND CIVIL SERVICE REof the kind alluded to above. But the term civil FORM. Civil service is the executive branch of list has been applied to the list of the entire ex- the public service, as distinguished from the milipenses of the civil government, the revenue ap- tary and the naval. Under enlightened forms of propriated to the support of the same and the government it is separated into three branches: officers of the civil government paid from the Legislative, judicial and the executive. public treasury. In such a "list the salary of The legislative branch is essentially representthe President is but a mere item. The salary ative, and this function of legislators makes their of the President of Switzerland is $2,700; that of views and interests an important part of the the President of France about $12,000, with an proper test of fitness for the places they seek. But extra allowance of the same amount; of the very different considerations should prevail in the United States, $50,ooo.

selection of clerks and other subordinates, for the CIVIL RIGHTS, a term applied to the privi- reason that secretaries, clerks, canyists, messenleges which are accorded to every citizen by gers, etc., are in no sense repre tative. They virtue of his citizenship, without regard to race, owe no duty to members of one party that they color or previous condition of servitude. The do not owe equally to the other. Their political condition of the colored race in the United States views should under no circumstances enter into after the abolition of slavery led to the adoption their work. of the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to The judicial branch of the government is not the constitution, by which it is provided that “no representative. To make it so in any sen is a state shall make or enforce any law which shall prostitution of judicial functions, and a calamity. abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of Justice should be administered alike to every one, the United States”; and that the “right of citi- at all times and places, without party fear or zens of the United States to vote shall not be favor. In the execụtive department of the United denied or abridged by the United States, or by any States there are more than one hundred thousand state, on account of race, color or previous con- persons occupying responsible clerical positions dition of servitude.” The words privileges and above the grade of laborers; there are nearly sevimmunities have been held to mean such as are enty thousand postmasters, with tens of thousands of a general nature, as security to life and liberty, of subordinates, and in all the departments official the right to acquire property, to have access to life is graded from the central authority down to courts of justice, and freedom to pursue and the porters and door-keepers. With rare excepobtain happiness and safety, with such restric- tions, they are doing work the success and the tions as are necessary to the public good. What- utility of which depend upon its being done wholly ever guaranties states accord to their own citi- on business principles, without any bias of party zens upon these points must be extended to the views. Yet so great was the effort made by parcitizens of other states. The effect of the fifties struggling for power to fill these places with teenth amendment to the constitution in respect their favorites for the sake of their patronage of many questions of right in the several states that gross abuses were practiced. has not been settled by the courts, but the object of

The same difficulties exist in a monarchical as in that amendment is well understood. It abrogates a republican form of government. Great Britain all state legislation or constitutional provision discovered the abuses fifty years ago, and required creating distinctions among citizens of the United an examination of applicants. The first ones were States based upon race and color, and prevents called pass examinations, but rapidly grew into the introduction of such distinctions either by competitive examinations. The British precedent the action of the state or by the general govern- was the basis of an act, passed by the United ment.

States Congress in 1853, by which such examinaCIVIL RIGHTS AC an act of the United tions were made the basis of an appointment to States Congress, passed in 1875, forbidding the any place in the four great classes of clerkships exclusion of any person from the enjoyment of in Washington. These examinations were the inns, public conveyances, theaters, etc., on ac- first practical steps toward what is designated as count of race or color. Under the provisions of Civil Service Reform.

See also INDIAN AFFAIRS, ,

in these . similar"in terms, colored citizens have brought "" CIVIL SERVICE RULES. President Grant, suit successfully against hotel-keepers and others in 1872, appointed a “commission " to "devise refusing them accommodations. The Supreme rules and regulations" for admission to and conCourt has, however, affirmed the right of a rail- tinuance in the civil service of the United States. road company to provide cars, popularly termed The commission prepared and reported such rules,

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CIVIL SERVICE RULES

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based upon competitive examinations, and the employees serving in any customs district, whose emgovernment officers began at once to carry them

ployees number at present, or may hereafter number, as out, to some extent.

many as five, who have been, or may hereafter be, classiBut the political pressure

fied under the Civil Service Act. brought to bear upon many of the Senators and

The Post-Office Service includes the officers and emmembers of Congress by their constituents for ployees in any free-delivery post-office who have been, place and promotion was such that the progress

or may hereafter be, classified under the act, the latmade in the proposed reform was much less rapid established in any post-office, or when any post-office

ter occurring whenever a free-delivery system shall be than had been expected. In 1879 President Hayes shall be consolidated with a free-delivery post-office

. renewed the efforts of President Grant, and the Similarly, The Government Printing Service and The Interreform was specially observed in the New York

nal Revenue Service include all officers or employees who

have been, or may hereafter be, classified under the act. post-office and some other large post-offices. Since

The rules provide for certain employees and positions that date considerable progress has been made, that shall not be subject thereto, which refer to minor or and the system of competitive examinations has local offices which require only a portion of the time of been extended, not only to the Federal offices, but

the holder; to persons in the military and naval service also to the civil service in several of the states

detailed for civil service duties; to persons employed in

the foreign service under the State Department; or any and chief cities.

person whose duties are of a quasi military or quasi The act of Congress prescribing rules and the naval character. extent of their application was passed in 1883. It

Examinations. The examinations to test the fitness of provides for the appointment, by the President, character, involving such subjects and tests as the com

applicants for positions are of a practical and suitable of three Civil Service Commissioners, with mission may direct. The dates of these examinations chief examiner, a secretary and other employees, are such as shall be deemed most suitable for the conand makes it the duty of the commission to aid

venience of applicants and the needs of the service. The the President in preparing rules for carrying the

board of examiners are appointed from persons in the

government service. The examination papers are rated new act into effect; to make regulations for ex- on a scale of 100, and 70 marks or over are considered aminations, and for office records and reports, entitling the candidate to eligibility for appointment, and to provide, also, for the enforcement of the A probationary period of six months is authorized, and act. The headquarters of the commission is in

vacancies, transfers, employment, appointment and pro

motion of substitutes, reinstatements, etc., are all conWashington, District of Columbia.

The act pre

trolled by the rules, and applicable to all alike. scribed that the President can revise or modify Age Limitations. The age limitations for entrance to the rules from time to time for the regulation of

the different positions in the service are as follows: the service. As revised May 6, 1896, the rules

Departmental Service: Page or messenger-boy, from 14 to

18; apprentice (or student), from 16 to 20; printer's include the following points:

assistant and messenger, from 18 upward; positions in

Railway Mail Service, from 18 to 35; superintendent, Qualifications for Applicants. Every applicant must be physician, supervisor, day-school inspector and matron, a citizen of the United States, of proper age, mentally Indian Service, from 25 to 55; all other positions in the and physically sound, of good moral character, or who Indian Service, from 21 to 45; all other positions, from has not been guilty of a crime or other notorious mis- 20 upward. Custom-House Service: Clerk and messenger, conduct, etc. All are otherwise eligible, without respect from 20 upward; other positions, from 20 upward. to political or religious creed, or race.

Post-Office Service: Letter-carrier, from 21 to 40; other Branches of the Service. The service includes and is positions, from 18 upward. Government Printing Service: arranged in branches, as follows: The Departmental All positions (male), from 21 upward; all positions Service, the Custom-House Service, the Post-Office Ser- (female), from 18 upward. Internal Revenue Service: vice, the Government Printing Service, and the Internal Clerk, from 18 upward; other positions, from 21 upward. Revenue Service. The Departmental Service includes all Apportionments of appointments are made among the officers and employees of whatever designation, except several states and territories and District of Columbia persons merely employed as laborers or workmen, and upon a basis of population, except to appointments persons who have been nominated for confirmation by in the Government Printing-Office; to the position of the Senate, however or for whatever purpose employed, printer's assistant, skilled helper and operative in the whether compensated by a fixed salary, or otherwise, who Bu au of Engraving and Printing; to positions in the are serving in or on detail from the several executive post-quartermaster's office, in the pension agency and departments, the commissions and offices in the District other local offices in the District of Columbia; and to the of Columbia; the Railway Mail Service; the Indian positions of page and messenger-boy, and apprentice or Service; the several pension agencies; the Steamboat student. Vacancies outside the District of Columbia Inspection Service; the Marine Hospital Service; the are filled by districts; that is, an eligible shall be certified Lighthouse Service; the Life-Saving Service; the several to vacancy in the district in which he resides. mints and assay-offices; the Revenue Cutter Service; the Non-Competitive Examinations. In pursuance of the force employed under custodians of public buildings; provisions of the act, wherever competent persons can the several subtreasuries; the Engineer Department at be found who are willing to compete, no non-competitive large; and all executive officers and employees outside of examination are given, except as follows: (a) To test the District of Columbia, not covered in the above, of fitness for transfer, or for promotion in a part of the whatever designation, whether compensated by a fixed service to which promotion regulations have not been salary, or otherwise, who are serving in a clerical applied. (6) To test fitness for appointment of Indians as capacity, or whose duties are in whole or in part of a superintendents, teachers, teachers of industries, kinderclerical nature; in the capacity of watchman or messen- gartners, and physicians in the Indian service at large. ger; in the capacity of physician, hospital steward, nurse, The non-competitive examinations of Indians for the or whose duties are of a medical nature; in the capacity positions mentioned shall consist of such tests of fitness, of draftsman, civil engineer, steam-engineer, electrical not disapproved by the commission, as may be deterengineer, computer or fireman; or who are in the service

mined upon by the Secretary of the Interior. A state. of the Supervising Architect's Office in the capacity of ment of the result of every non-competitive test, and all superintendent of construction, superintendent of repair, appointments, transfers or promotions based thereon, or foreman; or in the service of the Treasury Depart- shall be immediately forwarded to the commission, ment in any capacity.

Exceptions from Examination or Registration. The followThe Custom-House Service includes the officers and ing-named employees or positions which have been, or

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CIVITALI— CLAIBORNE

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in 1501.

may hereafter be, classified under the Civil Service Act Beecher's church at Brooklyn, his charities were
are excepted from the requirement of examination princely, and he took great delight in assisting
(not exceeding two) to the President or to the head of promising young men. As early as 1850 he was
each of the eight executive departments; Indians known as an antislavery advocate. He died at
employed in the Indian service at large, except those Fordham, New York, Nov. 14, 1885.
employed as superintendents, teachers, teachers of indus-

CLAGGETT, THOMAS JOHN, an American
tries, kindergartners and physicians; one cashier in
each customs district; one chief or 'principal deputy churchman; born at White's Landing, Maryland,
or assistant collector in each customs district whose Oct. 2, 1742; was educated at Princeton, where
employees number as many as 150; one assistant post- he was graduated in 1762 ; studied theology, and
master, or chief assistant to the postmaster, of whatever was ordained in England in 1767. On returning
designation, at each post-office; one cashier of each first-
class post-office when employed under the roster title of

to America he was appointed rector of All Saints' cashier only; one cashier in each internal revenue dis

Church, Calvert County, Maryland. On the betrict. As far as possible, all promotions are to be made ginning of the Revolution he retired to his estate by competitive examinations. The age limitations are

in Prince George County; in 1779 began services relaxed in the case of persons honorably discharged from military or naval service; and per centum of proficiency

in St. Paul's parish, and next year became its recin examinations of applicants claiming preference under

tor. In 1792 he was consecrated bishop of Maryrule 1754 of the Revised Statutes is reduced to 65.

land, the ceremony taking place in New York,

this being the first consecration of a bishop in CIVITALI, MATTEO, an Italian sculptor; born America, the Scottish and Anglican succession of at Lucca about 1435. He was a barber until past the Protestant Episcopal Church in America behis thirtieth year, and studied in Florence the art | ing united in the function. In 1800, during the by which he became famous, his master being first session of Congress at Washington, he was unknown. His finest works are in the cathedrals chaplain to the Senate. He became rector of at Lucca and Genoa; for the former he executed Trinity Church, Upper Marlboro, in 1808, which the altar-piece of St. Regulus, the pulpit, two charge he held for the rest of his life. He died kneeling angels in the Chapel of the Sacrament, at Croom, Maryland, Aug. 2, 1816. and the Tempiento, the octagonal marble shrine CLAIBORNE, William, colonist; born in for the Volto Santo, the cedar crucifix that was Westmoreland, England, about 1589; died in Virbrought to Lucca, miraculously it is said, in ginia about 1676. He came from a distinguished A.D. 780. His figure representing Faith is pre- family, and was appointed, under the London served in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. He died Company, surveyor of the Virginia plantations.

In October, 1621, he arrived in Jamestown, and CLADOCERA. See CRUSTACEA, Vol. VI, pp. located in James City. Soon afterward he ac648, 650.

quired an estate amounting to 45,000 acres.. On CLAFLIN, LEE, an American philanthropist; March 24, 1625, he became secretary of state for born at Hopkinton, Massachusetts, Nov. 19, 1791; the colony,and on March 13, 1628, was commisbecame rich in the manufacture of shoes, using sioned by the governor to make discoveries southhis wealth liberally in the endowment of the Wes- ward and open trade with the Indians.

He setleyan Academy, Wilbraham, Massachusetts; the tled the Isle of Kent, where he established a Methodist University, Middletown, Connecticut; trading-post, bought out the interest of all the and the Boston Theological Seminary. He died natives in that island, and induced many settlers Feb. 23, 1871.

to locate on his lands. When Lord Baltimore's CLAFLIN, HORACE BRIGHAM, an American first colony arrived at St. Marie's, in March, merchant and philanthropist; born at Milford, 1634, they claimed control over the Isle of Kent

Massachusetts, Dec. 18, and all its settlers. The dispute was continued
1811; in 1831 succeeded between the two parties for many years, until
his father in business, and Virginia, in 1776, released all claims to the terri-
next year, with his broth- tory of Maryland beyond the Potomac River.
ers, opened a store in When Lord Baltimore's colony had been founded
Worcester,

Massachu- on St. Marie's River, trouble began between them
setts. In 1843 Horace and the party of Claiborne, and in course of time
removed to New York, the latter's settlement on the Isle of Kent be-
and with William F. came a failure. Claiborne by that time had be-
Bulkeley organized the come involved in serious difficulties, and in 1637
firm of Bulkeley and Claf- sailed for England. When the Cromwellian rev.
lin, and began a wholesale olution began to make headway in Great Britain,
dry-goods business, the both Maryland and Virginia declared their loyal-
firm rapidly extending its ty to the royal government; but Claiborne saw

business; in 1851 it be- fit to join the Parliamentary party, and on Sept. came known as Claflin, Mellen and Company, 26, 1651, with others, was appointed a commisupon the retirement of Bulkeley. In 1864 Mr. sioner by Parliament to reduce Virginia and the Mellen retired, and the firm became known as plantations on Chesapeake Bay. An English exH. B. Claflin and Company. The business done pedition arrived in Virginia in March, 1652, overby the firm has amounted to $72,000,000 a year. threw the government of the Cavaliers and estabMr. Claflin

a prominent member of Mr. lished a Roundhead one, with Claiborne as sec

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HORACE B. CLAFLIN.

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CLAIBORNE --CLAIMS

retary of state. See also MARYLAND, Vol. XV, | the defendants in all cases, and on the part of p. 605.

the claimants when the amount in controversy CLAIBORNE, WILLIAM CHARLES COLE, gov- exceeds $3,000. The findings of fact by the court ernor of Louisiana; born in Virginia in 1775; of claims are final, and not subject to review by died in New Orleans, Louisiana, Nov. 23, 1817. the supreme court. After studying law, he removed to Tennessee, By the act of March 3, 1883, chapter 116, called then a territory, where he was elected a judge. the Bowman Act, the head of an executive deHe was a member of the convention which pre-partment may refer to the court any “claim or pared the state constitution of 1796, and in 1797 matter," pending in his department, involving conwas elected to Congress, where he served two troverted questions of fact or law. The court is terms. In 1802 he was appointed governor of the required to find the facts and its conclusions of territory of Mississippi, and in 1803, when Loui- law, and to report the same to the department for siana was bought from the French, was appointed its guidance and action. The same act authora commissioner with General James Wilkinson | izes either house of Congress, or any of its comto take possession of the new territory, of which mittees, to refer to the court any “claim or mathe was made governor in 1804. His administra-ter”involving the investigation and determination tion was especially difficult, owing to the hetero- of facts, the court to find the facts and report the geneous character of the people; but he preserved same to Congress for such action thereon as may harmony between creoles and the American plant- there be determined. This act is extended by ers, and exercised great tact in dealing with the act of March 2, 1887, chapter 359. adventurers of Aaron Burr's expedition. When There is a statute of limitations which prevents Louisiana was made a state in 1812, he was parties from bringing actions on their own motion elected governor, and during the war with Great beyond six years after the cause of action accrued, Britain aided in the defense of his state. In 1816 but the departments may refer claims at any time, he was elected to the United States Senate, but if they were pending therein within the six years. was prevented by impaired health from taking his The only limitation under the Bowman Act is, that seat. Other members of his family served in Con- | the court shall have no jurisdiction of any claim gress at various times.

barred before the passage of the act by any then CLAIBORNE GROUP, a name given in Amer- existing provision of law. ica to certain beds of clay, lignite, shelly sands, By act of Jan. 20, 1885, Congress gave to the and marly limestone which occur in the vicinity court jurisdiction over

court jurisdiction over “claims to indemnity upon of Claiborne, Alabama, and are believed to belong the French government, arising out of illegal capto the Eocene system.

tures, detentions, seizures, condemnations and CLAIM. See PATENT, Vol. XVIII, p. 355. confiscations prior to the ratification of the conven

CLAIMS, COURT OF. A court of the United tion between the United States and the French States established by act of Congress, Feb. 24, republic, concluded on the thirtieth day of Septem1855. It has general jurisdiction of all “claims ber, 1800.” The time of filing claims is limited founded upon the constitution of the United States to two years from the passage of the act, and all or any law of Congress, except for pensions, or claims not presented within that time are forever upon any regulation of an executive department, barred. The court finds the facts and the law, or upon any contract, expressed or implied, with and reports the same, in each case, to Congress. the government of the United States, or for dam- By act of March 3, 1891, chapter 538, the court ages, liquidated or unliquidated, in cases not is vested with jurisdiction of certain Indian depsounding in tort, in respect of which claims the redation claims. . party would be entitled to redress against the There are five judges, who sit together in United States, either in a court of law, equity or the hearing of cases, the concurrence of three admiralty, if the United States were suable, ex- of whom is necessary for the decision of any cept claims growing out of the late Civil War and commonly known as war claims,” and certain The court sits at Washington, District of Corejected claims.

lumbia, in the Department of Justice Building, It has jurisdiction, also, of claims of like char- 1509 Pennsylvania Avenue, on the first Monday acter which may be referred to it by any executive in December in each year, and continues into the department, involving disputed facts or contro- following summer, and until all cases ready for verted questions of law, where the amount in con- | trial are disposed of. Cases may be commenced troversy exceeds $3,000, or where the decision and entered at any time, whether the court be in will affect a class of cases or furnish a precedent session or not. for the future action of any executive depart- Prior to the establishment of this court, those ment in the adjustment of a class of cases, or having claims against the government had no where any authority, right, privilege or exem- remedy but to petition Congress, and thence to tion is claimed or denied under the constitution. obtain a bill for their relief. This proceeded on In all the above-mentioned cases the court, when the principle of law that no individual can mainit finds for the claimant, may enter judgment tain a suit against a sovereign or government against the United States, payable out of the unless with the express consent of the proposed public treasury. An appeal, only upon questions defendant. It was the multiplicity of these petiof law, lies to the supreme court on the part of tions to Congress which gave rise to the court of

case.

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