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claims, which, it may be stated, is a court of law, | directed by a leader, who arranges the points at devoid of equitable jurisdiction.
which applause, laughter or tears are to be forthCLAIRVAUX, a village in the department of coming, and each claqueur has a special rôle allotted Aube, northeastern France, 10 miles above Bar-sur
to him. Thus in various parts of the theater are Aube, on the left bank of the Aube River.
Its placed rieurs, those who laugh at the comic sallies; celebrated abbey was founded in 1915 by St. Ber- pleureurs, those who weep at pathetic passages; nard. It is now transformed into a great prison, bisseurs, who call bis or encore, and so on; while ali or house of detention. Population, 1,950.
occasionally join in hand-clapping and applause.
CLARE, SAINT, an Italian maiden, born in 1193, CLAIRVOYANCE. See SPIRITUALISM, Vol.
of a noble family of Assisi; retired in 1212 to the XXII, pp. 404-407; Magic, Vol. XV, p. 205.
Portiuncula of St. Francis, and in the same year CLAM, the popular name of various genera of founded the order of Franciscan nuns that bears bivalve mollusks, of which the principal are the her name, and which spread rapidly through common hard-shell or little-neck clam (Venus mer- Europe. She died Aug. 11, 1253. cenaria)-the Indian quahaug-of, the Atlantic afterward she was canonized by Alexander IV. coast of the United States; the long, soft-shelled Her festival falls on August 12th. clam, or megio, known in England as the cob; the CLARE ISLAND. See Mayo, Vol. XV, p. 650. fresh-water clam, which properly belongs to the CLAREMONT, a mansion at Esher, Surrey, mussels (unios); and the edible giant clam of the England, 14 miles S.W. of London; built in 1768, South Sea (Tridacna gigas) and the Pacific (Glyci- by Lord Clive, at an expense of £100,000, and meris generosa), which bears the largest and most now the private property of Queen Victoria. It beautiful of bivalve shells.
was the residence of the Duke of Albany after his CLAMATORES, a group of birds now restricted | marriage and until his death. to the Gallina. The name refers to their crowing CLAREMONT, a manufacturing town of Sullior clamoring, which is well illustrated by domestic van County, southwestern New Hampshire, 48 fowls. The simple singing apparatus, or syrinx, is miles N. W. of Concord. There are cotton, woolen the chief distinguishing anatomical feature. and paper mills; also a water-wheel manufactory
CLAN-NA-GAEL, THE. See Home Rule, in | The town has a large library and a high school. these Supplements.
Population 1890, 5,565. CLANWILLIAM, a division of the western CLARENCE, an English ducal title, first conprovinces, north of Cape Town, South Africa, ferred, in 1362, on Lionel, second son of Edward III embracing within its area the rich valley of Oli- and Phillippa. (See York, Vol. XXIV, p. 752; fant River West, with a large stretch of mountain EDWARD IV, Vol. VII, p. 685.) This was also and “karroo on each side. Chief village, Clan
the title of Albert Victor, the eldest son of the william, on Jan Dissels River.
Prince of Wales, and therefore heir presumptive CLAP, THOMAS, an American Congregational to the British throne, who was born Jan. 8, 1864, minister; born in Scituate, Massachusetts, June and died Jan. 14, 1892, upon the eve of his con26, 1703, graduated at Harvard in 1722, and templated marriage with Princess Victoria Mary preached at Windham, Massachusetts, from 1726 of Teck, who was subsequently married to the to 1739. In the latter year he was appointed Duke's younger brother, George Frederick, Duke president of Yale College. His learning and other of York, July 6, 1893. qualities eminently fitted him for the position. CLARENCEUX OR CLARENCIEUX, the He made important improvements in its various first of the two provincial kings-of-arms in Eng. departments; he drew up a new code of laws, land; formerly called Surrey or southern king, which were adopted by the trustees, and a new because his jurisdiction extended over all the charter, which was granted by the legislature; but country south of the Trent; Norroy being the his religious views led to his resignation in 1765, name of the northern king, whose jurisdiction was and he died in New Haven, Connecticut, Jan. 7, over the country to the north of that river.
The 1767. He was the author of The Nature and name of Surrey was changed by Henry V to Foundation of Moral Virtue and Obligation (1765); Clarencieux, in honor of the Duke of Clarence, History of Yale College (1766); etc.—THOMAS CLAP, third son of Edward III. Henry V also instihis great-grandfather, came to New England in tuted a new king-at-arms called Garter, who was 1630, and settled in Scituate, Massachusetts, in made principal king-of-arms, with the two former 1640.
under him. The duties of Clarencieux are to CLAQUE (Fr. claquer, "to clap the hands," or survey the coats of arms within his province, to "applaud"), the name given, in France, to an insti- register descents and marriages, and to marshal tution designed to secure the success of a public funerals not under the direction of his superior. performance or production, by bestowing upon
CLARENDON, a town and the capital of Monit preconcerted applause, thus giving the impres- roe County, western central Arkansas, on the sion that it is favorably received. The claque is Cache River, two miles above its junction with of great antiquity, but first became a regularly the White, on the Arkansas Midland and the organized and paid body during the time of Na- St. Louis, South-Western railroads, 55 miles E. of poleon III, in the famous struggle between Malle. Little Rock. Its industries are the manufacture Georges and Malle. Duchesnois at the Théâtre of lumber and cotton products. Population 1890, Français. The performances of the claqueurs are 1,030.
CLARENDON, a small town of Rutland County, fluid from a turpid condition.
Natural waters southwestern Vermont, on the Otter Creek, and containing much organic matter are clarified by on the Bennington and Rutland railroad, seven the addition of a little alum, which is precipitated miles S. of Rutland; much visited by invalids, on with the organic matter, and the water then beaccount of its mineral springs, the waters of which comes healthful and refreshing. An addition of are efficacious in skin diseases and kidney com- cold water to hot coffee, etc., causes a deposit to plaints. Permanent population, 100.
be thrown down, which clears the solution. CLARENDON, CONSTITUTIONS OF, a series of CLARINDA, a city and the capital of Page ordinances, sixteen in number, made by a council County, southwestern Iowa, on the Nodaway of the nobility and prelates held at the hunting River, on the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy lodge of Clarendon in 1164, whereby King Henry and the Humiston and Shenandoah railroads, 62 II checked the power of the church, and greatly miles S. E. of Council Bluffs; has a woolen factory narrowed the total exemption which the clergy and a four-mill. Population 1890, 3, 262. had claimed from the jurisdiction of the secular CLARINET OR CLARIONET. See OBOE, Vol. courts. They defined the limit of the patron-XVII, p. 708. age as well as of the jurisdiction of the pope in CLARION, a city and the capital of Wright England, and provided that the crown should be County, northern central Iowa, on the Burlingentitled to interfere in the election to all vacant ton, Cedar Rapids and Northern and the Mason offices and dignities in the church. See ENG- City and Fort Dodge railroads. Wheat, corn, LAND, Vol. VIII, p. 372; Henry II, Vol. XI, p. 657. oats and hay are raised in the vicinity. Popula.
CLARENDON PRESS, publishing branch of tion, 1,360. the University Press, Oxford, England. In 1672, CLARION, capital of Clarion County, central before the act of 15 George III, chap. 53, which western Pennsylvania, on the Clarion River, and gave universities a perpetual copyright of the works on a branch of the Pittsburg and Western railpublished at their presses, Clarendon's History of road. The village is in the oil region, and the the Rebellion was issued by the university, the copy- prosperity of the place is much increased thereby. right of the work being confirmed to the Univer- Clarion Seminary is here. Population 1890, 2, 164. sity by the act. From the proceeds of the first CLARK, ABRAHAM, one of the signers of the edition of this work the university erected the Declaration of Independence; born in ElizabethClarendon Building, which is used by the Clar- town, New Jersey, Feb. 15, 1726; died in Rahendon Press as a publishing department. The
way, Sept. 15, 1794. By profession he was a surissue of Bibles is undertaken by the University veyor and conveyancer and earned the title of Press. See also OXFORD, Vol. XVIII, p. 96. poor man's counselor." He was elected to the
CLARETIE, JULES, whose real name Continental Congress, serving from 1776 to 1783, ARSÈNE ARNAUD, a French author, born at Limo with the exception of 1779, and he had a place in ges, Dec. 3, 1840; while a schoolboy in Paris, he the New Jersey legislature from 1782 to 1787, published a novel and became a contributor to and from 1787 to 1788 was again in the Continenthe journals. His short story, Pierrille (1863), tal Congress. Mr. Clark had been called the was praised by George Sand, and the novels “ Father of the Paper Currency.” From 1791 till Mademoiselle Cachemire (1865) and Un Assassin, his death he held a seat in the United States Conrenamed later Robert Burat (1866), were at once gress. popular. He became one of the most important CLARK, ALONZO, an American physician; art and dramatic critics and political writers on born at Chester, Massachusetts, March 1, 1807; the Paris press. During the Franco-German war was graduated at Williams College in arts (1823), he acquired the materials for a series of bright and took his medical degree at the College of and vigorous anti-German books of a historical Physicians and Surgeons in New York (1835), character, comprising Histoire de la Révolution de where he became professor of physiology and 1870–71 (new ed., 5 vols. 1875-76); Les Prussiens pathology (1848), which he held until 1855, in chez eux (1872); and Cinq Ans Après; l'Alsace et la which year the chair was reconstituted to emLorraine. Depuis l'Annexion (1876). He distin- brace pathology and practical medicine, Clark guished himself by his conduct during the siege holding this chair until 1885. He was dean of of Paris. His more important later novels are the faculty of the college from 1875 to 1885, and Madeleine Bertin (1868); Le Train 17 (1877); Mon was president of the New York State Medical Sosieur le Ministre (1881); and Le Prince Zilah (1884); ciety. Died in New York City, Sept. 13, 1887. Puyjoli (1890); La Cigarette (1890); etc. He gained CLARK, ALVAN, an American optician; born a firm footing on the stage through his pictures of in Ashfield, Massachusetts, March 8, 1804; he the Revolution : Les Muscadins (1874); Le Régi- was a farmer's son, and became an engraver for ment de Champagne (1877); and Les Mirabeau calico printworks (1827–36), then a portrait(1878); and Petit Jacques (1885). In 1885 he suc- painter, and from 1845 a manufacturer of teleceeded M. Perin as director of the Théâtre Fran- scopes. He was the first in America to make large çais. An English translation of his Life of achromatic lenses. He and his sons associated Camille Desmoulins was published in 1876. He is
He is themselves in this particular business, their first a member of the French Academy (1888), and was great order being received from the University of promoted to officer of the Legion of Honor (1886). Mississippi for an 18-inch object-glass, which, how
CLARIFICATION, the process of clearing a ever, went to Chicago. The next glass, 26 inches,
was made for the Naval Observatory at Wash- assembly five years, served in the United States ington, and was begun in 1870. In 1879 they re- Senate from 1857 to 1866, and afterward held
ceived an order from other government offices. The resolution exRussia for a 30-inch glass pelling from the Senate the Southern Senators for the Imperial Observa- who had left their seats on the secession of their tory at Pulkova. In 1881 states was offered by Senator Clark in 1861. they made the 26-inch President Johnson appointed him United States glass for the University judge for the New Hampshire district. He died of Virginia. Then came
in 1891. the order for the Lick CLARK, FRANCIS EDWARD, an American churchObservatory in Califor- man; born at Aylmer, Quebec, Sept. 12, 1851; nia, a 36-inch object graduated from Dartmouth in 1873, and after a glass, commenced in 1886. theological course at Andover became pastor of Alvan Clark died in Cam- the Williston Congregational Church, Portland, bridge, Massachusetts, Maine. While pastor of this church he conceived
Aug. 19, 1887.—His son, and organized among the young attendants a soALVAN CLARK,
GEORGE BASSETT (1827-ciety which was in fact the first Christian En91), at the age of 17 became interested in reflect- | deavor Society (Feb. 2, 1881). After a period of ing-telescopes. He attempted to make a specu- four years in charge of a church in South Boston, lum five inches in diameter, making his own he accepted the presidency of the United Society casting, doing his own grinding, etc., until he of Christian Endeavor and the editorship of the so interested his father that the two worked | Golden Rule, the society's official journal (1887). together and succeeded in eliminating the chro- CLARK, GEORGE ROGERS, an American genmatic and spherical aberrations and perfecting eral; born in Albemarle County, Virginia, Nov. a working reflecting-telescope. It was to the 19, 1752; died in Locust Grove, near Louisville, aptitude of young George that the house of Alvan Kentucky, Feb. 13, 1818. He began life as a landClark and Sons owes its origin and much of its surveyor and commanded a company of militia success. He became the mechanician of the firm, in Lord Dunmore's war with the Indians. In and to him fell the task of contriving and experi-1772 he visited Kentucky and commanded a force menting, of designing the models and of bringing of armed settlers there. In 1776 he returned to to exactitude the essential optical parts of the Kentucky and called an assembly of people at great instruments produced by the house. -A Harrodsburg, June 6, 1776, when Clark and Gasecond son, ALVAN GRAHAM, astronomer; born briel Jones were elected to the Virginia assembly. at Fall River, Massachusetts, July 10, 1832; | Although not admitted to the legislature, these discovered double stars, was a member of the delegates were received by Patrick Henry and expeditions which went to Spain to observe the secured the formation of Kentucky. Military total eclipse of 1870, and to Wyoming eight years posts belonging to the British were frequently later. He received, in 1862, the gold medal from the source of Indian hostilities, and in December, the Academy of Sciences of France for his dis- 1777, Major Clark attacked the fort at Kaskascovery of the companion star of Sirius. Mr. kia, which he captured on July 4, 1778; later he Clark has invented several improvements in tele- took that of Vincennes. scopes. In 1894 he completed the 40-inch glass In December, 1780, he went to Richmond to for the University of Chicago, the telescope which obtain approval from the authorities for his plans cost $500,000, being located at the Yerkes Obser- for the capture of Detroit, and while there took vatory, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.
a command under Baron Steuben to defend VirCLARK, SIR ANDREW, Scottish physician; ginia against an invasion by a British force under born at Aberdeen, Oct. 28, 1826, and educated at Benedict Arnold. In 1781 Clark became brigaAberdeen and Edinburgh. After an exception- dier-general. In 1782 he gathered a large force ally brilliant career as a student of medicine in and marched against Indian towns on the Miami the latter city, he became assistant to Dr. Hughes and Scioto, five of which were destroyed. He Bennet and Dr. Robert Knox, the anatomist, and participated in an unsuccessful expedition against afterward had charge for four years of the patho- | the Indians on the Wabash in 1786, and about logical department of the Haslar Naval Hospital. 1794 he accepted a commission as major-general He subsequently settled in London, where he in the French army to conduct an expedition soon acquired a high reputation. He was presi- against the Spanish possessions on the Mississippi, dent of the Royal College of Physicians, and con- but when Genet, the French minister to the sulting physician to the London Hospital. Dr. United States, who gave him the commission, Clark was the author of numerous essays, lectures was recalled, this was annulled. All of the fertile and reviews, and was well known as Mr. Glad- region northwest of the Ohio River was wrested stone's medical attendant. He was created a from the British by the valor of this soldier, yet baronet in 1883, and died Nov. 7, 1893.
he died in poverty. The state of Virginia sent CLARK, DANIEL, an American Senator; born him a sword after he became old and poor, but at Stratham, Rockingham County, New Hamp- he broke it in pieces, exclaiming, “When Virshire, Oct. 24, 1809. He graduated at Dart-ginia needed a sword I gave her one. She sends mouth in 1834, studied law, was a member of the
toy. I want bread!"
CLARK, HENRY JAMES, an American naturalist; graph wires, in which he was the first to discover born at Easton, Massachusetts, June 22, 1826; was the fact that currents of low tension travel as graduated at the University of New York in 1848 fast as high-tension currents. In 1859 he be and at the Lawrence Scientific School in 1854, came engineer to the Atlantic Cable Company, where he was adjunct professor of zoology from and the following year was a member of the 1860 to 1863, and afterward held professorships Royal Commission on Submarine Telegraph of zoölogy, natural science and veterinary sci- Cables. In 1861, in a paper read before the ence in different colleges. He contributed to British Association, he suggested the now familthe Smithsonian reports, to the journals of scien- iar names, ohm, farad and volt as electrical units. tific societies, and published A Claim for Scientific | In 1875 he was elected the fourth president of the Property (1863); Mind in Nature; or, The Origin Society of Electrical Engineers, and in his adof Life and the Mode of Development in Animals dress traced the development of the idea or germ (1865); Lucernaria and Their Allies (1878). that gave rise to the electric telegraph, and
CLARK, HORACE FRANCIS, an American rail- showed that in 1758 a Scotchman named Marroad magnate; born in Southbury, Connecticut, shal, or Morrison, of Paisley, had published a Nov. 29, 1815; died in New York City, June 19, clear description of a practicable electric tele1873. After graduating at Williams in 1833, Mr. graph. Clark originated what is known as "Clark's Clark became a lawyer, and won the reputation Standard Cell," and has superintended the subof being the hardest worker in the profession in mergence of over fifty thousand miles of cable New York City. He was twice elected to Con- in different parts of the world. Among his gress (1856-61) on the Democratic ticket. In works are An Elementary Treatise on Electrical 1857 he became connected with the New York Measurement, for the Use of Telegraph Inspecand Harlem railroad as director, and afterward tors, a work that was translated into various lanwas president or director of a number of import- guages (1868); Electrical Tables and Formula for ant roads. He was a manager of the Western Operators in Submarine Cables, in conjunction Union Telegraph Company; president of the with Robert Sabine (1871). His numerous papers, New York Union Trust Company; a successful read before scientific societies, are valuable. He operator in Wall Street; and was, one of the citi- was made chevalier of the Legion of Honor. zens who, in 1871, broke the power of the Tweed CLARK, THOMAS MARCH, Protestant Episcopal ring. Commodore Vanderbilt was the father- bishop; born at Newburyport, Massachusetts, July in-law of Mr. Clark.
4,1812. He graduated at CLARK, JONAS, an American patriot clergyman; Yale in 1831, studied theborn in Newton, Massachusetts, Dec. 25, 1730; ology at Princeton, and died in Lexington, Massachusetts, Nov. 15, 1805. became a Presbyterian After graduating at Harvard, in 1752, he became pastor in his native town. pastor of a church in Lexington, where he spent | Afterward he became his life. Edward Everett said of Mr. Clark that he an Episcopal clergyman, "rendered services second to no other in enlight-held rectorates in Philaening and animating the popular mind on the great delphia, Hartford, and question at issue in Revolutionary times." John
In Hancock and Samuel Adams were at the house 1854 he was consecrated of Mr. Clark on the night of April 18, 1775, second bishop of Rhode when Paul Revere took his famous ride and Island. He published serwarned them, among others, of the danger at mons and addresses, and hand. These two men asked Mr. Clark if his wrote Lectures to Young people would fight. “I have trained them for Men on the Formation of this very hour; they would fight, and if need be Character; The Efficient Sunday-School Teacher; die too, under the shadow of the house of God," and Primary Truths of Religion. he replied. The first blood of the Revolution CLARK, WILLIAM Smith, educator;born in Ashwas shed near his house, April 19, 1775, and field, Massachusetts, July 31, 1826; died in Amwhen he saw the dead heroes he exclaimed, herst, March 9, 1886. He graduated at Amherst, “From this day will be dated the liberty of the and afterward held professorships of chemistry and world!"
botany in that college. He served during the war CLARK, LATIMER, an English electrical engi- of 1861-65, and two years after its close he became neer; born at Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire, president of the Agricultural College of MassaMarch 10, 1822, and at the age of 25 commenced chusetts. In 1876 he went to Japan, pursuing borailway engineering with his brother Edwin, in tanical studies and introducing into the United connection with the construction of the Britannia States new shade-trees and seeds of foreign plants, tubular bridge over the Menai Strait, afterward which proved of value. He was twice elected to publishing a work thereon, entitled A Description the state legislature. As an author Professor of the Britannia and Conway Tubular Bridges. He Clark contributed many papers on botany and became engineer-in-chief and consulting-engineer | chemistry. to the Electric Telegraph Company, which position CLARKE, SIR ANDREW, an English military he held until 1870. In 1853 he made exhaustive engineer; born at Southsea in 1824; educated at researches on the subject of underground tele- | the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; entered
C TOR at E
and I CL
He h stru a
the Royal Engineers in 1844, and became lieuten- Weights, Measures and Money of all Nations (1875);
1875. His works include an oratorio, Jerusalem,
India, In 1868 he founded the Council of Foreign CLARKE, CHARLES BARON, an English scien- Bondholders, whose affairs he administered for tist; born at Andover, Hampshire, June 17, 1832; some years, and he did much to promote the educated at Trinity and Queen's colleges, Cam- Anthropological Institute and the Press Fund.
, bridge where he was graduated B.A. in 1856. He His works treat of mythology and comparative was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1858; was philology, especially on the native American lanelected fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge, in guages and their supposed connection with those of 1857, and was mathematical lecturer there from the Old World, among them being The Pre-Hellenic 1858 to 1865; entered the Bengal educational ser- Inhabitants of Asia Minor (1864); The Meditervice in 1866, and became superannuated in 1887. ranean Populations from Autonomous Coins (1882). His works include Speculations from Political Econ- CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN, an American clergyomy (1886) and Class-Book of Geography (1889). man; born at Hanover, New Hampshire, April 4, He is a fellow of the Royal and other societies, 1810. He was a grandson and gained repute for his studies in botany. of the Rev. James Free
CLARKE, CHARLES COWDEN, AND MARY VIC- man, pastor of King's TORIA COWDEN, English authors. Charles was born Chapel, Boston, who inat Enfield, Middlesex, Dec. 15,1787, and early im- troduced Unitarianism bibed a passion for the theater. After his father's into his congregation. death in 1820, he became a bookseller in London, After graduation at Harand soon afterward partner as music publisher with vard in
at Alfred Novello, whose sister (born 1809) he mar- the Cambridge Divinity ried in July, 1828. The next year Mrs. Cowden School in 1833, he became Clarke began her monumental task, the Concord- pastor of the Unitarian ance to Shakespeare's Plays, published, after sixteen Church in Louisville, JAMES FREEMAN CLARKE. years' toil, in 1845. In 1834 Clarke began a twenty Kentucky, serving from 1833 till 1840. From years' course of public lectures on Shakespeare 1836 till 1839 he was also editor of the Western and other dramatists and poets, which brought Messenger, published in Louisville. Returning to him much celebrity and profit. In 1859 he pub- Boston he founded, in 1841, the Church of the Dislished Carmina Minora, a volume of original verse, ciples, of which he was the pastor until 1886. and in 1863 he edited the poems of George Her- | This became one of the leading religious institubert. The joint productions of the pair were an tions of Boston, and its service-book includes reedition of Shakespeare's works, with annotations sponses from the congregation, as in the English (1869), Recollections of Writers (1878), and the valu- service, and extemporaneous and silent prayer. able Shakespeare Key (1879). In 1856 they went From 1867 till 1871 he was professor of natural reto live at Nice, but removed in 1861 to Genoa, ligion and Christian doctrine in Harvard, and in where the husband died, March 13, 1877. Mrs. 1876–77, lecturer there on ethnic religions. He Clarke alone wrote several novels, volumes of was an overseer of Harvard, a member of the verse and other works. Of these the best known state board of education, and a trustee of the are the Girlhood of Shakespeare's Heroines (1850) Boston Public Library.
Boston Public Library. With William H. Chanand World-Noted Women (1857).
ning and Ralph Waldo Emerson he prepared the CLARKE, FRANK WIGGLESWORTH, an American Memoirs of Margaret Fuller d'Ossoli (1852). A chemist; born at Boston, Massachusetts, March large number of works were published by him, 19, 1847; was graduated at the Lawrence Scien- and include the following: The Doctrine of Christific School of Harvard in 1867; was professor of tianity (1844), The Doctrine of Atonement (1845); chemistry and physics in Howard University, Eleven Weeks in Europe (1852); Christian Doctrine Washington, District of Columbia (1873–74), in the of Forgiveness of Sin (1874); Orthodoxy: Its Truths University of Cincinnati (1874-83), and then and Errors (1866); Self-Culture (1872); Every-day chemist to the United States Geological Survey. Religion; and Vexed Questions (1886). He died at He has published Specific Gravity Tables (1873); Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, June 8, 1888,