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CLARKE, JOHN, an American physician; born HEAD RIVER, a stream which drains a part of in Suffolk, England, Oct. 8, 1609; died in New- Montana, Idaho and Washington. It rises in the port, Rhode Island, April 20, 1676. He emi- Rocky Mountains, in western Montana, Aows grated to Boston in 1637, and, desiring more southward through Flathead Lake, and for thirty religious freedom than the colony afforded, he miles farther, then turns northwest through settled with others in Rhode Island, then called Lake Pend d'Oreille, and finally reaches the Aquidneck, in 1638. From 1651 to 1664 he was Columbia River. Gold is found near its source. in England, acting as agent for the colony, and CLARKSBURG, a town and the capital of secured from Charles II the charter which Harrison County, northern central West Virginia; insured civil and religious liberty for Rhode situated at the place where the Elk and West Island. He is supposed to have drawn up the Fork rivers unite with the Monongahela, on the code of laws which governed the colony. For Baltimore and Ohio and the West Virginia and several terms he was elected to the general | Pittsburg railroads. It has four, woolen and assembly, and it is said that he was the first to saw mills, electric lights, gas and water works, show, “in an actual government, that the best two academies, fine public buildings, and in the safeguard of personal right is Christian law." vicinity of the town coke and coal are found. He has been called the “Father of Rhode Island," Population 1890, 3,008. and also the “Father of American Baptists.
CLARKSON, THADDEUS STEVENS, an AmeriCLARKE, JOHN SLEEPER, comedian; born in can soldier, was born at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Baltimore, Maryland, 1835; studied for the bar, in 1840. He enlisted April 16, 1861, within two but abandoned it and went upon the stage in his hours after the appearance of President Lincoln's native city and began his regular theatrical call for seventy-five thousand men for three career in 1852 in Philadelphia, and was speedily months, in Company A, First Illinois Artillery. recognized as the best exponent of low comedy He went to Cairo, served under General Grant then on the boards. He starred the country for there; re-enlisted for the war, July 16, 1861; was years, owned and managed theaters in Phila- promoted Dec. 1, 1861, to adjutant of the Thirdelphia and in Boston, and from 1867 to 1870, teenth Illinois Cavalry; served with that regi. played in London at the St. James and Princessment, on the staff of General John W. Davidson, theaters, and in other English cities, with great and participated in the battles with that comsuccess. His Doctor Ollapod; Toodles; Doctor mander on the march to Helena and Little Rock, Pangloss; and Major Wellington de Boots, are Arkansas. He was assigned to the command of among his leading creations.
the regiment during the Arkansas campaign. In CLARKE, MCDONALD, the “Mad Poet,” born August, 1863, he assisted in raising the Third in Bath, Maine, June 18, 1798; died in New York Arkansas Cavalry, composed of Union white City, March 5, 1842. He was an eccentric char- men of that state; was promoted to the rank of acter, about whose life little was known until he major, and commanded the regiment until nearly came to New York City in 1819. He was the the close of the war, participating in nearly all of author of the oft-quoted lines,
the battles in Arkansas, under General Steele.
He came to Nebraska, settling in Omaha, with
his brother, the late Bishop Clarkson, in March,
1866, and lived in the state for thirty years. He Among his publications were the following was postmaster of Omaha under President Harribooks: A Review of the Eve of Eternity, and Other son's administration. Major Clarkson was on the Poems (1820); The Elixir of Moonshine, by the executive committee of the National Council of Mad Poet (1822); The Belles of Broadway (1836); | Administration, Grand Army of the Republic, for and A Cross and a Coronet (1841).
three consecutive years; was elected department CLARKE, MARY VICTORIA COWDEN. See commander of Nebraska by acclamation at the CLARKE, CHARLES Cowden, in these Supplements. encampment in February, 1890. He was also
CLARKE, REBECCA SOPHIA, authoress; born in commander of the Loyal Legion of Nebraska. He Norridgewock, Maine, Feb. 22, 1833. She has
was elected commander-in-chief of the Grand written stories for young people; among her best | Army of the Republic at the annual encampment are Little Prudy Stories (1864); Dotty Dimple at Minneapolis on Sept. 4, 1896. Stories (1868); Flaxie Frizzle Stories (1876–84); CLARK'S STANDARD CELL.
See ELECand Quinnebasset Girls (1877). Her pen-name is TRICITY, $ 107, in these Supplements. “Sophie May."
CLARKSVILLE, a city and the capital of MontCLARKE, SAMUEL FESSENDEN, an American gomery County, northern Tennessee, 50 miles naturalist; born at Geneva, Illinois, June 4, 1851; N.W. of Nashville, on the Cumberland River, and was graduated at the Sheffield Scientific School on the Louisville and Nashville railroad. Toof Yale in 1878; was assistant to the United bacco is manufactured in large quantities. Iron. States Fish Commission in 1874; assistant in the mines are near the town. It is the seat of the Johns Hopkins biological laboratory, 1879-81; Southwestern Presbyterian University. Populaprofessor of natural science in Williams College tion 1890, 7,924. (1882); and has published a work, The Develop- CLARKSVILLE, the oldest town of northern ment of a Double-Headed Vertebrate (1880).
Texas and the capital of Red River County, in CLARK'S FORK OF THE COLUMBIA ÓR FLAT- | the northeastern part of the state, on the Texas
and Pacific railroad. It has schools and churches, *CLASSIFICATION (of plants), usually styled and is the center of a fertile region. Population Taxonomy. The current classifications of plants 1890, 1,588.
have been the natural development of all previCLARK UNIVERSITY, a non-sectarian insti- ous schemes of classification. The earliest obtution of learning, founded by Jonas C. Clark, servers were impressed with the necessity of in 1887, at Worcester, Massachusetts. The pur- reducing plants to some orderly arrangement, pose of the university is to give the best post- and this phase of botany became so impressed graduate instruction in a limited number of upon the science that until very recent times it subjects, mostly scientific, no undergraduates was little more than a science of classification. being admitted. The courses offered are in In this form it appealed to the collector spirit, and mathematics, physics, chemistry, physiology, hence became a very popular pursuit. The morphology, anatomy, neurology, psychology, earliest classifications were necessarily based anthropology and pedagogy, each course being upon the most superficial observations, and nuunder the supervision of a chief instructor. Ex- merous “ artificial systems” became current,
culminating in the famous one devised by Linnæus. These systems were “artificial,” in that they selected some one character as a basis, which would usually result in bringing an aggregation of plants together that held no real relationship to each other, just as the words in a dictionary are arranged in alphabetical sequence, resulting in bringing into juxtaposition words of most diverse origin. The dogma of the permanency of species lent itself kindly to these artificial arrangements; and if the determination of the name of a plant were the end of classification, artificial schemes would never fall into disuse, as they are far easier of manipulation than any natural scheme. Many of the earlier botanists were fully conscious of the fact that a natural scheme must ultimately replace the artificial ones, but
they were entirely cut off from any attempt at its aminations are few, and as much liberty is given construction by lack of knowledge. It was only to the students as possible, the purpose of the after the idea of evolution had become a domiinstitution being to give opportunity for original nant one, and morphological investigation had and individual research under the direction of the yielded a large amount of data, that any attempt instructors. The faculty offers 30 scholarships, could be made to arrange plants according to valued from $200 to $600 each, in addition to a their genetic relationships. Botanists had been number of docentships, open to the more advanced writing of “families” of plants, but not at all students, the holders of which are expected to do implying “blood relationship” by the name. some teaching, while giving most of their time to Natural systems of classification have been rapresearch. There are at present three buildings, idly multiplying ever since the first attempt, and one of which, the central building, has go rooms; rightly so, for continuous morphological investianother, the chemistry building, 68 rooms. There gation is ever adding new facts, which demand a are 16,000 volumes in the library. G. Stanley shifting of the old lines. Any scheme of classiHall is the president.
fication is simply an expression of current knowlCLARY (Salvia sclarea), a plant of the same edge concerning relationship, and as knowledge genus with sage, a native of the south of Europe. increases, classifications must change. It is reaIts flowers are used for making a fermented wine, sonably safe to assume, however, that most of the esteemed for its flavor.
large lines have been permanently drawn, and CLASSICS OR CLASSICAL LEARNING. that subsequent shiftings will be concerned with The term classici was originally applied to those details. citizens of Rome that belonged to the first and It would not be profitable to give a complete most influential of the six classes into which Ser- account of systems of classification, but a few vius Tullius divided the population. As early as
prominent ones will serve to illustrate the subthe second century after Christ it was applied ject. Probably the first system proposed that is figuratively to writers of the highest rank, and worthy of scientific attention is that of John Ray, this mode of designation has since been generally published in 1703. His grouping is as follows: adopted both in literature and art.
As the great
1. Herbs. productions of writers and artists of antiquity
a. Flowerless plants. have continued to be looked upon by moderns as b. Flowering plants. models of perfection, the word classics has come
(1) Dicotyledons. to designate, in a narrower sense, the best writers
2. Trees. of Greece and Rome. See ITALY, Vol. XIII, p.
a. Monocotyledons. 506.
b. Dicotyledons. * Copyright, 1897, by The Werner Company.
In this scheme, the primary division into herbs were disposed of in a lump, with some negative and trees is a relic of the older classifications, statement. and is essentially artificial. The grouping, also, Although presenting no scheme of classificaof the “flowerless plants" under herbs was tion, the name of Robert Brown cannot be simply a shelving of that great assemblage of omitted, as in 1827 he published his demonstralower forms about which very little was known. tion of the nature of Gymnosperms, and showed The notable feature of the scheme, however, is that they could not be longer associated with its recognition for the first time of the funda- | Dicotyledons, though with wonderful persistence mental distinction between Dicotyledons and this obsolete association continues in manuals Monocotyledons.
still current. The system of Linnæus, dating from 1733, was Endlicher, in 1836-40, proposed the following even more confessedly artificial, but at once scheme, which contains several new points: became so popular that it continued in use for 1. Thallophytes. more than a century. It was based upon the
a. Protophytes (algæ and lichens).
b. Hysterophytes (fungi). number, relative position and union of the sta
2. Cormophytes. mens with regard to each other and to the pistil. a. Acrobrya (mosses, ferns, etc.). The names of his 24 groups are self-explanatory b. Amphibrya (monocotyledons). to any one familiar with botanical terminology, c. Acramphibrya (gymnosperms and dicotyledons). and are as follows: (1) Monandria, (2) Diandria, Although somewhat fantastic in his group dis(3) Triandria, (4) Tetrandria, (5) Pentandria, (6) tinctions of Cormophytes, the scheme is notable Hexandria, (7) Heptandria, (8) Octandria, lo for its attempt to incorporate the Cryptogams. Euneandria, (10) Decandria, (11) Dodecandria, It is in Brongniart's classification of 1843 that (12) Icosandria, (13) Polyandria, (14) Didynamia, the familiar grouping into Cryptogams and (15) Tetradynamia, (16) Monadelphia, (17) Dia Phanerogams appears, as follows: delphia, (18) Polyadelphia, (19) Syngenesia, (20)
1. Cryptogams. Gynandria, (21) Monæcia, (22) Diccia, (23)
a. Amphigenæ (algæ and fungi).
b. Acrogenæ (mosses and ferns). Polygamia, (24) Cryptogamia.
2. Phanerogams. Such a scheme enabled the student of botany a. Monocotyledons. to determine rapidly the name of a plant, but it
(1) Angiosperms. taught him nothing of its relationships.
(2) Gymnosperms The classification proposed by Antoine de Jussieu, bearing the date 1789, is probably the first English-speaking botanists than any other, as it
This classification is probably more familiar to that deserves to rank as a natural scheme. It is
has ever since been current in their manuals. as follows:
With the exception of the disposition of the 1. Acotyledons (Cryptogams in general).
Gymnosperms, it well indicates the larger group2. Monocotyledons. a. Flowers hypogynous.
ings as accepted to-day. b. Flowers perigynous.
Alexander Braun, in 1864, proposed the followc. Flowers epigynous.
ing arrangement, in which more of the terminol3. Dicotyledons. Flowers hypogynous.
ogy of to-day appears, and which properly places a. Apetalæ. Flowers perigynous.
the Gymnosperms: Flowers epigynous.
1. Bryophytes (algæ, fungi, mosses). Flowers hypogynous.
2. Cormophytes (ferns, equisetums, lycopods). b. Monopetalæ. Flowers perigynous.
3. Anthophytes. Flowers epigynous.
a. Gymnosperms. Flowers hypogynous.
b. Angiosperms. c. Polypetalæ. Flowers perigynous.
(1) Monocotyledons. Flowers epigynous.
(2) Dicotyledons. d. Diclines irregulares.
It was due to the researches of W. Hofmeister De Jussieu is certainly to be commended for (1849-51) that the real relation between his recognition of the fundamental character in "Cryptogams" and "Phanerogams " was estabany natural system of the hypogynous, perigy- lished, and systems of classification began to be nous, and epigynous conditions.
arranged upon a more scientific basis. Among The classification proposed by De Candolle in these more modern systems but three need to be 1819 is as follows:
mentioned, the last of which represents the most 1. Vascular plants.
recent complete statement. a. Exogens.
The classification proposed by Sachs, and made
familiar to American students by Bessey, is as
3. Pteridophytes. (2) Monochlamydeæ.
a. Equisetineæ. b. Endogens.
b. Filicineæ. (1) Phanerogams.
c. Lycopodineæ. (2) Cryptogams.
d. Carpophytes. 4. Phanerogams. 2. Cellular plants.
a. Gymnosperms. It will be noted that up to this time no'attempt
b. Angiosperms. b. Musci.
(1) Monocotyledons. was made to characterize the Cryptogams.
The special feature of the scheme is the pri- | 4. Spermatophytes: Alternation of generations indistinct mary grouping of Thallophytes, which is based through great reduction of the gametophyte and
consequent development of the structure known upon reproductive characters, instead of the pres
as the “ seed.” ence or absence of chlorophyll.
a. Gymnosperms (cycads, conifers and gnetums). The Eichler system of 1883 follows the same
b. Angiosperms. general lines, except that the Thallophytes are
(2) Dicotyledons. primarily divided into Algæ and Fungi.
(a) Archichlamydeæ. The system of Engler, outlined in 1892, is just
(b) Sympetalæ. now appearing in detailed statement in the great
JOHN M. COULTER. work, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. As in all CLASSIS, a court in some of the reformed of the more modern arrangements, its peculiar churches of Holland and America, composed of features are to be found in the grouping of the the ministers and ruling elders, and ranking beThallophytes, concerning whose proper arrange- tween the consistory and the synod, and exercisment there is the greatest diversity of opinion. ing functions analogous to those of presbyteries Even the primary divisions of plants are some- in the Presbyterian Church. Appeals are made what modified as follows:
from consistories to classis, and from the latter 1. Myxothallophyta (the slime-molds).
to synods. This court ordains, confirms and 2. Euthallophyta (the real Thallophytes).
deposes ministers, and can dissolve ministerial 3. Embryophyta zoidiogama (including the Bryophytes connections; it sends two ministers and two dele
and Pteridophytes, and named from their possession
gates to the synod, and three ministers and three "Archegoniates" is often applied, referring to the
elders to the general synod. characteristic female sex-organ, the archegonium).
CLASTIC ROCKS are those composed of frag4 Embryophyta siphonogama (referring to the developmental materials. The term includes all rocks of
ment of a pollen-tube. The group otherwise known
a secondary or derivative origin, as conglomerate,
sandstone, shale, etc., which have been formed Engler's larger grouping of his Euthallophytes out of the remains of previously existing rocks. is as follows: (1) Schizophyta, (2) Dinoflagel. Besides the large class of sand and gravel rocks, lata, (3) Bacillariales, (4) Gamophyceæ (includ- it also embraces many rocks of organic origin, ing the green, brown and red algæ), (5) Fungi. such as certain limestones, composed of the
The changes soon to be made in grouping will débris of shells, corals, etc. ; coals made up of
the Prussian army corps, and was ultimately direcIn conclusion, the scheme of classification in tor of the army school and inspector of artillery. largest use at present, and referable to no botan- His writings prepared the way for a complete ist in particular, is as follows:
revolution in the theory of war. Of his works 1. Thallophytes: Vegetative organs (such as root, stem and
the best known is his great book on war, Vom leaf) and tissues mostly undifferentiated; alterna- Krieg (3 vols., 4th ed. 1880), and his Life of tion of generations wanting or but feebly developed; Scharnhorst. reproduction non-sexual or sexual, in the latter case
CLAUSIUS, RUDOLF JULIUS EMANUEL, a Gershowing no differentiation of sex, or a distinct differentiation into the sex-organs known as antherid
man physicist; born at Köslin, Prussia, Jan. 2, ium and oögonium.
1822; was educated at the Berlin University; bea. Algæ: Plants containing chlorophyll.
came professor at the Polytechnic Institution of b. Fungi: Plants without chlorophyll.
Zurich in 1855, at the University of Würzburg in 2. Bryophytes: Vegetative organs and tissues differenti
ated, but with no development of a vascular system: 1867, and at the University of Bonn in 1869. He
thalloid and usually dorsiventral in their kine in Britain, both these investigators proceed-
ing upon the same lines and with identical results, b. Musci (mosses): Plants with distinct axis, bearing leaves, and radial in their symmetry.
alike in the development of this theorem and in 3. Pteridophytes: A vascular system developed ; alterna- regard to the discovery of the partial condensa
tion of generations distinct, but the sporophyte tion of steam at usual temperatures and pressure bearing the vegetative organs; sexual reproduction by thermodynamic action. His best-known books as in Bryophytes.
are Die Mechanische Wärmetheorie (1876-91) and a. Filicineæ (ferns.)
Die Potentialfunktion und das Potential. b. Equisetineæ (horse-tails).
He died C. Lycopodineæ (club-mosses).
at Bonn, Aug. 24, 1888.
CASSIUS M. CLAY.
CLAUSSON, Peder, a Norwegian author; | in 1832, he heard William Lloyd Garrison speak, born April 1, 1545; died Oct. 15, 1614. See and this influenced him to become an abolitionist DENMARK, Vol. VII, p. 90; 'and NORWAY, Vol. and to free his own slaves. XVII, p. 589.
Entering the legal proCLAUSTHAL. See KLAUSTHAL, Vol. XIV, fession on his return to
Kentucky, he attained CLAVARIA, a genus of hymenomycetous fungi, prominence, and was of the family Clavariacea, in which the spore. elected, in 1835, to the bearing tissue is produced over all parts of the legislature; re-elected in surface. The species are numerous, some of them 1837 and again in 1840. simple and club-shaped, some branched, the The improvements in branches usually being thick and round. C. bo- the common schools trytis, a species common in oak and beech woods, and in the jury system of especially in Germany, is gathered when young Kentucky are due to and used as food. Other species, notably C. Mr. Clay's efforts. Mr. flava, coralloides, aurea and formosa, are used in Clay was the supporter of Henry Clay for the the same way.
Presidency, the opposer of the annexation of CLAVICLE, an important part of the pectoral Texas, and in 1845 the editor of an antislavery girdle of vertebrates, perhaps most familiarly paper, The True American, issued at Lexington, known in the collar-bone of man and in the whence he had removed; but his presses were "merry thought" of birds. It is well developed seized, and he was threatened with assassination. in those mammals in which the fore-leg or arm is He fortified and armed his premises and continued used very strongly and freely, but is poorly de- his publication, having it printed in Cincinnati, veloped or absent in many cases, as in carni- but issued from Lexington. He served and was tavores and ungulates. In most flying-birds it is ken prisoner in the Mexican War, and aided in the strong, and often fused to the breast-bone. It is election of President Taylor. He labored for the a paired bone superadded from the skin as an election of Frémont in 1856 and Lincoln in 1860. auxiliary to scapula and coracoid. Its position The following year he was sent as minister to is ventral and anterior to the coracoid, and it is Russia, but returned to America in 1862, being often associated with an interclavicle. See ANAT-made major-general of volunteers. Refusing to OMY, Vol. I, p. 826.
serve as long as slavery was recognized, Mr. Clay CLAVICORNES, a great family of coleopte- left the Union army and went again to Russia, rerous insects, of the section Pentamera. Most of maining as minister from 1863 to 1869. the beetles of this family feed on animal substance, After the war he supported the revolutionary and many of them find their appropriate food in movement in Cuba in 1870; he gave political supsubstances undergoing decay. See COLEOPTERA, port to Horace Greeley in 1872, to Samuel J. TilVol. VI, p. 131.
den in 1876, and although a Democrat, advocated CLAVIJERO, FRANCISCO XAVIER, a Mexican the election of Mr. Blaine in 1884. For killing a historian; born at Vera Cruz in 1731; entered the negro, Perry White, in 1877, Mr. Clay was tried, order of the Jesuits in 1748; became a teacher of but acquitted, the jury bringing in a verdict of rhetoric and philosophy and studied Aztec history “justifiable homicide," as the man, a discharged and language. On the suppression of the Jesuits servant, had threatened his life. In 1894, at the in Spanish America in 1767, Clavijero retired to age of 84, he married a 17-year-old ward, of poor Italy, where he died at Bologna in 1787. He wrote family, against the opposition of his sons, and in Italian a History of Mexico, an impartial and on their attempted abduction of the girl, armed valuable work, of which an English translation, by his servants, put his house in a state of siege, C. Cullen, was published in 1788. His Storia della and threatened death to any one who should inCalifornia was published posthumously.
terfere. CLAXTON, KATE. See STEVENSON, MRS. CLAY, CLEMENT CLAIBORNE, an American CHARLES A., in the Supplements.
politician; born at Huntsville, Alabama; son of CLAY, a term applied to those kinds of earth or United States Senator Clement Comer Clay. The soil which, when moist, have a notable degree of son studied law, being called to the bar in 1840; tenacity and plasticity. The clays appear to owe became a judge in 1844, and United States their origin to the decomposition of various rocks, Senator from 1854 to 1861. In the Senate he was and to consist chiefly of aluminic silicate along an extreme advocate of states' rights principles. with other ingredients, which vary in character In 1861 he entered the Confederate senate and with the nature of the parent-rock from the degra- was a Confederate secret agent in Canada in dation of which they are derived. Thus common 1864. He was alleged to have been implicated clay is a mixture of kaolin or China clay (which is in the assassination of President Lincoln, but was a hydrated clay) and the fine powder of some fel- exonerated on trial; returned to the practice of spathic mineral which is anhydrous and not de- his profession, and died near Huntsville, Jan. composed. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 424.
CLAY, CASSIUS MARCELLUS, politician, born in CLAY, HENRY, JR., an American soldier, and Madison County, Kentucky, Oct. 19, 1810. While son of the statesman of the same name; born at studying in Yale College, from which he graduated | Ashland, Kentucky, April 10, 1811, was gradu