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CLAY-CLAYTON-BULWER TREATY ated at West Point in 1831. He subsequently bour County, southeastern Alabama, on the Censtudied law, and became a member of the Ken- tral Railroad of Georgia, 75 miles S. E. of Monttucky house of representatives from 1835 to 1837. gomery. The neighborhood is a fruit and grain He took part in the war with Mexico, being growing district. Population 1890, 997. lieutenant-colonel of the Second Kentucky Volun- CLAYTON, a village of Jefferson County, teers. He was mortally wounded at Buena Vista, northwestern New York, on the Rome, Waterdying Feb. 23, 1847.

town and Ogdensburg railroad, 19 miles N.N.W. CLAY, JAMES Brown, an American statesman, of Watertown, and on the St. Lawrence River, at and a son of Henry Clay; born at Washington, the western end of the region of the Thousand District of Columbia, Nov. 9, 1817; educated at Islands. It is a summer' resort, and a place where Transylvania University, and after a residence in some boat-building is carried on. Population 1890, Missouri, studied law, and practiced with his 1,748. father until 1849, when he was appointed chargé CLAYTON, JOHN, an American botanist; born d'affaires at Lisbon. He became proprietor of at Fulham, Middlesex, England; emigrated to the Ashland upon the death of his father, and was United States in 1705, settling in Virginia, where elected to represent his native district in Congress he was clerk for Gloucester County for fifty years, in 1857. He supported the Confederate cause, and made a study of the natural history of the and died in Montreal, Jan. 26, 1864.

colony and a collection of its botany. His artiCLAY CENTER, a town and the capital of cles on the former were published by the Royal Clay County, northeastern Kansas, situated on Society of London. Linnæus and Gronovius pubthe Republican River, about 125 miles W. of lished a Flora of Virginia Exhibiting the Plants which Leavenworth, also on the Chicago, Rock Island J. Clayton has Collected (1739). Gronovius named a and Pacific and the Union Pacific railroads. It genus of herbaceous plants Claytonia in his honor. contains a variety of manufactories, and is an im- | He died Dec. 15, 1773. portant center of trade. Population 1895, 2,723. CLAYTON, JOHN MIDDLETON, an American

CLAY CROSS, a town in Derbyshire, northern jurist; born in Dagsboro, Sussex County, Delacentral England, 472 miles S. of Chesterfield, on ware, July 24, 1796; died in Dover, Delaware, the Midland railroad, the center of a coal and Nov. 9, 1856. He graduated at Yale in 1815; beiron district. Population, 6,879.

came a lawyer; was elected to the legislature in CLAYDEN, ARTHUR WILLIAM, an English sci-1824; elected to the United States Senate in 1829 entist; born at Boston, Lincolnshire, Dec. 12, 1855; and 1835; was Secretary of State under Presieducated at Christ's College, Cambridge, obtain-dent Taylor, and served in the United States ing a foundation scholarship in 1875, and gradu- Senate from 1845 to 1849, and from 1851 to 1856. ating with distinction in natural sciences in 1876. He acquired a reputation for oratory while in the In 1887 he became lecturer in London on the Senate, his best efforts being the speeches on University Extension Schemes of Cambridge and the Foote resolution, in which he discussed nulliLondon. He is a fellow of most of the scientific fication, the argument favoring the paying of societies, and has contributed important papers French spoliation claims, and his defense of the to the society journals, including On the Thick- Clayton-Bulwer treaty (q.v., in these Suppleness of Shower Clouds (1886); On a Working Model ments), and of President Taylor's administration. of the Gulf Stream, in which is described an in- CLAYTON, Powell, an American statesman; vention demonstrating the wind theory of ocean born at Bethel, Pennsylvania, Aug. 4, 1833; currents (1889); Note on Some Photographs of studied civil engineering, and was chosen engineer Lightning and of BlackElectric Sparks (1889); and surveyor of Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1859. On DarkFlashes of Lightning (1889). The two on the outbreak of the Civil War, he became latter papers showed that a phenomenon that had | lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Kansas Cavalry, long been a scientific puzzle was nothing more and in 1864 was commissioned a brigadier-general, than a form of photographic reversal.

and honorably mustered out in 1865. After the CLAY-EATERS. See AMERICA, Vol. I, p. 703; war he settled in Arkansas and was elected gov. and Geophagism, in these Supplements.

ernor in 1866. He was elected to the United CLAYMORE. See SWORD, Vol. XXII, p. 801. States Senate, and sat from 1871 until 1877.

CLAYS, PAUL JEAN, a Belgian painter; born CLAYTON-BULWER TREATY, the name of at Bruges in 1819; studied in Paris under Gudin, a treaty entered into between the United States and developed a preference for marine subjects. and Great Britain, relating to the establishment He settled in Brussels, and there received a gold of communication by means of a ship-canal bemedal in 1851.

He has exhibited at the Salon tween the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It received The Zuyder Zee, near Texel (1877); The North Sea its name from the contracting parties, Sir Henry (1876); The Thames, near London (1875); Entrance Bulwer Lytton (afterward Lord Dalling), on the to Southampton Water (1868); etc. At the Johns- part of Great Britain, and John Middleton Clayton ton sale in New York City, 1876, A Marine, Dutch (Secretary of State under Taylor), on behalf of Shipping, sold for $3,550. He received second- the United States. It was signed at Washington class medals at the Paris expositions of 1867 on April 19th, and ratifications exchanged there, and 1878, was appointed an officer of the Legion July 4, 1860. By it the contracting parties agreed of Honor and decorated with the Order of Leopold. not to erect fortifications on the banks or in the

CLAYTON, a village and the capital of Bar-vicinity of the proposed canal, and that they






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would not assume dominion over Nicaragua, $22,051; for 1895, $26,931. The bank clearii Costa Rica, the Mosquito Coast, or any part of house is situated at No. 77 Cedar Street. Six Central America. (See DALLING, Vol. VI, p. six banks are associated for the purpose of 782.) Opposite and contrary constructions hav- changing the checks and bills they hold agaii ing been put upon this treaty by the contracting each other. Other banks, not members of t parties, another treaty, known as the Clarendon association, clear through members. The rep Dallas treaty, was agreed to and signed at Lon- sentatives of the members appear at their des don, Oct. 17, 1856. But this also was open to in the clearing-room at ten a.m. every busin objections, and it was ultimately rejected, and day, with the checks and bills to be exchange in President Buchanan's message of 1859 he rec- Each bank is represented by two clerks, a settli ommended the abrogation of the Bulwer-Clayton and a delivery clerk. The settling-clerk furnisl treaty as the best means of solving the difficulty. the manager of the clearing-house with a cre The commencement of the new canals, the ticket which shows the amount of exchange wh Panama canal and the Nicaragua ship-canal,

Nicaragua ship-canal, his bank has brought, which exchanges are no again brought the Bulwer-Clayton treaty up for down by the proof-clerk of the clearing-hoi discussion.

The settling-clerk takes his seat at his desk, CLAYTONIA, an American and Siberian genus has before him a settling-sheet, upon which is of low herbs, belonging to the family Portulacacea. tered against the name of each bank the amount In the eastern United States C. Virginica is the brought in exchanges against it. The delivery common species of early spring, with a pair of clerk has a similar list, and takes his place beside opposite leaves and a raceme of delicate white to his bank's desk, and has the exchanges themselves rose-colored flowers. The species are commonly in a receptacle, arranged in order, so that at the known as “spring beauties.”

sound of the gong he advances to the desk ahead CLEARANCE is a certificate given by the col- of him, delivering the exchanges which should be lector of a port showing that the commander or there delivered, obtaining upon his list a receipt master of a vessel has entered and cleared his from the settling-clerk seated there. Every desk vessel according to law. It is a permission to is thus visited. While the delivery clerk of one sail, and contains the name of the commander, bank has been making his rounds, the settlingthe name or description of the vessel, the name clerk of his own bank has been similarly visited of the port for which the vessel sails, and, if re- by the delivery clerks of the other banks, giving quired, a description of the goods on board. The each settling-receipts. About ten minutes is suflaws of the United States require the collector to ficient to complete this part of the business. Each annex to the clearance of any duly registered delivery clerk has receipts for all the exchanges vessel, bound on a foreign voyage, a schedule of that he has brought, and each settling-clerk has the rates to be allowed according to law. The a record of the amount brought for, and the master of a vessel bound for a foreign port must amount received from, each bank. The delivery furnish to the collector a sworn manifest of all clerk takes the latter amount to his bank's desk, the cargo on board, and the value thereof, where where the settling-clerk adds up the total amount upon he shall be entitled to a clearance for his and gives the proof-clerk of the clearing-house a vessel. If he shall depart on such voyage with debit-slip stating the amount, as well as the out a clearance, the master shall forfeit five hun- amounts brought, and the resulting balance due dred dollars for each offense.

It is also very

to the bank from the clearing-house or to the necessary for the safety of a vessel that a clear- latter from the bank, according to the results of ance be obtained, for if found at sea without a the transactions of the previous day at the bank clearance, the vessel may be legally taken and itself. About half an hour is generally required carried to some court on a charge of piracy. to accomplish this. Each bank owing a balance

CLEAR, CAPE, a headland of Clear Island, to the clearing-house has settled with the latter the most southerly point of Ireland, with a light before 1:30 p.m. The credit banks receive imhouse on a cliff 455 feet in height, and a telegraph mediately thereupon the balance due from the station for reporting vessels.

clearing-house. Provision is made for the deCLEARFIELD, a borough and the capital of tection and prevention, as far as possible, of Clearfield County, western central Pennsylvania, errors in calculations. The amount of clearances on the Pennsylvania, the Beach Creek and the done in New York does not strictly represent the Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburg railroads, and amount of local business, for that clearing-house on the west branch of the Susquehanna. It has acts in a great measure for the banks of a considlumber manufactories, a foundry, machine-shops, erable portion of the whole country. All the a public park and an academy. Population 1890, other important cities have clearing-houses con2,248.

ducted similarly to the one in New York. The CLEARING-HOUSE. The first clearing. grand total of clearances for the United States, house in New York City was organized Oct. 11, so far as could be accurately ascertained, in mil1853, 38 bankers forming an association for that lions of dollars, were, for 1893, 49,791; for 1894, purpose. Since that time until November, 1895, 40,912; for 1895, 47,808; and for Canada, for the the amount of clearances have been over $850,- same respective years, 897; 837; 893. 000,000,000. The figures, in millions, were: For the A STOCK EXCHANGE CLEARING-HOUSE was esyear 1892, $36,662; for 1893, $29,045; for 1894, | tablished in New York City, May, 1892, by means

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of which stock exchange business is settled by a and from 2 to 6 miles broad, and is much frecombination of stock and cash balances; both quented by hunters and tourists on account of remarkably small in proportion to the enormous the various kinds of game which frequent its aggregate of business transacted. See BANKING, shores and the fish in its waters. Deer, bears, Vol. III, pp. 328, 329.

panthers, and foxes abound. Another lake of the CLEARING-HOUSE CERTIFICATES, cer

name is found in Modoc County, in the tain evidences of value, or of credit, taking the northeastern part of the same state. It is small place of money for the time being, and especially and saline, and has no outlet. used by the Clearing House Association of Banks. CLEAVAGE. See CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, Vol. VI, It is one of the developments in banking procedure, whereby the clearing-house combination, or CLEAVELAND, Moses, an American general association of banks constituting the clearing- and pioneer; born at Canterbury, Connecticut, house, is pledged to maintain the credit of every Jan. 26, 1754; was graduated at Yale in 1777; member of the association. Its beneficial effects practiced law, and was commissioned captain of will be readily comprehended by stating that if a a company of sappers and miners serving during bank is threatened with a run on its funds, and the close of the Revolutionary War.

He was cannot convert its securities into ready cash to several times elected to the legislature and was meet the contingency without heavy loss, owing commissioned briadier-general of militia in 1796. either to the temporary or other depreciation in He was a shareholder in the Connecticut land the value of the securities, or the inability at the company which had purchased from the state, moment to convert them into cash because of a for $1,200,000, the land north of the Ohio, repossible stringency of the money market, the served to the state by Congress, and afterward other banks in or of the association come to the known as the Western Reserve. Cleaveland rescue, by the issuance of certificates from the was appointed to survey the land, and selected the clearing-house, which certificates are good at any site of what became the city of Cleveland; the bank in the association for their face value, and present spelling of the city named in his honor have the immediate effect of restoring confidence arising from the fact that in 1830, when the first in the minds of depositors. For example, sup- newspaper was being issued at the place it was pose, in the event of a “run on a given bank, discovered that the title chosen, “Cleaveland Adthe demand for a million and a half of dollars is vertiser, was too long for the form, to overcome made; it would require three tons of gold coin to which the editor shortened the first word by one meet it, involving an immense expense as well as letter, which spelling was adopted by the citizens. risk; whereas under the system of clearing-house Cleaveland died in his native town, Nov. 16, 1806. certificates there is a guaranty given that a sum CLEAVELAND, PARKER, an American minsufficient to satisfy all demands has been depos- eralogist; born at Rowley, Massachusetts, Jan. ited, subject to the return on demand, and the 15, 1780; was graduated at Harvard in 1799, and entire body composing the Clearing-House Asso- was appointed, in 1805, professor of mineralogy, ciation is pledged to maintain the integrity of the chemistry, etc., in Bowdoin College, Maine, which certificate.

position he held until his death. He was the The totals of the general proof being daily author of a work, Mineralogy and Geology (1816), transferred to the ledger, reference to this is which brought him into prominent notice in Eualone necessary to ascertain the dealings of each rope. He died in Brunswick, Maine, Oct. 15, 1858. individual bank, day by day, month by month, CLEBURNE, a town of Johnson County, northand year by year, since it became a member of eastern Texas, on the Gulf, Colorado and Santa the association. There is a constant check upon Fé railroad; about 50 miles S.W. of Dallas and irregularities, as all the banks are under the scru- 155 miles N. of Austin.

The town has a college tinizing eye of the clearing-house. Each one of the for young women, handsome public buildings, an body fully realizes how greatly expulsion would ice factory and mills.

It had a population of 1,855 jeopardize its credit. This latter feature has in 1880 and of 3,278 in 1890. The growth is due done much to prevent the undue extension of chiefly to agricultural activity. loans which would inevitably produce weakness CLEBURNE, PATRICK RONAYNE, an American and possible disaster, The system originated soldier; born in Cork County, Ireland, March 17, with F. W. Edmonds, formerly cashier of the 1828 ;killed in the battle of Franklin, Tennessee, Mechanics' Bank, New York City. He planned Nov. 30, 1864. He early showed a predilection the issue of clearing-house certificates in 1852, for the army, and enlisted in the Forty-first and paved the way for the smooth and successful Regiment of infantry in the English service. business management subsequently developed in After several years in the military service, he the banking world.

came to the United States and located at Helena, CLEARING-NUT (Strychnos potatorum), a small Arkansas, where he adopted the profession of tree, a native of India, whose seeds are much law, in which he was succeeding at the comused for clearing water.

A seed rubbed around mencement of the Civil War in 1861. He enlisted the inside of a vessel of muddy water causes the in the Confederate army as a private; contrived impurities to settle rapidly.

the capture of the United States arsenal in ArCLEAR LAKE, a sheet of water in Lake kansas in March, 1861; was soon afterward proCounty, northern California. It is 24 miles long moted from the rank of captain to that of colonel;

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and was promoted to the grade of brigadier-gen- | Central Committee. He tried to save the lives eral in March, 1862. At the battle of Shiloh he of Generals Lecomte and Clement Thomas, who commanded a brigade in the Third Army Corps, were murdered by the Communists, and being and signalized himself by courage and sagacity charged later with lukewarmness in this matter, He was made major-general in December, 1862, challenged and wounded his slanderer. In and commanded a division of the right wing of 1871 he became a member, and in November, the Confederate army at the battles of Stone 1875, president, of the municipal council of Paris, River and Chickamauga. He distinguished him and in 1876 again became a deputy. He self in covering the retreat of General Bragg's showed himself an aggressive Radical, bitterly army after the battle of Mission Ridge in No. opposed the Duc De Broglie and MacMahon, and vember, 1863, and was commended by the Con- energetically supported Gambetta, who was his erate congress for his heroic and successful de cousin. When, in 1879, Grévy became President fense of Ringgold Gap. He was a division com- and Gambetta speaker of the Assembly, M. mander under General Joseph E. Johnston dur-Clémenceau became leader of the Extreme Left, ing his famous campaign in north Georgia, and and remained a Radical when Gambetta became distinguished himself in a number of its various an Opportunist. He helped to exclude the battles. He commanded a corps at the battle of clergy from educational affairs and to expel the Jonesboro, Georgia, also at Franklin, Tennessee, Jesuits, and obtained an amnesty for banished where he was killed in storming the second line Communists. His newspaper, La Justice, was a poof the Federal works.

litical power.

During the Panama scandal he CLEEF, JOHANN VAN, a Flemish painter; born was charged with selling his country, but the at Venloo in 1646, and studied under Gaspar de charges were shown to be based on forgeries, and Crayer. He excelled in the treatment of drape- he was vindicated, but defeated for re-election ries and figures, and finished the cartoons for the in September, 1894. He lived in Connecticut tapestries of Louis XIV after the death of his mas- from 1865 to 1870, and married an American ter. His works adorn the churches in Ghent and woman, Mary G. Plummer. Antwerp, among his most famous being The Re- CLEMENS, JEREMIAH, an American statesman; demption of the Captives. He died in Ghent in 1716.

He died in Ghent in 1716. born in Huntsville, Alabama, Dec. 28, 1814; died CLEG, a name given to some insects of the there, May 21, 1865. After graduating at the dipterous family Tabanida. The females are ex- State University in 1833, he became a lawyer; tremely troublesome to horses and cattle.

was appointed United States marshal for northCLEISTOGAMY, a name applied to the habit ern Alabama in 1838, and elected to the legislaof certain plants in producing flowers differing ture in 1839, 1840, 1841 and 1843. He was confrom the normal showy ones, in being inconspic- nected with the army in 1842, when he went to uous, seldom opening, and capable of self-polli- Texas as lieutenant-colonel of volunteers, and in nation. These cleistogamous flowers seem to be 1847-48 was an officer in the infantry. From a device to insure the production of seed in case 1849 to 1853 he was in the United States Senate, the more showy flowers fail of cross-pollination. and in 1859 became editor, at Memphis, of the Notable examples are the species of violet, Eagle and Enquirer. Popular feeling influencing although the list of known cleistogamous plants him, he became a secessionist, but in 1864 he is becoming quite a long one.

declared for the Union cause. He was the author CLEMATIS, a genus of plants of the family Ra- of several novels, some of which dealt with Amernunculacea, mostly herbaceous climbers. There ican history, among them being Bernard Lyle are many species, natives of the temperate cli- (1853); Mustang Gray (1857), The Rivals (1859); mates. C. viorna, cylindrica and virginiana are the and Tobias Wilson (1865). Just previous to his best-known species in the United States. There death he was at work on a history of the war. are many forms in cultivation, with large flowers CLEMENS, SAMUEL LANGHORNE, an American of various colors, mostly varieties or hybrids that humorist; born at Florida, Missouri, Nov. 30, have been obtained from C. viticella of Europe,

1835. He is best known C. lanuginosa of China, and the Japanese species,

by his pseudonym of C. azurea and C. florida.

Mark Twain," which CLÉMENCEAU, EUGÈNE, a French statesman,

had been the pen-name born at Mouilleron-en-Pared, in Vendée, France,

of Captain Isaiah Sellers, Sept. 28, 1841; studied medicine at Nantes and

who, previous to 1863, Paris, and practiced as a physician in Montmartre,

furnished river news to the workingman's quarter of Paris. He was ap

the New Orleans Picapointed mayor of the eighteenth arrondissement of

yune, and which was deParis, and a member of the commission of com

rived from the call of the munal education after the revolution of Sept. 4,

leadsman on the Missis1870. In February, 1871, he was elected represen

sippi River boat when he tative in the Assembly for the department of the

sounds two fathoms. He Seine, and took his seat with the members of the

was educated in the vilExtreme Left, or Radicals. He was shut up in

lage school in Hannibal, Paris during both sieges, and came near falling Missouri, and was apprenticed to a printer. After

victim to the suspicion's of the Communist learning his trade, he journeyed from town to





For a

town until he reached New York. Afterward he command. There is, inwrought in his most conwent to New Orleans and became a pilot on the vulsing extravaganzas, always a touch of intensely Mississippi River steamboats. In 1861 he went human experience, to which the most indifferent to Nevada as private secretary to his brother, sensibilities are compelled to respond, and, while who had been made secretary of the territory. scorning to point a moral in the conventional He engaged in mining in Nevada, and in 1862

manner, Mark Twain unconsciously reaches the became city editor of the Virginia City Enterprise.. depths of life and character in his philosophy of In 1865 he went to San Francisco, where he was laughter and the evident feeling he betrays. engaged as a reporter on the Morning Call. After CLEMENS ROMANUS. See APOSTOLIC experimenting in gold-mining, he resumed his FATHERS, Vol. II, p. 195. work for the California Press, and visited the CLEMENTINES. See APOSTOLIC FATHERS, Hawaiian Islands as newspaper correspondent in Vol. II, p. 196. 1866. After his return he delivered humorous CLEMMER, MARY, the maiden name of Mrs. lectures in California and Nevada, and went to MARY HUDSON; q.v., in these Supplements. the East, where he published the Jumping Frog, CLEOMBROTUS, a Spartan general, son of and Other Sketches (New York, 1867). In 1867 he Anaxandrides, king of Sparta, by his first wife; went with a party of tourists to the Mediterranean, and, some said, the twin brother of Leonidas. Egypt and Palestine, publishing on his return After the battle of Thermopylæ, 480 B.C., he The Innocents Abroad (Hartford, 1869), of which was appointed regent for Plistarchus, the infant 125,000 copies were sold in three years.

son of Leonidas. He died the same year, and was time he edited the Buffalo (New York) Express, succeeded in the regency by his son, Pausanias, and after his marriage settled in Hartford, Con- who defeated the Persians near Platæa, in Bæotia, necticut, in 1870.

In 1872 he lectured in England, and a London 47CLEOMBROTUS I, king of Sparta, son of publisher issued an unauthorized collection of his Pausanias, and grandson of the former; reigned writings, in which were published sketches which from 380 to 371 B.C. He commanded the Spartan he did not write. Among his writings are Rough- troops against the Thebans, but was defeated at ing It (1873); Sketches Old and New (1873); Ad- the battle of Leuctra, where he was killed, after ventures of Tom Sawyer, a story of boy-life in Mis- a heroic resistance. souri (1876); Punch, Brothers, Punch (1878); A CLEOMEDES, a Greek writer on astronomy. Tramp Abroad (1880); The Stolen White Elephant Nothing is known regarding his life or the period (1882); The Prince and the Pauper (1882); Life on when he flourished. His treatise is entitled The The Mississippi (1883); Huckleberry Finn, a sequel Circular Theory of the Heavenly Bodies, and is to Tom Sawyer (1885); A Yankee at King Arthur's remarkable as affirming several truths of modern Court (1889); and Pudd' nhead Wilson (1895). He science, such as the spherical shape of the earth, also wrote, with Charles Dudley Warner, The the moon's orbit, etc. Cleomedes's treatise was Gilded Age, which was dramatized in 1879. He

first printed in Latin in 1498, and the last edition is a popular lecturer, and achieved the novel dis- in German in 1832.

See Light, Vol. XIV, p. 577 tinction, in 1895, of being challenged to a real duel CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLES. See ALEXANby Max O'Rell, the French humorist. In 1884 | DRIA, Vol. I, p. 495; ARCHITECTURE, Vol. II, he founded the publishing house of Charles L. p. 390; OBELISK, Vol. XVII, p. 703. Webster and Company, which firm brought out CLERC, LAURENT, a French educator; born in General Grant's Memoirs. The firm failed in La Balme, near Lyons, France, Dec. 26, 1785; 1894, and to retrieve his fortunes Mr. Clemens died in Hartford, Connecticut, July 18, 1869. started out on a lecturing tour around the world, When only a year old he fell into the fire, and He turned to the serious side of literature, and was so injured that he lost the sense of smell and achieved as great a success as with his inimitable hearing. Several years later Abbé Sicard took humor. In a series of articles in the North Amer- the lad and gave him so good an education ican Review he critically and trenchantly dissected that he became a teacher. Rev. Dr. Gallaudet the laurels of James Fenimore Cooper, showing persuaded him to come to America and found an his novels to be riddled with author's errors and institution for the instruction of the deaf and abounding in improbabilities. Next he turned

dumb. This he did, and in 1817 such a school his batteries on Shelley's domestic affairs, and was opened at Hartford, and M. Clerc devoted mercilessly fayed the poet's mawkish sentiments the rest of his life to this work. and peculiar ideas on morality. His Joan of Arc, CLERK, JOHN, a Scottish naval tactician and which saw the light in the Century Magazine, anony- writer on naval tactics; sixth son of Sir John mously, was, in the opinion of many critics, the most Clerk of Penicuick; born at Eldin in 1728; died appreciative treatment ever accorded to the noble,

May 10, 1812.

He prospered as an Edinburgh historic figure of the Maid of Orleans.

merchant, and by 1773 purchased the small estate Few humorists in the range of literature have of Eldin at Lasswade, where he devoted himself drawn more closely to the popular heart, or played to etching, to geology, and to the study of the more subtly and powerfully upon the sense of the theory and practice of naval tactics. On April ludicrous inherent in human nature. Yet the

12, 1782, the maneuver, claimed by him as of his finer emotions of pathos and sympathy are no less invention, for breaking the enemy's line was awakened by the magic influence at Mr. Clemens's | tried by Lord Rodney upon the French com

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