« ПретходнаНастави »
manded by Admiral de Grasse, and a decisive land in 1882; the Cleveland Medical College, victory was gained. (See RODNEY, Vol. XX, | founded in 1834, and possessing a fine museum; p. 618.)-His son, JOHN CLERK (1757-1832) was the Case School of Applied Science, an important raised to the Scottish bench in 1823, when he | technological institution liberally endowed. These assumed the judicial title of Lord Eldin.
are considered parts of the Western Reserve Uni. CLERMONT-DE-LODÈVE, a town in the de-versity. The medical department of Wooster partment of Hérault, central southern France, 23 University is also located in the city. A feature miles N.W. of Montpellier. It has extensive worthy of mention in this connection is the “Edumanufactories of woolen cloth. Population, 5,685. cational Bureau," organized by prominent citi
CLETHRA, a genus of shrubs or trees of the zens, and designed to provide instruction and family Ericacea. C. alnifolia, the common species recreation for working men and women by means of the eastern United States, known as “ white of lectures, concerts, and the free distribution of alder," has alternate sharply serrate leaves, and digested material on special subjects. The public upright dense panicles of fragrant white flowers. libraries contain a total of over 127,000 volumes.
CLEVELAND, a wild mountainous district, with The city is perhaps best known abroad in consome picturesque fertile valleys, forming the east nection with Euclid Avenue, which is regarded by part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England. many as the finest avenue in the United States. In the south the hills rise 1,300 to 1,850 feet. An It is lined with beautiful private residences, with extraordinary change has been wrought in the as- handsome grounds most tastefully laid out. About pect of the country by a rich discovery of iron- four miles out from the public square called Monustone in the Cleveland hills; since 1851 lonely mental Park, where a monument to Moses Cleave. hamlets have become populous towns. See YORK,
See YORK, land (q.v., in these Supplements) is erected, is Vol. XXIV, pp. 747, 748.
Wade Park, on the north side of Euclid Avenue, CLEVELAND, a city of Ohio. (See Vol. V, p. consisting of 73 acres. It occupies a deep ravine 828.) The population of the city has increased and uplands. It has been skillfully treated, and from 160, 146 in 1880 to 261,546 in 1890, and to is a favorite resort. Up to 1882 it was the private 345,000 in 1896(estimated). The city covers an area park of Jeptha H. Wade (q.v., in these Suppleof 3134 square miles. Jan. 1, 1890, the assessed ments), who presented it to the city. Lake View valuation of property in the city was $95,000,000; | Park, on the lake-front in the city portion, is in 1896 (estimated), $135,700,000. The debt of much frequented. Lake View Cemetery conthe city was, in 1890, $8,156,200; in 1896, $5,- tains the remains of President Garfield, to whom 950,000. The rate of taxation in 1890 was 2.83 a fine monument has been there erected. Outside per cent, and in 1896, 2.87 per cent. There were, the city limits, to the northeast, lies the suburb in 1890, 2,300 manufacturing establishments, with of Glenville, where the famous trotting-track of a direct investment of $69,732,000, employing 50,- that name is located, and where many fast rec674 persons, whose annual wages amounted to ords have been made. Cleveland celebrated its $28,355,505, and with an annual production of centenary July 22, 1896, on which occasion John $113,249,115. The city contains eight shipyards, D. Rockefeller presented the city with $600,000, two of them of immense proportions, for building about one half in cash, the balance in land, to be iron and steel vessels. Its ship-building industry used for park purposes. is the largest of any place along the lakes. The CLEVELAND, a railroad junction and the capicity is the center of the iron-ore industry, its docks tal of Bradley County, southeastern Tennessee, on being the largest and most capacious of any on the Southern railroad, 29 miles E. N. E. of Chatthe lakes. The Standard Oil Company has here tanooga. It is an educational town and contains its headquarters, and the city leads in the petro- an academy, an institute for women, and the largleum business. The proportions of the leading est Southern college for women. Population 1890, manufactures, according to the census of 1890,
2,863. will be seen from the following figures, represent- CLEVELAND, CHARLES DEXTER, an American ing the amount of the direct investment: Iron and educator; born in Salem, Massachusetts, Dec. 3, steel, $9, 344,000; iron and steel bolts, nuts, wash- 1802; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Aug. ers and rivets, $1, 068,000; iron and steel for- 18, 1869. Graduating at Dartmouth in 1827, he gings, $1,099,000; ironwork, architectural and or- became a teacher of Latin and Greek in Dickinson namental, $94,647; foundries and machine-shops, College, and afterward in the New York Univer$6,832,000; petroleum, $10,426,000; ship-build- sity, and in a young ladies' school in Philadelphia. ing, $2,562,000; liquors (malt), $3,580,000; chem- He was appointed consul to Cardiff, Wales (1861– icals, lumber, paints and printing, including pub-1867). Professor Cleveland was the author of lishing, over $1,000,000 each. A harbor of refuge several works on English, American and classical was constructed by the United States govern. literature, textbooks and songbooks for schools, ment and cost nearly $2,000,000; and the great and prepared a concordance to Milton's poems. viaduct, extending from the lake on the east side CLEVELAND, GROVER, President of the to the top of the hill on the west side, was com- United States; born in Caldwell, Essex County, pleted at a cost of $2,225,000. The chief educa- New Jersey, March 18, 1837. His ancestor, Moses tional institutions include Adelbert College,
Adelbert College, Cleveland, emigrated from Ipswich, England, to which was established in 1826, at Hudson, as the Woburn, Massachusetts, in 1635, and his father, Western Reserve College, and removed to Cleve- Richard F., was a Presbyterian clergyman who
CLEVELAND – CLEVEN GER
named his son after the Rev. Stephen Grover, expedition to protect the Americans and their his predecessor in the Presbyterian Church in Cald- property. June 2, 1886, President Cleveland
well. After the death married, in the White House, Frances Folsom,
whom he assisted in In 1892 Mr. Cleveland was again nominated for preparing the American Shorthorn Herd Book. President by the Democrats, and elected over Afterward he became a clerk in the law firm President Harrison on a tariff reform platform of Rogers, Bowen and Rogers, studied law and and campaign. Both Houses being Democratic, was admitted to the bar in 1859. From 1863 the Wilson bill, a tariff-for-revenue-only measure, to 1866 he was district attorney of Erie County. was passed in 1894, but the Democratic party was He became the law partner of Isaac V. Vander- held responsible for the hard times by the counpool, and in 1869 a member of the firm of Lan-try, and the Republicans won a protective tariff ning, Cleveland and Folsom, practicing until 1870, victory in November, 1894, so that President when he was made sheriff of Erie County. In Cleveland had to deal with a Republican Congress 1873 he became a member of the firm of Bass, the last two years of his administration. Cleveland and Bissell, and he was noted for the In the mean time, at a special session called by logic and mastery with which he conducted his him, Aug. 7, 1893, President Cleveland had secases. In 1881 he was elected mayor of Buffalo, cured the repeal of the act of 1890, calling for and soon became known as the veto mayor,
the purchase of $4,500,000 of silver bullion checking unwise, illegal and extravagant expendi- monthly, against the opposition of the silver wing ture of public money and saving the city one of his party, on the ground that this act was remillion dollars in the first six months of his ser- sponsible for the financial depression. vice. In 1882 he was elected governor of New In July, 1894, he ordered the United States York by a plurality of 192,854 over the Repub- troops to Chicago and several railroad centers lican nominee, Charles J. Folger. Among the to enforce the orders and process of the federal chief acts of his administration were his approval courts, and to prevent interference with interof a bill to submit to the people a proposition to state commerce and the mail service. His firm abolish contract labor in the prisons; the veto of stand undoubtedly saved many lives and much a bill which permitted wide latitude in which the property. Jan. 1, 1895, he announced the names directors of savings banks might risk deposits; of the commission, appointed with the consent of the veto of a similar bill respecting the securities Congress, to inquire into the Venezuelan boundof insurance companies, and the veto of a bill to ary. During the summer of the same year he establish a monopoly by limiting the right to con- was chosen arbitrator in the dispute between struct certain street-railways to companies here- | Italy and Colombia, in which the former claimed tofore organized, to the exclusion of such as $600,000 damages sustained by Italians in the should hereafter obtain the consent of property revolution of 1885. owners and local authorities.
CLEVELAND, ROSE ELIZABETH, sister of In July, 1884, the Democratic national.conven- Grover Cleveland; born in Fayetteville, New tion at Chicago nominated him for the Presi-York, in 1846; educated at Houghton Seminary, dency of the United States, he receiving 683 Clinton, and became a teacher in that institution, votes out of a total of 820. James G. Blaine was and somewhat later assumed charge of the colthe Republican candidate, and the canvass which legiate institution at Lafayette, Indiana. She has followed was remarkable more for the discussion lectured before several schools on historical subof the personal characters and qualifications of jects, and has written a book entitled George the respective candidates than for the discussion Eliot's Poetry, and Other Studies; and a novel enof political issues. In the election which followed, titled The Long Run. For a short time she was Mr. Cleveland received a majority of 37 in the editor of Literary Life, a Chicago magazine. electoral college, and a majority in the popular CLEVENGER, SHOBAL VAIL, an American vote of 23,005 out of a total of 10,067,610. sculptor; born near Middletown, Ohio, Oct. 22,
He was inaugurated March 4, 1885, serving 1812; died at sea, Sept. 23, 1843. His father was until 1889. On March 13, 1885, Mr. Cleveland a weaver who went to Cincinnati with his son issued a proclamation to remove the white intrud- and apprenticed him to a stone-cutter. He at ers from Oklahoma, Indian Territory, and after once manifested artistic ability in carving tombthe burning of Aspinwall
, Panama, by the revo-stone-work, and learned to hew busts in freelutionists, March 31, 1885, ordered a naval stone. Subsequently he chose the career of a 832
CLE W BAY – CLIFTON
sculptor, and as such settled in New York City. electoral commission of that year; and although Here he made busts of General Harrison, Van Judge Clifford believed Mr. Tilden elected, he Buren, Clay, Webster and other persons of dis- conducted the proceedings impartially, and the tinction. Many of his works are contained in the court declared for the election of Mr. Hayes. art galleries of New York, Boston and Philadel- CLIFFORD, Mrs. Lucy, English novelist and phia. In 1840 he went to Rome, where he pro- relict of the late Prof. W. K. Clifford, one of the duced his North American Indian, one of the very
most brilliant mathematicians of the century. best productions of native talent. While in Italy She comes of a family once notable in Barbados, he became affected with pulmonary phthisis, caused where her grandfather, John Brandford Lane, by inhalation of stone-dust. He died on the was sometime speaker of the house of assemMediterranean, within a day's sail of Gibraltar. bly. At the age of 15 Mrs. Clifford began to write
CLEW BAY, an inlet of the Atlantic, on the stories, which in time gradually found their way west coast of Mayo County, Ireland. Old Red into print in various magazines, and exhibited Sandstone, Carboniferous limestone and Cam- considerable talent. In 1875 she married, and brian strata form the shores of the bay. The four years later lost her eminent husband, when upper part of the bay contains an archipelago of she turned her thoughts to literary work again, three hundred fertile and cultivated islets.
and published ree volumes for children. She CLICHE, the impression made by a die in first became known to fame, in 1885, as the author melted tins or other fusible metals. It is the of Mrs. Keith's Crime, a novel much talked of in proof of a die-sinker's work, by which he judges of its day, but since eclipsed by the popularity of the effect and ascertains the stage of progress as
her Aunt Anne. Besides these two powerful reached before the die is hardened. The same
character-stories, and a third novel, entitled A term is applied by the French to stereotype casts
Flash of Summer, which first appeared in the from woodcuts.
Illustrated London News, she has written a numCLICK-BEETLE OR SPRING-BEETLE, the ber of stories of slighter bulk, notably A Wild popular name given to many coleopterous insects Proxy; Love Letters of a Worldly Woman; The of the family Elaterida. They are so called from Last Touches; and Mere Stories.“ The main themes springing into the air with an audible click when of her ablest writing, Mrs. Clifford always finds placed on the back. The click is caused by in her hatred of dowdyism, especially in mind, of striking the wing-covers against the supporting ugly prosperity, of smugness, and of injustice.” surface. The well-known wire-worms are larvæ CLIFFORD, William KINGDON, an English of certain species. See COLEOPTERA, Vol. VI, mathematician; born at Exeter, May 4, 1845; edup. 132.
cated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and was secCLIDASTES, a genus of reptiles found in the ond wrangler in the mathematical tripos of 1867. Cretaceous formation of North America. They He was appointed professor of mathematics and reached a length of from 12 to 40 feet.
mechanics in University College, London, in 1871, CLIFF-DWELLINGS. See METEORA, Vol. holding the chair until 1879. In 1870 he accomXVI, p. 114; and INDIANS, AMERICAN, Vol. XII, panied the English expedition to the Mediterpp. 822-833.
ranean to observe the solar eclipse. On account CLIFFORD, FREDERICK, an English lawyer of failing health he spent the summer of 1876 in and author; born in 1828, practiced at the Parlia Spain and Algiers, and in 1878 was again commentary bar and served as assistant boundary pelled to seek rest in Maderia, where he died, commissioner under the Reform Act of 1867. He March 3d, the following year. His works include was the author of several important treatises on Elements of Dynamics (1878-87); Common Sense of parliamentary law, his great work in this connec- the Exact Sciences (edited by K. Pearson, 1885); tion being his History of Private Bill Legislation, Seeing and Thinking (1879); and the posthumous which is of great historical interest to students, on book, Lectures and Essays. His mathematical and account of the light it throws on the social pro- philosophical speculations were bold and brilliant. gress of Great Britain. He was also the author of Evolution he treated from a mechanical point of interesting reports upon agricultural topics, in view, yet finding a monistic and spiritual quality connection with the land and legal phases. for it. He was strongly disposed toward a Berke.
CLIFFORD, NATHAN, an American jurist; born leyan idealism or mental phenomenonalism, and in Rumney, New Hampshire, Aug. 18, 1803; died was of synthetic turn of mind. His early death in Cornish, Maine, July 25, 1881. He adopted the removed an unusually promising speculative legal profession, was in the state legislature from thinker. 1830 to 1834, was attorney-general of the state CLIFTON, ROBERT BELLAMY, an English from 1834 to 1838, and subsequently served two mathematician and physicist; born at Gedney, terms in Congress. In 1846 he was called to Lincolnshire, March 13, 1836; studied at Uni. President Polk's Cabinet as Attorney-General, versity College, London, and at St. John's Col. and in this capacity he made important treaties lege, Cambridge, and graduated in 1859. In with Mexico. California was annexed to the
1860 he was elected to a fellowship in St. John's United States according to the terms of one of College, and became professor of experimental these treaties. In 1858 he became associate jus- philosophy in Owens College, which he held until tice of the supreme court, and in 1877 it was his appointed professor in Oxford in 1865. In 1868 duty as senior associate judge to preside over the he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. He CLIFTON-CLINOMETER
designed and organized the Clarendon Labora- | upward growth. Some climb by means of small tory in Oxford, the first of the kind in England. root-like processes growing from the stem, some He was a member of the Royal Commission on by means of tendrils, some by adhering disks, and Accidents in Mines (1879-86), and president of others by twining their stems around the objects the Physical Society (1882-84).
to which they cling. CLIFTON, a town of Southern Ontario, and a CLINCH RIVER, a stream 300 miles in length, port of entry, on the Niagara River, two miles one of the main headwaters of the Tennessee. below the Falls. Population 1891, 1,017.
Rising in southwestern Virginia, and flowing CLIFTON SPRINGS, a health-resort of On-through eastern Tennessee, it unites at Kingston tario County, central western New York, on the with the Holston River, the two there becoming New York Central and Hudson River and the
the Tennessee. Lehigh Valley railroads. It has large sulphur- CLINGMAN, THOMAS LANIER, an American springs and a building devoted to invalids, called politician and Confederate soldier; born at Huntsthe Clifton Springs Sanitarium. Population 1890, ville, in Yadkin, then Surry, County, North 1,297.
Carolina, July 27, 1812; was graduated at the CLIMACTERIC YEAR, any year which marks North Carolina State University at Chapel Hill, a period of important change in the physical con- | in 1832, and afterward studied law, but in 1835 stitution of man. In ancient times, years denoted entered political life as a member of the legislaby multiples of the mystic numbers seven or nine ture of his state and became state senator in received this designation, and were believed to 1840. He was elected a member of the Congress be turning points in health and fortune. The of 1843–45 and of the six succeeding Congresses, “grand climacteric,” or most important of such being appointed to the Senate in 1858 to fill a years, was that denoted by the product of seven vacancy, and elected Senator in 1861. It has and nine, the sixty-third, and was supposed to been said of him, that, until he withdrew from mark the termination of an especially danger-Congress on account of the secession of his state ous period. Medical authorities admit that the in 1861, he never missed a day's attendance. In years indicated are critical ones.
his early career he was an active Whig, but he CLIMAX, a Greek word meaning a stair, and became a Democrat when convinced that the derived from a root which conveys the idea of | Democratic party was the only one with which “sloping.” In English it indicates the highest Southern patriots could consistently act. point of an ascent, or the point of greatest in- | he fought a bloodless duel at Bladensburg with tensity; the climax of an oration or argument William L. Yancey of Alabama, which grew out being its most impressive portion. Climax, in of remarks concerning the cause of Henry Clay's rhetoric, is the figure by which the speaker, in defeat. He withdrew from the United States a well-arranged series of propositions, each of Congress in 1861, and became a colonel and aftergreater force than the preceding, gradually leads ward a brigadier-general in the Confederate army, the minds of his hearers to a full appreciation of and participated in many battles, notably Goldsthe supreme point of his discourse.
boro, Sullivan's Island, Newbern, Drury's Bluff, CLIMBERS, the birds of the order Scansores, Cold Harbor, Petersburg and the Weldon railso called from their climbing habits. See SCAN- road, being three times wounded. At the close SORES, in these Supplements.
of the war he surrendered with General Joseph E. CLIMBING-FERN, a name applied to a species Johnston and sought to build up the waste places of Lygodium, a genus of twining and climbing of his section. In 1868 he was a delegate to the ferns growing in the tropics of both hemispheres. national Democratic convention. From his home It belongs to the family Schizaacee, characterized at Asheville he wrote important contributions to by its peculiar sporangia, which are sessile, and the mineralogical and geological knowledge of open by a longitudinal slit, the annulus cells form- his state. In 1855 he ascended and measured the ing a cap. The only species of temperate regions mountain known as Clingman's Peak, and in 1858 is the slender and graceful L. palmatum of the that known as Clingman's Dome, which was eastern United States, growing in low, shady named after him. It is the highest peak of the woods, and entangled among herbs. The leaflets Great Smoky Mountains (6,660 feet). He pubare roundish and palmately five to seven lobed, lished an able defense of religion against the the upper ones more compounded and bearing the attacks of science, a volume of his own speeches, sporangia on their margins. It is much prized and Follies of the Positive Philosophers (1878). in house-decoration.
CLINKSTONE. See Phonolite, in GEOLOGY, CLIMBING-PERCH (Anabas scandens), a fish Vol. X, p. 234. of the family Anabantida, found in the rivers CLINOMETER, an instrument for taking the of the East Indies. A peculiar structure retains dip and strike of a stratum, the grade of a railenough water to moisten the gills for a long time, way track, or the like.
It consists of a compass and the fish travels over dry ground without seri provided with a small spirit-level and having on ous inconvenience. It is said to be able to ascend the lid a small graduated arc and a plumb-line. trees by fixing its spiny gill-covers and fins into | The name is applied, also, to several devices opthe bark..
erating on a similar principle, and used for deCLIMBING-PLANTS OR CLIMBERS, plants termining angular elevation or depression. which seek external support to facilitate their form, having a bar with sliding points, is used
in craniometrical determination of the facial CLINTON, a town, capital of Anderson County, angles.
eastern Tennessee, situated at the crossing of the CLINTON, a town, capital of Van Buren Clinch River by the Southern railroad. It is in
, County, north-central Arkansas, is situated on a productive cotton, grain, and peanut raising Little Red River, 60 miles N.W. from Little region, and it has flour and sawmills, a foundry Rock Population 1890, 176.
and a tool-handle factory. It has steamboat CLINTON, a town of Huron County, south-connections with points farther down the river. western Ontario, Canada, is situated on a branch Population 1890, 1, 198. of the Grand Trunk railroad, 12 miles S.W. CLINTON, CHARLES, an American colonist, of Goderich, the county seat, and has a col- ancestor of the Clintons in the United States, legiate institute, two newspapers, a number of was born in County Longford, Ireland, 1690, his factories, and several salt-wells. It is the headgrandfather, William Clinton, having been an offiquarters of the Canada Salt Association. Popu- cer in the army of King Charles the First. In May, lation 1891, 2,635.
1729, he chartered a vessel to take himself and a CLINTON, a village, capital of Jones County, party of friends to America. They reached Cape central Georgia. Estimated population of the Cod in October of that year, but he removed to village, 250; population of the militia district | Ulster County, New York, in 1731, where he in 1890, 536.
became a county judge and colonel of militia. CLINTON, a city, capital of Clinton County, In 1758 he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of eastern Iowa (see CLINTON, Vol. VI, p. 7), has De Lancey's regiment and served in the expedihad a large growth, and is an important point for tion under Bradstreet against Fort Frontenac. the distribution and manufacture of lumber. It | He died in 1773. has eight daily and weekly newspapers, and is CLINTON, GEORGE, a British admiral; coloequipped liberally with banks, schools, public nial governor of Newfoundland, 1732-41, and library, etc., besides saw-mills, paper-mills, iron of New York, 1741-51. He was a son of the foundries, chair factories, railway repair-shops, sixth earl of Lincoln, and the father of Sir Henry flour-mills, canning-works, and asphaltum-works. Clinton. After leaving New York he was made An iron railroad bridge four thousand feet in governor of Greenwich Hospital. In 1745 he length spans the Mississippi at this point, and became vice-admiral of the red, and, twelve years the facilities for rail and river transportation are later, admiral of the fleet. He died July 10, 1761. abundant. Population 1880, 9,052; 1890, 13,619. CLINTON, GEORGE, an American statesman
CLINTON, a city, capital of Hickman County, and general, son of Charles Clinton; born in Ulsouthwestern Kentucky; a station of the Illinois ster County, New York, July 26, 1739; died in Central railroad; has a bank, several churches, Washington, District of Columbia, April 20, 1812. and flour and lumber industries. Population His early military training consisted of a priva1880, 506; 1890, 1,347.
teering cruise and service as lieutenant in the CLINTON, a cotton-shipping town, capital of expedition against Fort Frontenac. He was a East Feliciana Parish, southeastern Louisiana; member of the New York assembly, and of the is connected by a 25-mile railroad with Port Hud. Continental Congress prior to and during the son, on the Mississippi River. Population 1890, 974. Revolutionary War, and also of the constitutional
CLINTON, a manufacturing city of Worcester convention of New York in 1777. In 1777 he County, central Massachusetts, and an important was made brigadier-general in the Continental railroad junction. (See CLINTON, Vol. VI, p. 7.) army, and in the same year he and his brother Among the chief products are ginghams, plaids, James made a brave defense of Forts Clinton carpets and machinery. The Lancaster Mills here and Montgomery, on the Hudson, at the time employ over 1,500 operatives. Population 1880, of their capture by the British. He became 8, 029; 1890, 9,626.
first governor of New York, and was re-elected CLINTON, a town of Hinds County, south many times. He was a Whig leader in politics, central Mississippi, about 10 miles W.N.W. of and a vigorous defender of his state against Jackson; is the seat of Mississippi College and of the incursions of hostile Indians, the encroachthe Central Female Institute. Population 1890, ments of neighboring states, and the uprisof the "beat," or district, 6,711.
ings of turbulent spirits opposed to law and CLINTON, a city, capital of Henry County, order. He first conceived the idea of utilizing west-central Missouri, is situated on the Missouri, the waterways of his state for canal transportaKansas and Texas railroad, about 75 miles S. E. tion, and the Erie canal was the result. In 1804 from Kansas City. It has two colleges, a pot- he was chosen fourth Vice-President of the United tery, tile-works, rolling-mills, etc. Population States, Jefferson being President. In 1808 he 1880, 2,628; 1890, 4,737.
was re-elected, with Madison for President, and CLINTON, a village of Oneida County, central in 1811, by his casting-vote, he defeated the proNew York, about nine miles S. W.of Utica; is chiefly ject for continuing the United States Bank beyond known on account of its educational institutions, that year. which include Hamilton College, two seminaries CLINTON, Sir Henry, an English general who for girls, and an academy. Quarries of flag and had command in America during the Revolutionbuilding stone are in the vicinity. Population ary War. He was born in 1738, being the only 1890, 1, 269.
son of Admiral George Clinton, who was colonial