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bar of Georgia in 1836, and the same year was an publications, which include the following: An Essay elector on the Van Buren ticket. In 1837 he was on Intuitive Morals (1855); Religious Duty (1857); appointed solicitor-general of the western circuit of Pursuits of Women (1863); Cities of the Past (1863); Georgia, and from 1843 to 1851 served by succes- Broken Lights (1864); Italics (1864); Studies, Ethical sive re-elections as a Democrat in Congress, becom- and Social (1865); Hours of Work and Play (1867); ing Speaker in 1849. He was elected governor of Drawing Lights (1868); Alone, to the Alone (1871); Georgia in 1851, and two years later resumed his Darwinism in Morals (1872); Hopes of the Human law practice. In 1855 he was elected to Congress Race (1874-80); Re-Echoes (1876); False Beasts and again, and in 1857 became President Buchanan's True (1875); Duties of Women (1880); The Peak in Secretary of the Treasury, and as such took advan- Darien (1881); A Faithless World (1885); The Scientage of his position to impair the credit of the tific Spirit of the Age (1888); The Modern Rack government. The following year he resigned his (1889); The Friend of Man (1890). office, and became one of the most active advocates In addition to these, Miss Cobbe wrote and issued of secession. In 1861 he was president of the Con- a great number of less pretentious works in the form federate Congress and assisted in drafting the Con- of pamphlets, in the interest of various reforms to federate constitution. At the beginning of the Civil which she was devoting herself, among which may War he was appointed brigadier-general in the be mentioned The Workhouse as a Hospital (1861); Confederate army, and subsequently promoted to a Friendless Girls, and How to Help Them (1861), major-generalship. He took little part, however, in which was an account of the original Preventive military movements.

Mission at Bristol; Female Education (1862), a plea COBB, SYLVANUS, an American Universalist for the granting of university degrees to women; clergyman; born in July, 1799, in Norway, Maine; and a large number of pamphlets and leaflets died Oct. 31, 1866, in East Boston, Massachusetts. opposed to vivisection, against which practice she From 1828 until 1838 he was engaged in active was opposed strongly and uttered some of her pastoral work in Waltham and Malden, Massa- strongest protests. chusetts. From 1838 until 1858 he was the editor To further her work in the line of reform, Miss of the Christian Freeman. He took a prominent Cobbe originated a scheme of labor in ragged schools, part in the temperance and antislavery movements. and afterward a system for befriending young serA Compend of Divinity; Discussions, and The New vants, the latter since being worked by the MetroTestament with Explanatory Notes (1864), are among politan Association, founded for that purpose. She his published writings.

also did much work for the relief of destitute inCOBB, SYLVANUS, an American author, son of curables. the preceding; born in 1823, in Waterville, Maine; Miss Cobbe traveled extensively in Egypt, Paldied July 20, 1887, in Hyde Park, Massachusetts. estine, Greece and Italy, and afterward settled He was an active writer and editor. He published down to hard work in London again, and did ediThe Rechabite and New England Washingtonian. torial writing on The Echo and later on The StanThe King's Talisman; Ben-Hamed; and The Patriot dard, and afterward contributed largely to The Cruiser, are the best known of a number of tales Quarterly Review, Fraser's Magazine, and a number written by him. The Autobiography of Rev. Syl- of newspapers and other periodicals. During this vanus Cobb, with a memoir, was issued in Boston in time she was engaged in promoting the Aggra1867. His stories in the New York Ledger first at- vated Assaults Act of 1878 whereby wives whose tracted attention to that paper.

husbands have been convicted of violent assaults COBBE, FRANCES Power, an English writer and upon them are enabled to obtain separation orders. leader in reform movements, daughter of Charles In 1880-81 she delivered a course of lectures on

Cobbe, a lieutenant in the The Duties of Women, which were published and Nineteenth Light Dra- circulated largely in America as well as Great goons, who fought at As- Britain, and, in addition, have been translated into saye, was born at New- Danish, French and Italian. In the latter year she bridge House, County founded the Victoria Street Society for the ProtecDublin, Ireland, Dec. 4, tion of Animals from Vivisection, of which she was 1822; and was educated at

the secretary for 15 years, and the late Lord ShaftesBrighton. Miss Cobbe was bury was the president. attracted by the radical COBBOLD, THOMAS SPENCER, an English auUnitarian and rationalistic thority on parasitic worms; born at Ipswich, Eng; views of Theodore Parker land, in 1828; died March 20, 1886. He studied during the brilliant career medicine at Edinburgh and lectured in London of that clergyman in the on botany, zoology, comparative anatomy, geology

closing years of his life and helminthology, in connection with various hosand labor, and adopted his views in a great measure, pitals and colleges. He wrote Entozoa (1864); so much so that all her writings will be found to be Tapeworms (1866); and Parasites (1879); besides tinged with that minister's views of matters pertain- numerous other works on kindred subjects. ing to the mental and spiritual part of man. A gen- COBET, CARL GABRIEL, a Dutch philologist; eral trend of thought, which took its rise from the born in 1813, in Paris; died at Leyden, Oct. 26, writings and public utterances of Theodore Parker, 1889. In 1847 he became professor of Greek at the may be discovered running through nearly all her University of Leyden and in 1876 was made foreign

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FRANCES POWER COBBE.

COBLESKILL-COCCULUS INDICUS

851

associate of the French Academy of Inscriptions The history of cocaine is a short one, but its and Belles-Lettres. Among his principal works are strength as a drug and a poison places it in the front Oratio de Arte Interpretandi, editions of the Greek rank of drugs as the most deadly. So benign is its classics, and writings on the comic poet Plato, influence that few who begin its use suspect its and on Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Xenophon. power until the “cocaine habit” is formed and the

COBLESKILL, a village of Schoharie County, victim is rapidly becoming a wreck. Its distinctive central-eastern New York, on the Delaware and feature is due to hyperæmia of the nerve-centers; Hudson railroad and on Cobleskill Creek, 45 miles | but as the effect is transient, reaction sets in with W. of Albany. It contains a variety of manufac- ever-increasing power, until the habit is fully formed, tories. In the near vicinity are extensive quarries of and the victim is in the clutches of a terrible adverbuilding-stone, and three miles to the east are mineral sary, with very little chance of hope for safety. As springs. Population 1890, 1,822.

a stimulant it is regarded justly as far more powerful, COB-NUT, a name given to some of the largest rapid and baneful in its effects than any other known and finest cultivated varieties of the hazel-nut. In drug. the West Indies the name is given to the fruit of Beginning with 1885, when crude cocaine was first Omphalea triandra, a ree of the family Euphorbiacea. made in Peru, vast quantities were sent to the United The tree has a white juice, which turns black in States and to Europe. The advantages of exporting drying, and in Guiana is used instead of ink. the crude alkaloid rather than the leaves proved

COBOURG, a port of entry and capital of North- many and important. The principal source of supumberland County, central Ontario, on Lake On-ply for the United States is by the way of Hamburg. tario, 69 miles N. E. of Toronto. It contains a Wes- COCANADA, a seaport and headquarters of leyan university and several woolen-mills, foundries Godavari district, Madras, southern India, 315 miles and breweries. It has a good harbor, and steamers N. of Madras. It exports cotton, oil-seeds, sugar, ply from here to all prominent lake and river points. rice and cigars. Population, 28,856. Population 1891, 4,829.

COCCEJI, HEINRICH FREIHERR VON, German COBURG PENINSULA, the most northerly part jurist; born at Bremen in 1644; died in 1719. He of Australia, to the west of the Gulf of Carpentaria. studied jurisprudence and philosophy in Leyden, It runs out in a northwestern direction toward Mel- and in 1672 was made professor of the law of naville Island, from which it is divided by Dundas tions at Heidelberg, and the following year was Strait.

appointed to a similar office at Frankfort-on-theCOCAINE, a vegetable alkaloid (C"H"NO") ob- Oder. His work on German civil law, Juris Pubtained from the leaves of the coca (or cuca, for lici Prudentia (1695), was almost universally used which see Cuca, Vol. VI, pp. 684, 685), a small as an academical text-book for this branch of jurisshrub growing in the mountains of Peru and Bolivia, prudence. but cultivated, after its wonderful properties became COCCEJI, SAMUEL von, German jurist, and known, in other parts of South America. The prin- chancellor of Prussia under Frederick the Great; a cipal source of the drug as a commercial product, at son of the preceding; born at Heidelberg in 1679; the present day, is the province of Yuncas, in Bolivia.

died in 1755.

His code of laws, Codex FrideriThe leaves from which the drug is obtained are cianus, was prepared by direction of Frederick and green, about two inches long, the blossoms white adopted for the kingdom. He died while chanand the berries red. The annual product is estimated cellor. at forty million pounds. The leaves, when mace

COCCO, COCCOA ROOT or EDDOES, the rated and treated with pure wine, produce one of the corms (underground stems) of plants of the genera finest stimulants ever tried by persons exhausted by | Colocasia and Caladium, of the family Aracea, naexcessive mental work or emotional excitement. tives of the West Indies and tropical America. Many attempts have been made in times past, by | The corm forms the principal food of many of the chemists, to extract the medicinal and chemical inhabitants, its taste being very inuch like that of properties of the plant, but no 'success was reached potatoes. until within late years, when an alkaloid was isolated COCCOMILIA OR COCUMIGLIA (Prunus coccowhich proved a thorough local anæsthetic, and to milia), a species of plum, a native of Calabria, of which was given the name cocaine. The drug of which the bark--particularly of the root-is used commerce forms colorless transparent prisms, is in that country for the cure of intermittent fevers. odorless and has a bitter taste. It is only sparingly COCCOSTEUS, a genus of fossil fishes, peculiar soluble in water, but freely soluble in ether, and is to the Devonian measures, of the suborder Placoused as a local anæsthetic. As such it has proved dermi, order Ganoidei. About seven species have especially valuable in operations on the more deli- been described. See ICHTHYOLOGY, Vol. XII, p. cate organs of the body, as the eye, etc.

686. centage of cocaine added to ordinary cacao butter- COCCULUS INDICUS, the very poisonous fruit pencils converts the latter into a remedy which gives of Anamirta cocculus, of the tropical family Menisalmost instant relief to a chafed or irritated skin, to permætea, a family of climbing plants, rich in bitter insect-bites, etc.

In 1889 cocaine was made artifi- and poisonous properties. A. cocculus is a native of cially from benzoil-ecgonin by introducing into it the East Indies; the poisonous principle of the the methyl group. Whether the new production fruits (also called "grains of paradise”) is called possesses special therapeutic properties has not been picrotoxin. It is used largely in medicine, in cerascertained, at least not announced.

tain ointments, and sometimes in malt liquors, to

Two per

852

COCCUS-COCK-FIGHTING

which it gives bitter and intoxicating but very dan- | LORD, AND THOMAS, distinguished naval officers. See gerous properties. See ADULTERATION, Vol. I, p. DUNDONALD, Vol. VII, pp. 539 et seq. 172.

COCKBURN, SIR ALEXANDER JAMES EDMUND, an COCCUS, a genus of insects of the order Hemip- English jurist; born Dec. 24, 1802; died in London, tera, suborder Homoptera, the type of a family, Nov. 20, 1880. He was graduated at Trinity Hall, Coccida, allied to the Aphis. They are very numer. Cambridge, in 1829; was called to the bar and ous, and are attached to particular plants, on the became queen's counsel in 1831. He first attracted juices of which they feed, often producing much public attention by his brilliant pleadings before mischief by the flow and loss of sap which their Parliamentary committees. He was elected to Parpunctures occasion. This family contains some spe- liament as a Liberal from Southampton in 1847; cies which are of great value, particularly for the was appointed solicitor-general in 1851, retaining beautiful dyes which they yield. Among them are the position until 1856; chief justice of the Court of Cochineal (Vol. VI, p. 97) and KERMES (Vol. Common Pleas in 1856, and England's Lord Chief XIV, p. 49)

Justice in 1859, holding office until his death. He COCCYX. See ANATOMY, Vol. I, p. 821.

was knighted in 1850, and was the British representaCOCHABAMBA, a central department of Bo- tive at the “ Alabama case" arbitration at Geneva livia, containing extensive plateaus. The climate in 1871–72. He dissented from the award of the aris equable and healthful, and its fertile valleys ren- bitrators for legal reasons, holding that in the case der it the richest and most picturesque district of of the Florida and that of the Shenandoah the rethe republic. It was formerly known as the granary sponsibility of the government had not been proved. of Peru. Agriculture and cattle-raising are the As a barrister he conducted many famous cases. He chief occupations. Area, 26,685 square miles; pop- prosecuted Palmer, the Rugeley poisoner, and as a ulation, about 355,000. The capital, Cochabamba, judge presided over the trial of the Wainwright has a population variously estimated, as no official murder case and the trial of Arthur Orton for percensus has been taken since 1854, from 15,000 to jury. His charge in this last occupied twenty days 40,000.

in delivery, and was a model of lucid statement of COCHIN-CHINA, the most southern province of evidence. French Indo-China, bordered northeast by the ter- COCKCHAFER (Melolontha vulgaris). See Coleritory of Moïs, northwest by Cambodia, south and OPTERA, Vol. VI, pp. 131, 132. east by the Chinese Sea, and by the Gulf of Siam in COCKER, a small dog of the spaniel kind, with the west. (See Cochin-China, Vol. VI, pp. 92–97.) a thick, wavy coat.

It is trained to start game in The area is 23,082 square miles, and the population snipe and woodcock shooting. See Spaniel, under is estimated at (1891) 2,034,453, of whom 3,000 are

Dog, Vol. VII, p. 328. Europeans, 1,500,000 Annamites, 105,000 Cambodi- COCKERILL, JOHN, an English manufacturer, ans, 50,000 Chinese, and the remainder Malays and and one of the greatest influences in commerce; born Malabrians. French Cochin-China was incorporated in Lancashire, England, Aug. 3, 1790; died at Warwith French Indo-China in 1887, and the whole saw, June 19, 1840. He was the son of William divided into 21 arrondissements and 4 provinces; | Cockerill, an inventor and machinist, who, in 1807, viz., Saigon, Vinh-Long, Mytho and Bassac. There settled at Liège, in Belgium. John, with an elder are 5,660 French troops in Cochin-China, besides brother, succeeded to his father's business in 1812; about 2,800 Annamite soldiers. The imports (1892) established a woolen factory in Berlin in 1815; in amounted to 35,546,628 francs, and the exports to 1817 founded the famous works at Seraing, and in80,706,856 francs, of which 70 per cent was rice. vested heavily in various enterprises in all parts The annual revenue and expenditure are balanced at Europe. His statue was erected at Seraing in 1871. about 30,000,000 francs. Railroads and telegraph COCKERILL, John A., an American journalist; lines have been introduced, especially in the province born in Locust Grove, Ohio, in 1845; died at Cairo, of Saigon. There were, in 1892, 51 miles of railroad Egypt, April 10, 1896. He served in the Union army and 1,840 miles of telegraph line.

during the Civil War as a drummer. After the war he COCHITUATE LAKE, of Natick township, Mid- engaged in newspaper-work at Dayton, Hamilton dlesex County, Massachusetts, a sheet of water cover- and Cincinnati, Ohio; went to the scene of the Russoing 69 acres, is the chief source of the water supply | Turkish war as special correspondent for the Cinof Boston. It is about 18 miles W. of Boston. An cinnati Enquirer. Upon his return to America in artificial channel connects the lake with Sudbury 1870, he, with Silas Hutchins, started the WashingRiver.

ton Post; took the editorship of the St. Louis PostCOCHRANE, ALEXANDER DUNDAS Ross WISH-Dispatch in 1879; became managing editor of the

WishART Baillie, a British author; born in November, New York World; in 189r purchased the Commercial 1816; died in London, Feb. 15, 1890. He was a Advertiser; and in 1894 became a member of the member of Parliament in 1841-46, in 1847-52, in editorial staff of the New York Herald. He was on 1859-68, and in 1870-80. He succeeded to the foreign duty for the Herald at the time of his death. peerage as first Baron Lamington in 1880.

COCK-FIGHTING, a barbarous sport common long known to society as Baillie-Cochrane, a writer among both the Greeks and Romans, as it still is of poetry, and author of Young Italy. He recently common in India, the Malay countries and Spanish published in Blackwood's Magazine, In the Days of America. It flourished for fully six centuries in the Dandies.

England, the cockpit at Whitehall having been COCHRANE, ALEXANDER THOMAS, ADMIRAL, I erected and patronized by royalty. It is now pro

He was

COCKNEY-CODICIL

853

hibited by statute both in England and the United | North America and elsewhere. It is valuable for States. The game-fowl is the favorite breed of hay, and forms an important part in almost all the fighting-cocks, and much art is displayed in the best pastures, as it is much relished by cattle. It training of cocks and in trimming and preparing thrives on most kinds of soil and in situations too the cock for the combat. Young cocks are called shady for many other grasses. It is cultivated exstags, and are considered at their best when two tensively in America, where it is known as “orchardyears of age and from 372 to 472 pounds in weight. grass." When prepared for battle their natural spurs are

COCOA-PLUM, the fruit of Chrysobalanus icaco, usually reinforced by steel spurs from two to three of the family Rosacea, and native of the West Indies inches in length. Strange to say, cock-fighting was and adjacent United States localities. Its edible, a specially sanctioned sport of some English public plum-like fruit has suggested the name. schools, the schoolmaster receiving a regular tax COCOA POWDER. See GUNPOWDERS, in these from the boys on the occasion, which was on Shrove Supplements. Tuesday. It was so in the days of King Henry II; COCOON, the silken sheath spun by the larvæ of and Roger Ascham, in his Schoolmaster (1570), an- many insects in passing into the pupa, or restingnounced his intention, never fulfilled, of writing a stage. The arrangement of the threads and the Book of the Cock-Pitte, as "a kinde of pastime fitte completeness of the covering vary widely. The most for a gentleman."

typical and perfect cocoons are those of many moths, COCKNEY, originally a child delicately nur. especially those of the silkworm. The delicacy, tured, and hence applied to the citizens of luxu- neatness and labor exhibited by these last make rious towns, as opposed to the hardier inhabitants them as marvelous as they are useful. See also of the country. Strictly and popularly speaking, BUTTERFLIES, Vol. IV, pp. 594, 596. the term is applied to such natives of London, COCO RIVER, also called, in parts, Wauks and England, as are “born within the sound of Bow Segovia, a river of Nicaragua, which rises in western bells,” that is, in the East End of London. These Segovia, in the northern part of the country, and are popularly supposed to be unable to apply the takes a tortuous northeasterly course through the aspirate properly.

valley formed by the Teluca and the Tompocenté COCK OF THE PLAINS (Centrocercus mountains, and enters the Caribbean Sea at Cape urophasianus), the largest American grouse. It | Gracias a Dios. It is three hundred nuiles in length, lives on the Western plains among the wild sage fows through a narrow valley, and though it re(Artemesia), which forms its principal food and givesceives the waters of many tributaries, it does not a bitter flavor to the flesh. It is often called sage- carry a body of water at all proportionate to its cock.

length. COCK OF THE ROCK, a beautiful South- COCOS ISLANDS. See KEELING ISLANDS, Vol. American bird of the genus Rupicola and family of XIV, p. 26. chatterers (Cotingida). The bird is orange-yellow CODAZZI, AUGUSTIN, an Italian engineer; born in color and has a curious crest on the head. It | in 1792, in Lugo, Italy; died in Colombia, South lives in the interior mountainous regions. It is America, in June, 1859.

America, in June, 1859. He served under Napoleon about the size of a common pigeon.

in the Italian army. He moved to America in COCK OF THE WOODS, a species of grouse. 1817 and participated in the Venezuelan revoluSee CAPERCALLY, Vol. V, pp. 53, 54.

tion; entered the artillery service of Colombia as COCKRAN, WILLIAM BOURKE, an American engineer; for the nine years following 1831 was in public man; born Feb. 28, 1854, in Ireland; emi- the employ of Venezuela; from that time until his grated to the United States in 1871; taught school death served various South American republics in for five years in Westchester County, New York, exploring expeditions and surveys. and was admitted to the bar of New York state in COD, CAPE, a peninsula of the coast of Massa1876. His ability as a lawyer gained for him a chusetts.

chusetts. See MASSACHUSETTS, Vol. XV, pp. 611the New 612.

CODEINE, an opium alkaloid obtained from a leader in Tammany Hall, in national Democratic poppy-heads. It is a white crystalline substance, politics, and was a member from New York in the similar to morphin, but much feebler in its action. Fiftieth, Fifty-second and Fifty-third Congresses. See OPIUM, Vol. XVII, p. 793. His speeches in favor of sound money and against CODEX, a name applied to ancient manuscripts, free silver in the Presidential campaign of 1896, especially of the classics or of the Scriptures. Of were eloquent and forceful efforts.

the latter class the principal are the Codex Sinaiticus, COCKSCOMB, an annual plant of the family discovered in 1844 and 1859 in the monastery of Amarantacea, a native of the East Indies. By gar- Mount Sinai by Tischendorf, and the Codex Vatideners the name is confined to Celosia cristata. It canus, both of the fourth century; and the Codex grows with an upright stem, which becomes flat- Alexandrinus and the Codex Ephraemi of the fifth tened upward, expands and forms a wavy crest. century.

See PALÆOGRAPHY, Vol. XVIII, pp. 143, The colors are various and often very brilliant. 144.

COCKSFOOT-GRASS (Dactylis), a genus of CODEX ALEXANDRINUS. See ALEXANDRIAN grasses called cock's foot from the dense branches MS., Vol. I, p. 496. of the one-sided panicles. D. glomerata is a native CODICIL, a supplement to a will made for the of Europe, and has been introduced extensively into | purpose of altering its terms or making qualifications 854

CODLING - MOTH-CELIUS

a

or additions thereto. A codicil must be executed contact with the crowned heads of the world, and his with the same formality as a will, and when properly trip well sustained his reputation. At the World's executed becomes a part of the will. There may be Columbian Exposition of 1893 he met with conseveral codicils to the same will, and each codicil siderable success. At this period one of his assooperates as a republication of the will and the pre-ciates, John M. Burke (" Arizona John"), published ceding codicils. A codicil properly executed will a biography of his leader, under the title of Buf. serve to rectify a defective execution of the will, if falo Bill

, from Prairie to Palace, while at the same sufficient reference is made in the codicil to clearly time his first employer, the veteran Alexander Maidentify the will. Unless it be affirmatively shown jors, also dealt eulogistically with Cody in a book that the testator intended to have the codicil operate entitled Seventy Years on the Frontier. Eliminating separately from the will, a destruction of the will by the glare of the footlights and the advertising dethe testator will revoke the codicil. See WiLL, vices of an aspirant for popular favor, Cody must Vol. XXIV, p. 570.

still be considered as a considerable factor with CODLING-MOTH (Carpocapsa pomonella), others in the winning of the West and as a typical small moth which occurs wherever apples are grown. instance of the fearless rider of the plains. The perfect insect flies at night and deposits its eggs in the young fruit. The larva feeds on the COE COLLEGE, an institution of learning, core of the fruit, arresting its growth and causing it founded at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in 1881, and conto fall prematurely.

ducted under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church. CODY, William FREDERICK, an American fron- In 1895 there were 12 instructors and 170 students tiersman and scout, was born in Scott County, Iowa, | in attendance. The library contains 2,500 volumes.

Feb. 26, 1845. His early | The total productive funds of the institution amount
years were passed on the to one hundred thousand dollars. Its income is
frontier in the midst of twelve thousand dollars per annum. Dr. James
Indian alarms. During the Marshall, who was president of the college for a
Civil War he rendered serv- long time, died Sept. 11, 1896.
ice as a Union scout for COE, GEORGE S., an American financier; born
several commanders. On in Newport, Rhode Island, in March, 1817. He
the construction of the began commercial life as a bank clerk in 1834, and
Union Pacific railroad has been engaged in the banking business since
young Cody attached him that time. In 1855 he became connected with the
self to a camp of United American Exchange National Bank, and first as
States troops protecting vice-president and later as president has had active
the laborers, and won his charge of that institution ever since. In 1858 he
sobriquet of “Buffalo Bill” was instrumental in organizing the New York clear-

by taking a contract to sup- ing-house banks into an association which, by its W. F. CODY.

ply the entire force with system of certificates, based upon the best assets of fresh buffalo-ineat for a certain period, killing, under each corporation, carried them safely through the one contract with the Goddard Brothers, 4,280 buf- troublous times of the war. falos. Involved in repeated contests with the Indians, CELESYRIA. See LEBANON, Vol. XIV, pp. he became a noted frontier character, whose coolness 393, 394. and peaceable disposition were only equaled by his COELHO, FRANCISCO ADOLPHO, Portuguese phibravery in combat. On one occasion he killed the lologist; born in 1847, at Coimbra; appointed pronoted Cheyenne chief, Yellow Hand, in the presence fessor of comparative philology at Lisbon, in 1878. of Indians and troops. He became known to juve- His Origem da Lingua Portugueza; Contos Populares nile America in the stories of Western adventure writ. Portuguezes; and Bibliotheca d'Educação Nacional, ten by E. Z.C. Judson ("Ned Buntline"), and, with the are representative of his work as a philologist, as advance of civilization, finding his occupation as a an editor and as an educator, respectively. scout gone, Cody took for a while to the stage. He left COELHO, GONZALO, one of the Portuguese Mavithe boards on the slightest Indian alarm, and on one gators of the time of Columbus. The first that is occasion rode to the front in the gaudy trappings of recorded of him is that in 1488 he was in command the sensational drama in which he had been appear- of a vessel which brought one of the Senegambian ing. Associating himself with Nate Saulsbury, and chiefs to Lisbon as a prisoner. Next, in 1503, he observing with considerable business instinct the was placed in charge of a fleet of six vessels to find rapid extinction of the frontiersman who won the a route to the Moluccas to the south of Santa Cruz, West, Cody collected a band of Indians, cowboys, Brazil. He returned from this voyage in 1506. rough-riders, unbroken bronchos and a small herd of During his absence he explored the coast of South buffalos and commenced a series of exhibitions in America as far south as Rio Janeiro. The record the principal towns of the American continent. of these voyages makes up all that is known of his His “Wild West,” as he called it, rapidly grew in

life. popular favor.

As recreation for the youth and CELIUS OR CÆLIUS ANTIPATER, a Roman reminiscence for the elders, he played to huge audi- historian, the author of the Annales, which were ences in almost every town of the Union, and under- edited by Brutus. He lived about 123 B.C. The took a series of tours through the principal cities of Annales contain an account of the second Punic Europe. Here his fame as a scout brought him in war, of great value. See also Livy, Vol. XIV, p. 729.

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