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CELOM-COGNOVIT CELOM. See EMBRYOLOGY, Vol. VIII, pp. Dormans-Beauvais from 1712 until 1718, when he 167, 168.
was chosen rector of the University of Paris, a posiCENOCYTE, a name applied to a plant-body or tion he retained until the time of his death. He part of a body in which nuclear division has oc- wrote a number of drinking-songs, and, later, Latin
curred, but has not been accom- hymns, some of which are in use to-day. These panied by the formation of cell-hymns were included by Cardinal Vintimilli, in walls. The body or part is ac- 1735, in the Paris Breviary. Translations are to be cordingly unseptate, that is, with found in some of the English collections.
out partition-walls, although it COFFIN, CHARLES CARLETON, war correspondent, -N may be composed of numbers of author and lecturer; born July 26, 1823, in Bos
protoplasmic units which in other cawen, New Hampshire; died in Boston, March 2,
other algæ; although the cæno- and served against the Americans during their strug. A cell of Cladophora, cytic condition is not wanting in gle for liberty. He was appointed vice-admiral in showing cænocy- even the highest plants.
1808 and admiral in 1814. He was dismissed from tic character, con COERCION AND COER- | the navy in 1788, having been found guilty of signtaining !! nuclei CION ACTS. See Home Rule, ing a false muster, but was reinstated almost imme.
diately. After the war he visited his native land CEREBIDÆ, a family of oscine passerine birds and endowed the Coffin School at Nantucket. found in the warmer parts of America, popularly COFFIN, WILLIAM ANDERSON, an American artist; known as the honey-creepers. They are so closely born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, July 31, 1855. related to the American warblers that many orni- He studied under Bonnat in Paris; obtained a thirdthologists dispute the division into separate families. class medal there, at the exposition of 1889. Prin
COEYMANS, a small railroad town of Albany cipal works: Close of Day, September Breeze; A County, southeastern New York, where the West Pennsylvania Farm; After the Thunder Shower; and Shore railroad bends westward toward Buffalo, while Evening. its Albany branch keeps on northward. Soap, straw- COGALNICEANU, MICHEL, a Roumanian statespaper and brooms are manufactured. There are flag- man; born in 1806; died in Paris, July 5, 1891. stone-quarries here, and also a mineral spring. At an early age he became professor of national his. Population 1890, 963.
tory at Jassy. A leader in the Jassy revolution of COFFEE-BUG (Lecanium caffea), an insect of 1848, he was exiled for a number of years. the Coccus family, which lives on the coffee-tree largely instrumental in the union of the provinces and is extremely destructive to coffee plantations. of the Danube. In 1864 he was president of the
COFFEE-TREE OR KENTUCKY COFFEE, Cabinet, and from 1868 to 1870 was again a mema leguminous tree of the United States, often grow-ber of the Cabinet, as Minister of Internal Affairs. ing to a large size, the seeds of which have been In 1876 he was made Minister of Foreign Affairs; sometimes used as a substitute for coffee. The single later, ambassador to France, and in 1879 he became species is Gymnocladus Canadensis, found chiefly in Senator. During the whole of his career he was a the Mississippi basin, east of the prairie region. Liberal, and to his fearlessness are due many of Although closely related to the "honey-locust," it is the political and religious reforms of Roumania. a tall, thornless tree, with large twice-pinnate leaves, He wrote some valuable histories, the most important small, greenish flowers in narrow racemes, and large, being his Histoire de la Valachie et de la Moldavie
, tough linear pods five to ten inches long. It is a and his books on the gipsies, their origin, lanfine ornamental and timber tree.
COFFER-FISH, a fish of the family Ostraciontida, COGGESHALL, a market town in the county of often known as trunk-fishes. These fishes have all Essex, England, situated on the river Blackwater, 44 the body except the tail incased in a coat of mail, miles N.E. of London. The town consists of Great composed of large hexagonal plates, which are firmly and Little Coggeshall, connected by a bridge across interlocked. They are often used as food.
the river, and contains a beautiful church, St. Peter's, COFFEYVILLE, a railway city of Kansas, on restored in 1868, a grammar school endowed by Sir the line of the Santa Fé and Missouri Pacific rail- Robert Hitcham, a mechanic's institute and a public roads, and a shipping-point for the Indian Territory. library. Its manufactures are chiefly silk, velvets, It is in Montgomery County. Coal and natural gas patent isinglass and gelatine. In 1142 King Stephen are found here. Population 1890, 2,282.
here founded a Cistercian abbey, part of the ground COFFIN, CHARLES, a French writer of Latin plan of which was excavated and examined in 1865. poetry; born in 1676, in Buzancy, France; died June Population, 3,109. 20, 1749, in Paris. He was principal of the Collège COGNOVIT, a legal term signifying a written
confession of the plaintiff's cause of action, author- | Bacteria (1872–75). He founded (1875) and edited
COGSWELL, JONATHAN, an American Congre- COHUNE OIL, a fixed oil obtained from the
He wrote a
15 times greater in weight than the former. Under number of books, which include Hebrew Theocracy it, depositors of either metal could obtain at the (1848); Godliness a Mystery (1857); and The Ap- mint, on equal terms, either gold or silver coins in propriate Work of the Holy Spirit (1859).
payment therefor. This plan is known as free coinCOGSWELL, JOSEPH GREEN, an American edu- age. Under the ratio fixed by the act mentioned, cator and librarian; born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, an owner of silver could generally get more for his Sept. 27, 1786; died Nov. 26, 1871, in Cambridge, metal at the mint than in the market, and, conseMassachusetts; graduated at Harvard in 1806; tutor quently, silver came in for coinage pretty freely. At at Harvard from 1813 to 1815; spent two years at that time a Mexican Spanish dollar, containing Göttingen University, Germany; in 1820 appointed about two per cent more silver than the United professor of geology and mineralogy at Harvard; States standard dollar, was freely received in circuestablished, with Bancroft, the Round Hill School lation, and astute brokers quietly changed the latter at Northampton, Massachusetts; editor of the New for these foreign pieces at home and abroad, exportYork Review for a few years; librarian of the Astor ing the inferior coin in great numbers for purpose of Library from 1848 to 1860. His bibliographical such exchange. The foreign pieces received were work did much for American literature, and his scien- then deposited for coinage, yielding to the owner a tific collections enriched the museum of Harvard profit of two per cent, but the process drove the College. He was a constant contributor to the bet- United States dollar out of home-circulation. To ter magazines of his day.
prevent this abuse, President Jefferson, in 1806, COHN, FERDINAND JULIUS, a German botanist; stopped the coinage of the silver dollar pieces. born in Breslau, Jan. 24, 1828. In 1850 he became Since that time no silver dollars have been coined private tutor and in 1870 professor of botany in for circulation under a free coinage law, those manuthe Breslau University. He belonged to the school factured having been exclusively for exportation. of Schleiden, which endeavored to trace back to the The legalizing of foreign coins, as provided by development of the vegetable cell the origin of life in Congress, and the undervaluation of gold pieces plants, and he devoted himself to the study of the in comparison with silver, effectually kept the gold line of demarcation between vegetable and animal coin from circulation. To change this, and avowlife. His researches on fermentation, on the active edly to bring gold into circulation, Congress, in 1834, agents of putrefaction, on miasmas, and on microbes reduced the weight of gold coins about seven per cent. in contagious diseases, have attracted wide attention. The measure, which met with but little opposition Among his monographs the best known are Unter- in either house, was championed in the Senate as suchungen über die Entwickelung der Mikroskopischen an administration measure by Senator Thomas H. Algen und Pilze (1854); Kleine Untersuchungen über | Benton, and was approved by President Andrew
* Copyright, 1897, by The Werner Company,
COINS OF THE UNITED STATES
Jackson, June 28, 1834. The law had the desired previous to 1873 was only $8,031,238, and that effect. Gold at once became the standard of value, mainly for exportation. No silver of any kind was and coins of that metal entered freely into circula- in circulation when the act of 1873 was passed. tion, to the exclusion of silver. Later, in 1853, au- The average price, in gold, of the bullion in a thority was given the Secretary of the Treasury to silver dollar for the last two years has been about a purchase silver and coin it into fractional parts of a half-dollar, and the change to a silver standard dollar, reduced in weight in order to keep them which would unquestionably ensue from the free from being melted down. No opposition to this coinage of both metals at a ratio of 16 to i would measure was developed, and it furnished the country, enable the debtor class to satisfy their obligations for the first time, with its own so-called subsidiary under a new standard having a purchasing power of silver pieces, which would remain in circulation as about one half of the present (1896) one. The long as the circulation was continued upon a gold result of the experiment already made, of purchasing, basis.
for more than three years, the domestic product of The introduction of the demand notes of 1861 silver, and burying it in the public vaults with a view and the United States notes (greenbacks) of 1862 to enhance the price of that metal, should warn men drove gold from circulation, except that enough re- against hoping that any legislation will be likely to mained for payment of duties, as required by law, effect any considerable increase in its price. The at our ports of entry, for payment of coin interest average price of the silver in a dollar fell from $0.806 on the public debt, and for general circulation in in 1890 to $0.603 in 1893, or about 25 per cent, the Pacific states, where public sentiment would not though the government was absorbing in its vaults permit the greenbacks to be used as money. Silver nearly all the domestic production, leaving the supcoins also disappeared from circulation.
ply for the arts and manufactures to importation. No The passage of the act of March 19, 1869, “ to different result could be expected from free coinage. strengthen the public credit,” by pledging the pay- See also FINANCES OF THE UNITED STATES, in these ment of public obligations in coin, would evidently, Supplements.
JOHN SHERMAN. in a short time, require a largely increased coinage * COINS OF THE UNITED STATES. The by the mints. The coinage laws as they then existed first coinage in the American colonies was in 1652, were scattered through the several volumes of United when the general court of Massachusetts established a States statutes from 1792 to 1853, and in many mint in Boston, and John Hull, mint-master, struck respects were imperfect and conflicting. It was silver shillings, sixpences and threepences. All of deemed advisable by the Treasury Department to these coins bore the device of the pine-tree. They revise and codify these laws, that the coinage of gold were of the same fineness as the English coins of and silver, essential to carrying out the act of 1869, like denomination, but of less weight. This mint might be promptly executed. On April 25, 1870,
On April 25, 1870, continued in operation for 36 years. . After a while a bill for the purpose was sent to Congress by the the “royal oak” was substituted for the pine-tree, in Secretary of the Treasury, from which the authority order to conciliate King Charles II, who disliked to coin the silver dollar was omitted, but provision this minting by a colony. All the above-named was made for subsidiary silver coins. This bill, coins bore the date of 1652. But twopenny pieces pending in Congress for three years, was the subject were added with the date of 1662. No other colony of much discussion, and on Feb. 12, 1873, became had a mint until 1659, when Lord Baltimore caused a law, practically with no opposition. In lieu of the shillings, sixpences and groats to be coined for use silver dollar, authority was given to coin a trade in Maryland. James II issued ten coins for circuladollar of 420 grains' weight, at the expense of the tion in America, though few of these found their depositor. This coin, as its name indicates, was way
hither. In 1722, 1723 and 1733 copper coins intended only for exportation. The depreciation were minted in England with the legend “Rosa in silver which followed enabled the depositor to Americana." There were also copper halfpence put this coin into home circulation at a profit. The issued in 1773 for circulation in Virginia, and in coin was made a legal tender to the amount of five 1774 silver shillings were added.
Florida and dollars, but by an act approved July 22, 1876, Con. Louisiana had colonial coins of their own before gress took from it its legal-tender quality, and at they became parts of the United States. the same time authorized the Secretary of the Treas- After the Revolutionary War the Continental ury to limit its coinage to its demand for exporta- Congress passed an act, in 1786, which established a tion. The coinage of this dollar practically ceased mint and regulated the value and alloy of the nain 1878, and its further issue was prohibited by law tional coin. The government prescribed the device in 1887
for copper coin the next year.
Under this authority The fall in the value of silver, in its relation with the so-called “Franklin penny,” with the legend, gold, could not be foreseen. Had the measure of “Mind your business,” was made by contract. Ву 1873 not been enacted, the silver dollar would have the Federal constitution, ratified in 1789, the right become the standard of value in 1874, and would of coining mony was transferred from the states have remained so ever since, to the exclusion of to the United States. Under this constitution the gold. The further coinage of the silver dollar, how- United States mint was established at Philadelphia ever, on government account, as in the case of in 1792, and the regular coinage began in the folminor coins, has been carried on under the acts of lowing year. Congress had, by an act of Aug. 8, Feb. 28, 1878, and July 12, 1890, to the extent of 1786, and a resolution of July 6, 1787, established about $423,000,000. The entire amount coined the dollar as the monetary unit.
* Copyright, 1897, by The Werner Company.
DATE OF LAW.
COINS OF THE UNITED STATES The following table gives the weight and fineness The etymology of the word dollar is the English of all the denominations used in the United States. form of the German word thaler, which is itself a It also shows the dates of the various acts of Con-contracted form or equivalent for Joachimsthal gress which authorized their issue; what length of (Joachim's dale), at which place the silver used in time each issue continued, when it was discontinued, the mintage was mined, toward the end of the when, as in certain instances, the issue was resumed, fifteenth century. The name is applied to the as well as the metals of which they are composed: German silver dollar (thaler); also to similar coins
in the Netherlands and Norway and Sweden; to the
large silver coin of Spain (the Spanish dollar, or
Spanish dollar in Spanish America. The dollar is
the monetary unit of the United States and Can-
ada, --in the former being represented by gold and June 28, 1834
899. 225 Jan. 18, 1837
silver coins as well as by notes, in the latter by notes
900 Half-eagle... April 2, 1792 135
9162/ alone. Newfoundland has in use a gold coin repJune 28, 1834 129
899.225 resenting two dollars in value. Jan. 18, 1837
The act of April 2, 1792, besides establishing Quarter-eagle - April 2, 1792 67.5
91623 June 28, 1834 64.5
the coinage mint at Philadelphia, fixed the values of Jan. 18, 1837
the coins, providing for “dollars or units, each 3-dollar piece-- Feb. 21, 1853 77.4
to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar," as Dollar.. March 3, 1849
that coin was then current in the United States,
and containing 37114 grains of pure silver, or 416 Dollar.. April 2, 1792
grains of standard silver. An act of Jan. 18, 1837,
fixed the weight of the dollar at 4127/2 grains troy, Discontinued -- Feb. 12, 1873
nine tenths fine, the quantity of pure silver being Reauthorized -- Feb. 28, 1878 Discontinued Nov. I, 1893
the same as provided by the act of April 12, 1792. Trade dollar. Feb. 12, 1873
This dollar was undervalued, and quickly went out
900 Discontinued 1883
of circulation. Demonetized July 22, 1876
The trade dollar was a coin authorized by the act Half-dollar-- April 2, 1792
892.4 Jan. 18, 1837 2064
of 1873, having a weight of 420 grains, but ceased
900 Feb. 21, 1853 192
to be coined in 1883. It was intended for use in the Feb. 12, 1873 192.9
trade with China and Japan. By an act of March Quarter-dollar - April 12, 1792 104
892.4 1, 1887, the Treasurer of the United States was
authorized to redeem in standard silver dollars all
trade dollars presented within six months following.
The coinage of gold dollars was directed by an Discontinued. - | May 2, 1878
act of March 3, 1849. These gold dollars consisted
of 25.8 grains, nine tenths fine, 23.22 being pure
900 Feb. 21, 1853 38.4
gold. By the act of 1873 this gold dollar was Feb. 12, 1873 38.58
declared the unit value of the United States, and the Half-dime- April 2, 1792
892.4 further coinage of the standard silver dollar was disJan. 18, 1837
900 Feb. 21, 1853
continued. The coinage of standard silver dollars
19.2 Discontinued -- Feb. 12, 1873
was resumed in 1878, according to the act of Feb3-centeMar. 3, 1851 1238
ruary 28th of that year, known as the Bland-Allison Mar. 3, 1853 11.52
Act, which directed the Secretary of the Treasury to Discontinued -- Feb. 12, 1873
purchase silver bullion to the amount of not less
than $2,000,000, and not more than $4,000,000, per 5-cent (nickel) - May 16, 1866 77.16 75% copper; 25%
month, to be coined into standard silver dollars. nickel.
This coinage was continued by the act of July 14, 3-cent (nickel) March 3, 1865 30 75% copper; 25% 1890, providing that the Secretary of the Treasury
should purchase, from time to time, silver bullion to 2-cent. (bronze) April 22, 1792
95% copper; 5%
the aggregate amount of 4,500,000 ounces, or so
tin and zinc. Discontinued -- Feb. 12, 1873
much thereof as may be offered, each month. Nov. Cent (copper)-- April 2, 1792 264
1, 1893, the act repealing the purchasing clause of
the act of 1890 was passed. Since that date the pur-
168 Discontinued -- Feb. 21, 1857
chase of silver bullion by the government of the Cent (nickel). - Feb. 21, 1857 72 88% copper; 12% United States has consisted of the silver contained
in gold deposits, the small fractions of silver for Discontinued.- April 22, 1864
return in fine bars, the amount retained in payment Cent (bronze). - April 22, 1864
95% copper; 5%
of charges, surplus silver returned by the operative Half-cent (cop
officers of the mints at the annual settlement, and per) April 2, 1792 132
mutilated domestic silver coin purchased for the Jan. 14, 1793 104
subsidiary silver coinage under the provisions of March 3, 1795
84 Discontinued. - Feb. 21, 1757
section 3526 of the Revised Statutes.
The value of a United States silver dollar, as
measured by the market price of silver and the quan- | open-air preaching and holding cottage services, he tity of silver purchasable with a dollar at the average joined the Methodists, and served as president of the London price of silver, was, in 1873, $1.016; in English and Irish conferences in 1782, 1797 and 1878, $0.936; in 1890, $0.926, and in 1893, $0.655; | 1805. In 1784 he arrived in New York, having been and it has decreased since.
set apart by Wesley as "superintendent" of the socieThe standard fineness for both coins, silver and ties in America. He made nine voyages to America, gold, is nine tenths, one tenth being alloy. The and died on the Indian Ocean, May 2, 1814, while gold dollar is generally estimated at an exchange- on a missionary voyage to Ceylon, having devoted able value of 4s. 2d. in Great Britain.
his life to the cause of Methodist foreign missions. By the act of Congress establishing the United Among his numerous writings are a Life of Wesley, States mint, the following coins were authorized: History of the West Indies; Commentary on the Holy Gold, eagle, half-eagle, quarter-eagle; silver, dollar, Scriptures, etc. half-dollar, quarter-dollar, dime, half-dime; copper, COL, a depression or pass in a mountain range. cent, half-cent. Changes have been made at various | In those parts of the Alps where the French language times, not only in weight and fineness, but also in prevails, the passes are usually named cols; as, the the metals used for the minor coins. At present the Col-de-Balme, the Col-du-Géant, etc. following coins are struck: Gold, double eagle, eagle, COLA, KOLA OR GOORA NUT. See NUT, half-eagle, three-dollar, quarter-eagle, dollar; silver, Vol. XVII, p. 664. dollar, half-dollar, quarter-dollar, dime; minor coins, COLBAN, ADOLPHINE MARIE (SCHMIDT), a Norof nickel and bronze, five-cent, three-cent and cent. wegian novelist; born in Christiania, Norway, Dec.
By the act of Feb. 12, 1873, the metric system was 18, 1814; died at Rome, March 27, 1884. She was to a certain extent used in determining the weight left a widow at thirty, and obliged to earn her own of the silver coins. Thus the half-dollar was to living; visited Paris, and was employed by a journal weigh 1272 grams, the quarter-dollar 674 grams, the there to go to Rome as Italian correspondent. She dime 272 grams.
has written numerous novels, among which
be Up to 1849, eagles, or ten-dollar gold pieces, were mentioned I Live (1877); An Old Maid (1879); the highest denomination authorized. But the dis- Cleopatra (1880); and Thyra (1882). covery of gold in large quantity in California caused COLBURN, WARREN, an American mathematia demand for a larger coin, and the double eagle cian and educator; born March 1, 1793, in Dedwas authorized by act of March 3, 1849, and issued ham, Massachusetts; died Sept. 13, 1833, in Lowell, in 1850. By the same act gold dollars were also Massachusetts. He graduated at Harvard in 1820; authorized. Besides the governmental issues, there for several years was superintendent of a manufacwere octagonal and ring dollars, and even gold half-turing company at Waltham, Massachusetts; endollars and quarter-dollars, issued in California. The gaged in teaching at Lowell, and was examiner in Mormons in Utah also had gold coins of their own. mathematics at Harvard. He published First Lessons These had peculiar devices, and their favorite inscrip- in Intellectual Arithmetic, an Algebra and a Sequel to tion, “Holiness to the Lord.” Although the United the arithmetic. States constitution prohibits coining by the states, it COLBURN, ZERAH, an American mathematical has been held that individuals may issue coins which prodigy; born Sept. I, 1804, in Cabot, Vermont; are not similar to the national coinage. In Decem- died March 2, 1840, in Norwich, Vermont. At a ber, 1892, a special silver half-dollar was issued by very early age he was exhibited in America, England, the United States to commemorate the World's Fair Scotland, Ireland and France, mentally solving inat Chicago, the entire issue of 5,000,000 coins imme- tricate problems with great facility. At the age of diately selling at one dollar each.
nine he was able to answer immediately questions J. F. CARGILL.
like, What is 999,999' X 49' X 25? In 1820 he beCOKE, RICHARD, United States Senator from came a teacher in London, performing astronomical Texas; born in Williamsburg, Virginia, March 13, calculations at the same time for Dr. Thomas Young, 1829; served in the Confederate army as private and then secretary of the Board of Longitude. In 1825
captain, and after the war he united with the Methodist Church and was for became judge of the su- nine years an
itinerant preacher. In 1835 he preme court of Texas. In became professor of languages in Norwich Uni1873, and again in 1876, versity, Vermont, which position he held till his he was elected governor. death. His remarkable faculty disappeared as he On March 4, 1877, he grew to manhood. took his seat in the United COLBY UNIVERSITY, formerly Waterville ColStates Senate, to which he lege; located at Waterville, Maine; chartered by the was re-elected in 1883 and Baptist Church in 1813, the charter being taken 1889, but was defeated in under the laws of Massachusetts; reorganized under 1895
the laws of Maine in 1821. The name was changed COKE, THOMAS, first in 1867 to Colby University, in honor of a Boston bishop of the Methodist philanthropist, Gardner Colby, through whose gener
Episcopal Church; born osity the institution had greatly prospered. The at Brecon, in Wales, Sept. 9, 1747; graduated at Ox-university is co-educational, but separate classes for ford in 1768, and settled as a curate in Somerset- each sex are conducted. The president in 1896 shire, England. Being dismissed by his rector for was the Rev. Nathaniel Butler. There were 15 in the