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COLCHAGUA-COLE

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faculty in 1895, 260 students and 31,000 volumes in the Chickahominy. The troops under Sheridan the library. Since the organization, 1,087 students occupied Cold Harbor, May 31st. June ist, they have been graduated.

were joined by forces from Butler's army. An asCOLCHAGUA, a small province in southern sault on the Confederates was made, which, though central Chile, bounded by the provinces of O'Higgins partially successful, resulted in a loss of two thousand on the north and Curicó on the south, and extend. men to the Union. During the next day the Federal ing from the Andes to the sea.

Area, 4,630 square forces were intrenched and placed in position with miles; population 1885, 155,687.

Its soil is very

but little fighting June 3d an assault was made by rich in the valley between the Andes and the the troops on the right flank of the Confederates. Coast Range. Its capital is San Fernando, with But little ground was gained, and seven thousand 6,959 inhabitants.

men were lost. The Federal troops had, however, COLCHESTER, a manufacturing town of New closed in on the Confederate works and gained posiLondon County, southeastern Connecticut, on the tions advantageous for the battles around Petersburg. Wood River Branch railroad. Bacon Academy is During the Cold Harbor fighting, the Union loss located here. Paper and India-rubber goods are was almost thirteen thousand, while the Confederate manufactured. Population 1890, 2,988.

was not over two thousand. COLCHICINE, a powerful alkaloid poison. See COLD-PIT, in gardening, a simple contrivance COLCHICUM, Vol. VI, p. 125.

for the preservation of half-hardy plants through the COLCOTHAR, a name given by the alchemists winter. It consists of a pit about three feet in to the brownish-red peroxide of iron which remains depth, covered with a frame either thatched or in the retorts when green vitriol or the sulphate of glazed. iron is calcined. See COPPERAS, Vol. VI, p. 352. COLD SPRING, a village of Queens County, COLDEN, CADWALLADER, a Scottish-American

Scottish-American | New York, situated on Long Island, on an inlet of physician and American colonial governor; born the sound, on the Long Island railroad, about 30 Feb. 17, 1688, in Dunse, Scotland; died Sept. 28, miles E. of New York City. It contains a very suc1776, on Long Island, New York. After studying cessful artificial hatchery belonging to the United medicine and mathematics in Europe, he moved to States Fish Commission. It was formerly an importthe United States in 1708 and practiced in Phila- ant whaling-port. Population, about goo. delphia till 1715, when he revisited London. He COLD SPRING, a village of Putnam County, settled in New York City in 1718, and in the follow-southeastern New York, on the New York Central ing year became surveyor-general of the colony and and Hudson River railroad, situated among the master in chancery. In 1755 he retired to a tract Highlands, on the east bank of the Hudson, one mile of land about nine miles from Newburgh, on the from West Point. Cannon, brass castings and Hudson, where he gave his attention to farming and machinery are manufactured here. scientific pursuits. He administered the affairs of COLDSTREAM GUARDS, a celebrated regithe province as president of the council in 1760, ment of Foot Guards in the Household Brigade of and in the following year was appointed lieutenant- the British army, its organization dating from an governor of New York. He held this position till

He held this position till earlier period than that of any other regiment excepthis death, and was many times at the head of affairs, ing the First Foot. Raised in 1660 by General through the absence or death of the various gover- Monk at Coldstream, at first it was called Monk's

His royalist sympathies and enforcement of Regiment, but when Parliament gave a brigade of the stamp tax aroused public feeling against him. guards to Charles II, this corps was included in it, He was a close student of natural history, and for and the name was changed to Coldstream Guards. many years carried on correspondence with Linnæus, COLDWATER, a town and the capital of Branch to whom he sent many specimens of American flora. County, central southern Michigan, on the Lake His memoirs on plants were published by Linnæus Shore railway, 156 miles E. of Chicago. It has nuin the Acta Upsaliensia.

merous manufactories, a public-school building which COLDEN, CADWALLADER David, grandson of the cost $100,000 and a state school for

pauper

children. preceding; an American lawyer; born April 4, 1769, Population 1895, 5,285. . in Springhill, Long Island; died Feb. 7, 1834, in COLE, GEORGE, a British landscape-painter; born Jersey City, New Jersey. In 1818 he was elected in Portsmouth, England, in 1810; died in London, mayor of New York City; in 1820 was sent to Con- Sept. 7, 1883. He was a ship-painter by trade, but gress, and in 1824 to the state senate. He was one of soon felt a desire to do a finer kind of work, and the earliest promoters of improvements in the system began to paint animals. His work in that line was of internal communications. He wrote several first exhibited in London in 1840. Immediately he treatises and memoirs on canals and steamboat use, attracted the attention of artists, and ten years later and published a Life of Robert Fulton (New York, found him a member of the Society of British Arts, 1817).

of which, in 1878, he became the vice-president. COLD HARBOR, a location in Hanover County, Among his paintings are Don Quixote and Sancho Virginia, 10 miles N.E. of Richmond. Here, in May Panza and Loch Lubnaig, both examples of his and June, 1864, the Confederate and Union armies earlier work; A River Scene, Sussex (1874); Evening confronted each other and a series of engagements on the Thames (1877); and Windsor Castle-Morning took place. The fight began June ist and lasted (1878). until the evening of June 3d. General Grant of the

COLE, SIR HENRY, an English civil administrator Federal army had advanced from Spottsylvania to and author; born at Bath, July 15, 1808; died April

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COLE-COLERIDGE

861

18, 1882. He was educated at Christ's Hospital.denial of the inspiration of the Old Testament, and He became assistant keeper of the records in 1838; questioning some of the works credited to Moses, was chairman of the Society of Arts; did valuable were condemned by both the English and American service on the committee of the exhibition of 1851; Episcopal church. Bishop Colenso defended the was the founder of South Kensington Museum, and cause of the Zulus in their struggle with the British. in 1860 became director of that institution. He He published Ten Weeks in Natal, and commentaries. wrote much for newspapers and reviews, and under COLENSO, WILLIAM, missionary to New Zeathe name of “Felix Summerly,” published a number land, and scientist, cousin of the preceding; born of books for children, among which are Alphabet of in Penzance, Cornwall, in 1811. He was sent out Quadrupeds;

Heroic Tales of Ancient Greece; and Pop- to New Zealand by the Church Missionary Society ular Fairy-Tales.

to print the Bible in Maori. He printed the first COLE, THOMAS, an American landscape-painter; book published in New Zealand, The Epistles to the born at Bolton-le-Moors, England, Feb. I, 1801; | Ephesians and Philippians. This was in 1835; from died in Catskill, New York, Feb. 11, 1848. He that time on he has been engaged in missionary removed to America in 1819. In 1830 two of his work. He is the only surviving witness of the signpictures appeared in the Royal Academy, and he ing of the treaty of Waitangi of 1840. He has deafterward made sketching tours through England, voted much time to the study of the origin of the France and Italy; but all his best landscapes were | Maoris and their customs. He is an authority on from American subjects. Perhaps his most widely the natural history of New Zealand, and in recogniknown picture is the Voyage of Life. It has been tion of his services has been made a fellow of the reproduced in engravings and used for illustrating Royal Society. popular books.

COLEPEPPER, John, a British statesman, a naCOLE, VIcat, an English landscape-painter; tive of Sussex, England. But little is known of his born at Portsmouth in 1833, and received early history until his return for Kent in 1640 to the artistic instruction from his father, George Cole. Long Parliament. In 1642 he became Chancellor of His paintings were exhibited first in 1852, and six the Exchequer, a twelvemonth later master of the years later he was elected meinber of the Society of rolls, and in another twelvemonth Lord Colepepper. British Artists. His picture entitled A Surrey Corn- He died June 11,

1660. field greatly increased his reputation. Mr. Cole COLERIDGE, DERWENT, an English clergyman, became an associate of the Royal Academy in 1870, son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge; born Sept. 14, and was elected royal academician in 1880. His last 1800, at Keswick, England; died April 2, 1883, at work was The Pool of London. He died Sept. 6, Torquay, England. In 1841 he became principal of 1893, in London.

St. Mark's College, Chelsea. While holding this COLEBROOKE OR GRAND FALLS, a village position he was a prebendary of St. Paul's Catheof New Brunswick and a port of entry, situated near dral, and later rector of Hanwell, Middlesex.

He the Grand Falls of the St. John River, which is here published Lay Sermons and Notes on English Dicrossed by a fine suspension bridge. Population, vines, and edited S. T. Coleridge's Dramatic Works. 1,597.

COLERIDGE, JOHN DUKE, BARON, an English COLEMAN, LYMAN, an American author; born jurist, son of John Taylor COLERIDGE (q.v., Vol. June 14, 1796, in Middlefield, Massachusetts; died VI, p. 135), was born Dec. 3, 1820, in the sylvan March 16, 1882, at Easton, Pennsylvania. He was beauty of Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire, where the a tutor in Yale College from 1820 to 1825, studying family had long been settled. He was educated at theology at the same time. He preached for seven Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, and took a promyears in the Congregational Church at Belchertown, inent part, while an undergraduate, in the theoMassachusetts, and for five years was principal of logical controversies provoked by Essays and Reviews. Burr Seminary in Vermont, and later principal of the Called to the bar in 1847, he speedily commanded English department of Phillips Andover Academy attention as an eloquent and ingenious advocate, After a visit to Germany he taught German in rather than as a profound jurist. Whiling away his Princeton College, and later in Amherst. He trav- spare moments with frequent contributions to the eled in Europe, Egypt and Palestine in 1856, and Quarterly and Edinburgh Review, he became recorder on his return to America taught Latin and Greek in of Portsmouth in 1855, and in 1861 was called Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania. Professor within the bar as a queen's counsel. He represented Coleman's publications were principally on Biblical Exeter in the House of Commons from 1865 to 1873, subjects. Among them are Ancient Christianity Ex- and as Solicitor-General in the first Gladstone govemplified, Antiquities of the Christian Church; Prelacy ernment, was in charge of a monumental measure of and Ritualism; etc.

legal reform--the Judicature Act of 1870-in its COLENSO, JOHN WILLIAM, an English colonial passage through the Commons. In 1871 he was bishop; born Jan. 24, 1814, in St. Austell, Corn- appointed Attorney-General, and after a brief tenure wall; died June 20, 1883, in Durban, Natal, Africa. of office, was chosen, in November, 1873, chief jusIn 1846 he became rector of Forncett St. Mary, tice of the Common Pleas, being raised to the peerNorfolk, and in 1854 was elected bishop of Natal

. age in December of that year as Baron Coleridge He published extensively on mathematical, relig- of Ottery St. Mary. On the death of Sir Alexander ious and other topics. His book on The Penta- Cockburn in November, 1880, he became Lord Chief teuch (1879) involved him in serious controversy, Justice of England. In 1883 he visited the United and futile attempts were made to depose hini. His States in company with Lord Hannen, Lord Bowen

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COLES-COLGATE UNIVERSITY

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and Lord Russell, and on the invitation of the New itor of the South Bend Free Press. In 1845, he, in York Bar Association. Highly gifted, scholarly and company with A. W. West, bought the paper and eloquent, yet his impulsive temperament impaired changed its name to the St. Joseph Valley Regishis judicial qualities. He shone rather as an advo- ter, which became the most influential Whig jourcate than as a wearer of ermine, and in no case more nal in northern Indiana. In 1848 he was secretary serenely than when, as an excellent French scholar, of the Whig convention in Baltimore which nomihe cross-examined for 21 days the coarse Wagga- nated Taylor for President. The next year he Wagga butcher, Arthur Orton, who posed as the lost a member of the convention to revise the Sir Roger C. D. Tichborne and claimed the family constitution of the state of Indiana, and earnestly estates. His most noticeable judgments were those opposed a clause to prohibit free colored men of the cases of Dudley and Stephens, in which he from settling in that state. He was again a deleheld guilty of murder two starving sailors who satis- gate to the Whig national convention in 1852, and, fied their pangs of hunger by killing and eating a having joined the new Republican party, was elected cabin-boy; the Bradlaugh-Newdegate maintenance to Congress in 1854 and continued in that office case; and the trial of Ramsey and Foote for blas

until 1869.

In December, 1863, he was elected phemous libel. In this last he stretched the English Speaker of the House and was twice reelected. law of blasphemy to the utmost tolerance of its lim-In May, 1868, at the Chicago national Repubits. His last years were embittered by dissensions lican convention he was nominated for Vice-Presiand libel suits among his relatives. As a wit and dent of the United States, and in November was raconteur he held high place. He died in London, elected, taking his seat as president of the SenJune 1, 1894. See also TICHBORNE, in these Sup- ate, March 4, 1869. In 1871 President Grant plements.

offered him the place of Secretary of State, but he COLES, ABRAHAM, an American author and phy- declined, in order to serve out his term as Vicesician; born Dec. 26, 1813, in Scotch Plains, New President. His later years were spent chiefly in reJersey; died May 3, 1891, at Monterey, California.

tirement from active politics, but, yielding to popuHe studied medicine, and began his practice in

lar demand, he made several successful tours in the

lecture field. 1835. He was in Paris during the insurrection of

COLFAX, a flourishing town of Whitman County, 1848, and wrote an account of it for the Newark Advertiser; published a translation of the Dies Ira: southeastern Washington, on the Union Pacific railMicrocosm, and Other Poems; and A New Rendering road, 85 miles S. of Spokane. It is the trade center of the Hebrew Psalms into English Verse.

of an extensive and fertile agricultural district. Pop

ulation 1890, 1,649. COLES, EDWARD, a governor of Illinois; born in

COLGATE, JAMES BOORMAN, American merAlbemarle County, Virginia, Dec. 15, 1786; died in

chant and philanthropist; born in New York, March Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 7, 1868. He was

4, 1818; for a time a member of the dry-goods firm private secretary to President Madison for six years of Colgate and Abbe, New York, but since 1872 has from 1810, and in 1817 went to Russia on a diplo, been the head of the banking firm of James B. Colmatic mission. On his return he was appointed gate and Company. He gave generously to Colgate registrar of the United States land-office at Ed. University, Rochester University and other instituwardsville, Illinois, and was governor of the state tions, Colgate University alone receiving over a from 1823 to 1826, during his term of office pre million dollars. venting the pro-slavery party from obtaining control

COLGATE UNIVERSITY, originally Madison of the state. He went to Philadelphia in 1833, and University, but changed in 1889 to Colgate, in honor of lived there until his death.

COLEUS, an ornamental plant. See HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. 266.

COLEWORT, a name given to some of the many cultivated varieties of the common cabbage (Bras

sica oleracea). The name
is also applied to cabbages
cut for use before their
leaves have fully closed
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COLFAX, SCHUYLER,
an American statesman;
born in New York City,
March 23, 1823; died in
Mankato, Minnesota, Jan.
13, 1885. In 1836 he re- James B. Colgate and family, by whose benefactions the
moved and settled with

institution has been benefited greatly. This univer:
his father's family in In-sity is the outgrowth of Hamilton Seminary, founded

diana. In 1841 he was in 1820 at Hamilton, New York, which became Madmade deputy to his step-father, George W. Matth- ison University in 1846. The endowment is nearly ews, who was county auditor. Colfax held this posi- $2,000,000, in great part the gifts of J. B. Colgate. tion for eight years. He was for several years ed- Since its first class, 1,260 have been graduated.

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COLISEUM-COLLEGE FRATERNITIES

863

There were, in 1895, 34 in the faculty, 310 students, made up of allied branches, or “chapters,” in a and 25,000 volumes in the library. The president number of colleges. The branches are under one in 1895 was George W. Smith.

general government, and are known by the general COLISEUM OR COLOSSEUM. See AMPHITHE- collective name of the national organization, and are ATRE, Vol. I, p. 774.

distinguished from one another by individual Greek COLL, one of the western islands of Scotland, letters. Generally, the first chapter chartered is off the west coast of Mull, 272 miles N.E. of Tiree given the name Alpha, and the others, in the order Island. It is 12 miles in length. Population, 723;

Population, 723; of their founding, the consecutive letters of the Greek engaged in agriculture and fishing.

alphabet. The chapter is then designated, for inCOLLADON, DANIEL, Swiss engineer and phys- stance, the Alpha of Beta Theta Pi. The union of icist; born in 1802 in Geneva; died there, July 3, individual chapters thus gives the national organiza1893. He first attracted public attention by his tion great strength, and each chapter is made more writings on photometry, sound in water and the stable. There is never more than one chapter of compressibility of liquids. He invented the com- any fraternity in any one college, although the numpressed-air drill used in excavating the Mont Cenis ber of fraternities represented in some institutions tunnel, and to him is largely due the St. Gotthard amounts to 25 or 30. The local fraternities have tunnel. He was at one time professor at the Paris but one chapter, which has no connection with any École des Arts, and for a short time professor of me- similar organization. The number of chapters in a chanics at Geneva. He was an officer of the Legion national fraternity varies from 20 to 70 or 80. The of Honor and a member of almost all the European number of members in a chapter varies from 8 to 25 honorary societies.

or 30. The various fraternities have badges by COLLAO, the name given to that part of south- which their members are known. A student does ern Peru which is drained by the tributaries of Lake not sever his connection with his fraternity upon Titicaca, comprising most of the department of graduation at college, but becomes an alumni memPuna. It consists of plains nowhere less than eleven ber, to distinguish him from the active men still in thousand feet above the sea-level, and is surrounded college. Recently, many of the larger fraternities by high snow-capped mountain chains.

have established alumni chapters in many of the COLLE, a town of Tuscany, western central Italy, larger cities, where members of the alumni are naton the Elsa, 24 miles S.W. of Florence.

It

has an urally to be found. These chapters hold regular old cathedral and castle. Population, 5,090. meetings and keep up the general organization of

COLLECT, a name given to certain brief and the active chapter. Members of fraternities are comprehensive prayers found in all liturgies of the selected from the student-body,-in some cases on Roman Catholic and Protestant Episcopal churches. account of scholarship entirely, in others on account The origin of the term is not certain. According to of prominence in social life or athletics. A man is some, it is from these prayers being said in the con- asked to join, and can never seek admission. This gregation, or collection, of the people; to others, asking is known as “spiking.” Often spirited conbecause they are a brief and comprehensive summary tests for desirable men take place between rival of many longer petitions collected into one. Such organizations. The inducements offered and attenprayers are of ancient origin, mention being made tions shown such men are included in the term of them by writers of the third century.

rushing. Should a member see fit to leave one COLLEGE FRATERNITIES, societies of stu- fraternity and join another, the action of the second dents in almost all the colleges and universities of fraternity is called “lifting," and the man is “lifted." the United States. These organizations are some- At times some fraternities have taken into membertimes known as “Greek-letter societies," an appella- ship persons not in college, but eminent in public tion derived from the fact that the majority of the life. This action is, however, discountenanced by societies have taken for their names two or more the better organizations. A number of chapters in Greek letters which, to the members of the order, various colleges live in rented or owned houses have some special significance; as, for instance, known as “chapter-houses.” The national fraterBeta Theta Pi. The college fraternities are, with nities, with few exceptions, publish some kind of a one exception, secret societies. The general purpose periodical, and also possess song-books, etc. The is association for social privileges and the benefits authorities of some educational institutions-Princenaturally to be derived from united effort. The term ton College, for instance-exclude fraternities from fraternity, although masculine, is also applied to the the college. In other institutions the term of memorganizations of young women, properly designated bership is governed by faculty regulations. as sororities. The fraternities are divided into the The first Greek-letter society formed was the Phi fraternity proper, the honorary fraternity and the Beta Kappa, at William and Mary College, Virginia, professional. The professional fraternity, as in 1775. This was at first a secret society, but is term implies, is confined to the students taking the now classed among the honorary fraternities. Since various scientific and literary professional courses. its foundation there have been organized 28 national The honorary fraternity selects its members from the fraternities, with 800 chapters. Among them are members of the senior classes, as a reward of scholar- Alpha Delta Phi, founded in 1832, at Hamilton Colship. The following descriptions have to do with lege, New York; Kappa Alpha, at Union College, the collegiate fraternities, which may be termed the New York, in 1825; Beta Theta Pi, at Miami Col

These fraternities are divided lege, Ohio, in 1839; Delta Kappa Epsilon, at Yale into national and local. The national fraternity is | College, in 1844; and Psi Upsilon, at Union College,

fraternities proper.

864

COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY-COLLINS

New York, in 1833. There are 11 women's societies. more important of his publications were a History Pi Beta Phi, the oldest, was founded at Monmouth, of English Dramatic Poetry to the Time of ShakeIllinois, in 1867. The professional societies num- speare; Notes and Emendations to the Plays of Shake. ber 16, with 50 chapters.

speare; Bibliographical and Critical Account of the COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY. See PRINCE- Rarest Books in the English Language (1865); and TON UNIVERSITY, in these Supplements.

An Old Man's Diary Forty Years Ago (1872). In COLLEGE POINT, a village of Queens County, one of his publications he announced the discovery southern New York, situated on the northern shore of an extensive series of marginal annotations, in a of Long Island, about ten miles E. of New York seventeenth-century hand, on a copy of the second City. It contains a variety of manufactories and Shakespeare folio (1631-32), the famous Perkins many fine residences of the business men of the folio. These annotations he soon placed in the metropolis. Population 1890, 6,127.

text of his next edition of Shakespeare, and atCOLLEGES, HISTORY OF AMERICAN. See Edu-tempted to pass them as genuine Shakespeare emenCATION IN THE UNITED STATES, in these Supple- dations. This announcement caused a great comments; see also college names, under separate titles. motion in the literary world, but it was subsequently

COLLEGEVILLE, a village of Montgomery shown that they were forgeries, and the discovery, County, southeastern Pennsylvania, on the Perkio- after his death, of some manipulated books, in his men railroad, twenty miles from Philadelphia. It is own library, greatly injured his reputation. the seat of Ursinus College (Reformed German) and COLLIMATOR, a subsidiary telescope used to of the Pennsylvania Female College. Permanent detect or correct errors in collimation; that is, in population, about 600.

directing the sight to a fixed object when adjusting COLLEGIANTS, a sect whose creed resembled for transit-observations. When the vertical thread that of the Friends, hence they were sometimes called in the field of view exactly coincides with the verthe "Holland Quakers.” They sprang up about 1619, tical axis of a telescope, the instrument is collimated in Holland, and in a few years established a central vertically, and when the horizontal spider's thread meeting-point at Rhynsburg, near Leyden, Holland. just covers the horizontal axis, the instrument is corHere they held a yearly meeting. Among the people rect in horizontal collimation. See also Optics, of this sect Spinoza, the philosopher, lived after his Vol. XVII, p. 800. . excommunication by the Jews of Amsterdam. He COLLIN D'HARLEVILLE, JEAN François, a was attracted to them by their liberality in thought French poet and writer of comedies; born in 1755, and simplicity in living. The founders and leaders at Maintenon, France; died in Paris, Feb. 24, 1806. were originally Arminians. They had no regular His comedies were of such merit that they not only pastors and adopted no form of government. They were successful during the life of the writer, but are believed in baptism by immersion. The name Col- popular to-day.

popular to-day. His first drama was The Inconstant legiants was given them because they called their Lover, produced in 1786. His later works include assemblies “colleges.” The sect died out at the end The Optimist; Old Bachelor; and Chateaus in Spain. of the sixteenth century.

Old Bachelor is his best work. COLLEGIATE CHURCHES, in England, one COLLINGWOOD, a town of Simcoe, northern which, while not being a cathedral, nevertheless pos- central Ontario, Canada, situated on the south shore sesses a college or chapter, consisting of a dean or of Georgian Bay, on the Grand Trunk railroad, 94 provost and canons, attached to them. They date miles N. W. of Toronto. It has a large variety of from the ninth century, when such foundations in manufactures, and is an important center of trade large towns became frequent. They are under the and transportation. Population 1891, 4,939. jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese in which COLLINGWOOD, CUTHBERT, British naturalist; they are situated, and he exercises visitorial powers born Dec. 25, 1826, at Greenwich, England; studied over them. Examples of such are Westminster Abbey at Christ Church, Oxford, Edinburgh University, and St. George's Chapel, Windsor. In the United and in Paris and Vienna; from 1858 to 1866, professor States the term is applied to a collection of churches of botany in the Liverpool Medical College and prohaving their pastors in common, as the Dutch Col- fessor of biology in the School of Science. He legiate Church of New York.

traveled in China, Borneo and Singapore in 1866– COLLEMBOLA. See INSECTS, Vol. XIII, p. 153. 67, on a voyage for studying marine zoology, sanc

COLLETT, JACOBINE CAMILLA, authoress, cousin tioned by the British Admiralty. He embodied the of the Norwegian poet Wergeland (q.v., Norway, results of his investigations in Rambles of a NaturalVol. XVII, p. 590); born in Norway, Jan. 23, 1813; ist on the Shores and Waters of the China Sea. He died in 1891. She was a novelist of extended repu- is also the author of various scientific papers; among tation. Her works, all in Norwegian, include The them, Traveling Birds and A Vision of Creation. Magistrate's Daughters; Tales; Against the Stream; COLLINS, WILLIAM WILKIE, an English novelist; and Last Leaves: Recollections and Confessions. born in London, Jan. 8, 1824; died there, Sept. 23,

COLLIER, JOHN PAYNE, an. English Shakespear- 1889. He was educated partly at Highbury, but ean critic and commentator; born in London, Jan. 11, from 1836 to 1839 was with his parents in Italy. After 1789; died in Maidenhead, Sept. 17, 1883. While still his return to London he spent four years in busia boy he became Parliamentary reporter for the Lon- ness, but finding it uncongenial, he entered Lindon Times and subsequently for the Morning Chron- coln's Inn as a student at law. Here his literary bent icle; but his real literary career commenced in 1820 manifested itself in 1848, the Life of his father (WILLwith the publication of The Poetical Decameron. The IAM Collins, 1787-1847, Vol. VI, p. 148) being his

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