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COLUMBIUM. See Niobium, Vol. XVII, p. try, one company manufacturing two million dol513; also CHEMISTRY, Vol. V, pp. 539-541.

lars' worth of goods annually. The area of the city COLUMBUS, a city and the capital of Muscogee is twelve square miles. Public parks cover 195 acres. County, central western Georgia, on the Chatta- The State University, United States Garrison, State hoochee River, on the Central Railroad of Georgia, Fair, Capitol and other grounds—all fine parksthe Georgia Midland and Gulf and the Columbus have a total area of 600 acres. A United States cusSouthern railroads. Columbus is at the head of tom-house was established in Columbus in 1889, steam-navigation from the Gulf of Mexico, a dis- which transacted about one million dollars' worth tance of three hundred miles. It is connected with of business in 1890. Population 1880, 51,647; 1890, Macon, Georgia, by the Southwestern railroad, and 90,398. See COLUMBUS, Vol. VI, p. 170. is the terminus of the North and South railroad. COLUMBUS, the capital of Colorado County, It is also on the Western and the Mobile and Girard southeastern Texas, situated on the Colorado River railroads. A change in the level of the Chatta- and on the Southern Pacific railroad. Colorado hoochee River at this point affords unlimited water- College is located here. Cotton is the chief induspower,

which has fostered extensive manufacturing try. Population, 2,199. interests. The largest cotton and woolen mills in COLUMBUS, BARTOLOMEO, elder brother of the South are located at Columbus, producing a Christopher Columbus, was born about 1445, probgreat variety of colored goods, ginghams, etc. The ably in Genoa, Italy; died in the city of Santo Docity contains an opera-house, superior county build- mingo, West Indies, in May, 1515. The early part ings, churches, a high school, several graded schools, of his career is unknown. The first mention of a female seminary, male academy and several excel- him is that he was with Bartolomeo Diaz in a lent hotels. The streets are broad, handsomely voyage of exploration along the west coast of Africa shaded and well-lighted. Population 1880, 10,123; as far south as the Cape of Good Hope. He 1890, 17,303. See COLUMBUS, Vol. VI, p. 171. was sent by his brother to England in 1488 to

COLUMBUS, capital of Bartholomew County, interest Henry VII in the plan of a western voyage. southern central Indiana, situated 41 miles S.E. of Hewas unsuccessful in his mission, but did not return Indianapolis, on the E. fork of White River, on the to Spain until Christopher had made his first voyage Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis and of discovery, returned to Spain and set sail on his the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis second voyage. Bartolomeo was placed in comrailroads. It has large cerealine and flour mills mand of a feet, and sailed at once for the West and furniture and agricultural implement factories. Indies, arriving there in June, 1493. He was made Population 1890, 6,719.

lieutenant-governor of Hispaniola by his brother, COLUMBUS, a railroad junction and the capital and shared with him the trials and imprisonment of Cherokee County, southeastern Kansas; situated afterward inflicted. Later, however, Bartolomeo was 50 miles S. of Fort Scott. It is on the Kansas City rewarded, with Diego Columbus, son of Christopher, and Memphis and the St. Louis and San Francisco and was made governor of Mona. He was the founder railroads. Coal and zinc are mined in the neigh- of the colony of Santo Domingo and of the town borhood. Population 1895, 2,204.

where he died. COLUMBUS, a village of Hickman County, south- COLUMELLA, the axis to which the carpels of a western Kentucky; situated on the Mississippi River, compound pistil often are attached (see BOTANY, 12 miles below Čairo; on the Mobile and Ohio rail- Vol. IV, p. 149), and the central axis of spiral uniroad. It is an important center of trade and trans- valve shells. See CORALS, Vol. VI, p. 375. portation, and contains manufactories of furniture COLUSA, a town and the capital of Colusa and crockery. Population 1890, 873.

County, northern California, on the Sacramento COLUMBUS, the capital of Lowndes County, River, 65 miles N.N.W. of Sacramento, on the northeastern Mississippi, on the Tombigbee River, Colusa and Lake railroad.

Colusa and Lake railroad. It has flouring-mills on the Mobile and Ohio and the Southern railroads. and manufactories of carIt has the State Industrial Institute and a college riages and farming tools. of science and industry for girls. It is in the cen- Population 1890, 1,336. ter of the coal and iron mining region, has a num- COLVIN, SIDNEY, Britber of machine-shops and factories and a large ish historical writer and cotton-mill. Population, 4,559.

keeper of the department COLUMBUS, the capital of Platte County, east- of prints and drawings in ern central Nebraska, on the Union Pacific and the the British Museum; born Burlington and Missouri railroads, and on the Platte June 18, 1845, in Norwood, River, 92 miles W. of Omaha. The city has a Ro- Surrey, England. He was man Catholic academy and various manufactories. graduated from Trinity Population 1890, 3,1 34.

College, Cambridge, in COLUMBUS, a city and the capital of the state 1867. He was fellow of of Ohio, is reached by no less than 15 different lines of Trinity College in 1869; railway, and has 30 miles of street-railways, oper- from 1873 to 1886, Slade ated by both horse and electric power. There is an professor of fine arts; from abundant supply of natural gas, which is used largely 1876 to 1884, director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, by manufacturers, as well as by private families, for Cambridge. Since his graduation he has been fuel. Carriage-manufacturing is the leading indus- a frequent contributor on historical subjects to the

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876 COLWELL-COMMERCIAL MUSEUM OF PHILADELPHIA Edinburgh Review, Fortnightly Review, Nineteenth | sylvania, and in 1872 became professor of æsthetics Century and other magazines. He has published an and modern languages at Syracuse University, Syraedition of Selections from the Writings of Walter cuse, New York. Among his publications is a series Savage Landor (1884); and is the author of Landor, of text-books on the German language. in the English Men of Letters Series (1882); COMFREY, the common name of species of Keats, same series; and Children in Italian and Symphytum, a genus of Boraginacea (or AsperifoEnglish Design (1872).

liacere), and natives of the Old World. They are COLWELL, STEPHEN, an American author; born coarse, branching and leafy herbs, with tubularin Brooke County, Virginia, March 25, 1800; died funnel-form flowers, nodding in raceme-like or in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Jan. 15, 1872. He forked clusters. S. officinale, the common comfrey, was admitted to the bar in 1821 and practiced in with yellowish-white flowers, is naturalized in the Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, for ten years. Subsequently United States. S. asperrimum, with reddish-purple he wrote for the press on his favorite topics of po- flowers changing to blue, is cultivated somewhat. litical and social science. During the Civil War he The root of various species, notably S. officinale, is was one of the foremost supporters of the national used in a medicinal way, and formerly was cultigovernment in its struggle against secession, lend- vated widely in Europe for this purpose. ing his time and money to the cause. After the war he was made a commissioner to examine the ince of Noto, 30 miles W. of Syracuse. It has internal revenue system of the United States, and to paper manufactories. Population, 18,167. this task he devoted much time and study. He COMMANDER OR KOMMANDORSKI ISbequeathed his library to the University of Pennsyl- LANDS, two Russian islands of the east coast of vania and endowed a chair of social science there. Kamchatka, eastern Siberia. They are a continuaAmong his numerous writings on politico-social and tion of the Aleutian chain, at lat. 55° N., long. religious topics are Politics for American Christians 167°E. They were named in honor of Bering, who (1852); Hints to Laymen (1853); The South (1886); was known as the commander in those regions, and The Ways and Means of Commercial Payment (1858). the western one bears his name. This is 50 miles in

COLYMBIDÆ, a family of web-footed birds. length and 17 in width at the broadest part. The See Diver, Vol. VII, p. 292.

other, Copper Island, is 30 miles long and less COMA BERENICES, a small and close cluster than five miles wide. Some copper is found here. of stars near the equinoctial colure, south of the tail | The climate, for the latitude, is mild. The country of the Great Bear, visible in April and May, near is mountainous, but without vegetation, and earththe zenith. It is one of the nine constellations in- quakes are frequent. troduced by Hevelius. According to Egyptian COMMANDITE, SOCIÉTÉ EN, or partnership in, legends, Coma Berenices, the English rendering of an expression used in France to express a partnerwhich is Berenice's Hair, was the name given to this ship in which one may advance capital without takconstellation, owing to the belief that the hair of ing charge of the business. In other words, it is Berenice, a wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, king of similar in nature to the “ special partnership"recogEgypt in 248 B.C., which had been given into the nized by the statutes of several states in the Union.' care of the priests of the temple of Venus at Samos COMMENTRY, a town in the French departand disappeared, had been placed by the gods in the ment of Allier, 211 miles S. of Paris by rail. It is tail of Leo in the form of this constellation.

near a great coal-field, and owes its rise to coal and COMAN, KATHERINE, an American educator; iron works. It has also celebrated mirror factories. born in Newark, Ohio, in 1857; educated in the Population, 9,978. University of Michigan; in 1886 was appointed COMMERCIAL AGENCIES. See MeRCANTILE professor of history and economics in Wellesley AGENCIES, in these Supplements. College. Among her works are Outlines of English COMMERCIAL LAW is a term denoting those Constitutional History (1886) and Outlines of Indus. branches of law which prescribe the rights of proptrial History (1892).

erty, and the rules governing the business relations COMANCHE, a town and the capital of Co. of persons engaged in commerce or trade. The manche County, northern central Texas, on the rules of commercial law are more nearly the same Fort Worth and Rio Grande railroad, 90 miles S.W. throughout the world than any other branch of of Fort Worth. Its principal industries are stock municipal law, for the reason that the commercial raising and farming. Population 1890, 1,226. relations between the various countries of the world

COMETS. See Astronomy, Vol. II, pp. 813-6; tend to bring about a similarity in the rules of law and ASTRONOMY, in these Supplements.

governing trade and commerce. COMET-SEEKER or COMET-FINDER, a COMMERCIAL MUSEUM OF PHILADELtelscope with a low magnifying power, and a short PHIA, a department of the Philadelphia, Pennsylfocus as compared with the size of its object-glass. vania, museums, established by special ordinance of It has a wide field, and is employed to find comets. the city councils, June 15, 1894. The project had

COMFORT, GEORGE FISK, an American edu- its inception at the World's Columbian Exposition, cator; born in Berkshire, Tompkins County, New when, at the instance of public-spirited citizens of York, in 1833. He graduated at Wesleyan Univer- the Quaker City, the most important parts of the sity, and then studied in Europe. On his return to exhibits at Chicago, from Mexico, Central and South the United States in 1865, he was made professor of America, Australia, South Africa and many Asiatic languages at Allegheny College, Meadville, Penn- countries, were, at the close of the Exposition, COMMERSON-COMMUTATOR


removed to Philadelphia to form the nucleus of the of railway trains and steamboats to secure customers, museum. The products of other countries were look after baggage, etc. To travelers with limited obtained and added to the collection. Consisting, time at their disposal they are valuable as guides. A as the museum does, of collections of natural pro- corps of uniformed commissionnaires has been esducts from all the countries of the world which have tablished in England, consisting of maimed soldiers entered the American markets, or which may be made of high character who have retired with a pension. available for them, its objects are: To bring before These act as messengers, door-keepers, etc. the American manufacturers, dealers and consumers COMMODORE. See Navy, in these Suppleall the varied products of the world, so that the ments. American consumer, dealer or manufacturer can COMMON CARRIER. See CARRIER. Vol. V, make the best selection for his special interest; to

p. 138. publish scientific and useful information concerning COMMON SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED such products, and periodically to exhibit fresh man- STATES. See School, Common, in these Suppleufactures and samples of goods likely to be of ser- ments. vice in American markets. At present the museum COMMUNICATION, PRIVILEGED, a communioccupies temporarily, with others of the city muse- cation between such persons or under such circumums, the former offices of the Pennsylvania Railroad stances that it does not involve an action for Company, on South Fourth Street, embracing a floor- damages, or a communication between such persons area and exhibition space of 200,000 square feet. and under such circumstances that the receiver canA central location of 16 acres has been apportioned not be called upon to produce it as an admission as the future site of the museums, and $15,000 has in a suit. The most common instance of such been appropriated to preparing the ground for build- privilege is in the case of a client and his legal ading. In 1896 the city also appropriated $65,000 for viser. In the United States members of the legal general museum expenses and for the work of the profession are privileged, and, as a rule, what a bureau of information. The inuseum is under the client communicates to them cannot be disclosed control of a board of trustees elected by the coun- except the right of confidentiality be waived. The cils and approved by the mayor. Of these, 14 are privilege is extended to the communications of sevelected for life, so as to insure a permanent policy, eral parties, or of their counsel and agents engaged and the leading state and city officials for the time on the same side of a cause, and made with a view being are ex officio governors. The exhibit of raw to their joint prosecution or defense. Interpreters products numbered over sixty thousand specimens in stand in the same relation as attorneys. 1896, and collectors for the museum have been sent Confessions made to a clergyman or priest in abroad to secure further and more recent material. some states are privileged by statute, but generally A bureau of information affords specific information it is otherwise. By a statute of the state of New to manufacturers on any desired subject within the York, ministers of the Gospel and priests of every scope of the museum's work.

denomination are forbidden to disclose confessions COMMERSON, Philibert, a French botanist; made to them in their professional character, and in born at Châtillon-les-Dombes, Nov. 18, 1727. When

the course of discipline enjoined by the church. Bougainville sailed in 1767 on his expedition to

Similar statutes exist in Missouri, Wisconsin, MichiSouth America and Madagascar, Commerson was

gan and Iowa. Communications made to a physichosen as the naturalist of the party. He was chosen

cian are in some states privileged, and in others not. a member of the French Academy in 1733, and died

Communications between husband and wife are in the same year. The genus Commersonia, of the

privileged from disclosure. family Sterculiacea, was named in his honor.

In England no special privilege is extended to the

Roman Catholic confessional, and the question as to COMMINATION, a penitential office used in

how far a confession made to a clergyman for the the Church of England after the Litany on Ash Wednesday, consisting of sentences taken from

purpose of obtaining spiritual comfort and consola

tion is protected, was long considered doubtful. Deuteronomy xxvii and other passages of Scripture. The rule has, however, been established for some To each sentence that is read the congregation responds “Amen.” This office has never been incor- privilege as legal advisers; in Scotland the point has

time that clergymen are not entitled to the same porated in the American prayer-book.

never been decided. In England communications, COMMISSION, a writing, generally in the form to a medical man, even in the strictest professional of a warrant, authorizing one or more persons to confidence, are not protected from disclosure; and perform duties or exercise powers belonging to the same is the case in Scotland. For communicaanother or to others. Instruments of delegation tions involving no liability for defamation, see LIBEL, bearing this title are issued by the government to Vol. XIV, p. 506. officers in the army and navy, judges, justices of the COMMUTATOR, a recent improved form of peace, postmasters and others. Another class of commutator is found in the Western electric ironcommissions are those granted to a body of persons clad arc dynamo. It is built up on a substantial intrusted with the performance of certain special disk of hardwood veneering mounted on a brass duties of a public or legal character.

flange. The wooden disk is faced with mica, and COMMISSIONNAIRES, a class of guides and each segment screwed in independently. These attendants in continental Europe, who perform cer- segments are tapered slightly toward the inner side, tain miscellaneous services and attend at the arrival to allow slate wedges to protect the mica and




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ing. Air-insulation is provided for between the COMPETITION. See Political Economy, Vol. segments, thus confining any flashing almost wholly XIX, p. 381; WAGES, Vol. XXIV, p. 309. to the brushes. All the screws are accessible from COMPLAINT, in criminal law, is the formal the front, for convenience in making repairs. The charge, made in writing, and usually under oath, segments are increased in size at the working part before some magistrate or other proper tribunal, so as to provide for long life, and also to hold the alleging that some person has been guilty of a flashing as much as possible in the working parts of designated offense, which the party making the the segments. In some dynamos the commutators charge offers to prove. The person making the are now made of greatly increased diameter, so as charge is called the complainant. Complaint is also to allow of more commutator-bars, and a consequent a term used in connection with civil actions, espeincrease in the number of alternations in the current. cially in states which have adopted a code of


procedure, and when so used refers to the first

pleading filed by the plaintiff, setting forth his cause COMNENUS, the name of a family, originally of action in detail. In this sense it has the same Italian, of which many members occupied the throne meaning as declaration. of the Byzantine empire from 1057 to 1204, and COMPLEMENTARY COLORS. A term used that of Trebizond from 1204 to 1461. For bio- in art to describe colors, the combination of which graphical particulars as to them, see ALEXIUS I, produces white light. According to the laws of Vol. I, p. 501; ANDRONICUS I, Vol. II, p. 22; ANNA physics, the complementary color to green is red, COMNENA, Vol. II, p. 59; ISAAC I, Vol. XIII, p. 374; that to blue is orange, that 10 purple is yellow, and John II, Vol. XIII, p. 713; and MANUEL I, Vol. XV, | vice versa. In practice, the combination of comp. 505.

plementary colors does not produce pure white at , all, but gray.

and an important junction of the Denver, Leadville COMPLINE, the last office of the canonical

35" E.

and Gunnison railroad; situated at the head of hours of the Roman Catholic Church, sung immediKenosha Pass. It is surrounded by extensive coal- ately before retiring for the night. See BREVIARY, mines. Population 1890, 374.

Vol. IV, p. 263; CANONICAL, Vol. V, p. 22. COMODO, an island of the Malayan Archipel- COMPLUTENSIAN POLYGLOTT. See Jimiago, in lat. 8° 30'S., long. 120° E. It is 35 miles in NES, Vol. XIII, p. 694 ; POLYGLOTT, Vol. XIX, p. length and 16 miles in width, and occupies nearly 417. the entire width of the strait which separates the COMPOSITÆ, by far the largest family of flowerislands of Sambawa on the west and Flores on the ing plants, containing ten to twelve thousand species east.

distributed throughout the world. Those of temCOMORIN, CAPE, the most southerly extremity perate regions are chiefly herbs, although many of of India, in lat. 8° 4' 20" N., and long. 77° 35 them are shrubby in the arid regions of the western

United States, notably the “sage brushes," while COMPARETTI, DOMENICO, philologist; born many tree-forms occur in the tropics.

It is reJune 27, 1835, at Rome. In 1859 he was appointed garded not only as the most numerous, but also the to the chair of Greek in the University of Pisa, most highly organized family of flowering plants. which he exchanged a few years later for the same It is characterized by its small flowers being colposition in the Instituto di Studii Superiori at Flor lected in dense heads surrounded by involucral ence. He was a frequent contributor to the learned | bracts, thus giving the appearance of a single flower, journals, and author of works on Greek dialects in which was formerly called a “compound flower." south Italy; Virgil the Magician, and Homer and The calyx is modified into the characteristic “papPisistratus. With D’Ancona he edited the invalu- pus” of the group, which appears as a tuft of hairs, able Canti e Racconti del Popolo Italiano (1875). or bristles, or scales of various kinds. The corolla

COMPASS PLANTS, a name that has been is gamopetalous, either tubular throughout or beapplied to those plants, the “fixed light position” coming flat (like a strap) above. The strap-shaped of whose leaves is vertical and directed north and corollas, in many cases, are found only at the margin south. As a consequence, the leaves stand edgewise of the head, and as they are usually relatively large and twist into the meridian plane. The purpose is and brightly colored, they still further increase the to expose the broad leaf-surfaces to the incident resemblance to a single flower by simulating a set rays of light during the morning and evening, and of separate petals. In such cases as the dandelion to protect them from the too intense light and heat all the flowers are strap-shaped. Notable members of the mid-day rays.

The best-known "compass of the family are asters, goldenrods, sunflowers, plants" are Silphium laciniatum, a “rosin-weed" of thistles, arnicas, etc. Many species are cultivated the prairies of the United States, and Lactuca for their beauty; many yield valuable products useScariola of Europe, but extensively naturalized ful in the arts, in medicine, etc. Among the comin the United States. Both of these plants mon food-producing species are lettuce, artichoke,

, belong to the great family of Composite, and salsify, chicory, etc. both strikingly exhibit the phenomenon referred to. COMPOSITION, in bankruptcy, is an agreement When grown in shaded or otherwise protected places between a debtor and creditor, whereby the creditor the phenomenon does not appear, and the use of accepts a part of his demand in discharge of the these plants as “compasses" in very cloudy weather entire debt, upon terms or by means different than is a doubtful story.

are provided in the original contract or required by



law. Such agreements are frequently made in other comptroller of the Treasury, who examines and
forms of insolvency proceedings; also, especially revises certain civil accounts; a second comp-
where the debtor, in consideration of the discharge, troller of the Treasury, who performs similar
is able to borrow sufficient money from friends to duties with the accounts of the War and Navy
pay a larger portion of his debts than could be departments; and the comptroller of the cur-
realized by the sale of his assets through the usual rency, who administers the laws relating to the
course of administration. A composition agree-national banks.
ment is generally in writing, and if inade in good COMPULSORY EDUCATION. See SCHOOLS,
faith, will be valid.

PRIVATE, in these Supplements.
Vol. XV, p. 701.

glo-Saxon law permitted the accused to call in COMPOSTS. See HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. proof of his innocence, and who joined their oaths 232, and MANURE, Vol. XV, p. 505.

to his. They were persons taken from the neighCOMPOUND ANIMALS. See ColoNIAL ANI- | borhood, or otherwise known to the accused. It MALS, in these Supplements.

was rather in the capacity of witnesses to good COMPOUNDING A FELONY, the act of the character, than of jurymen, that they acted, though party against whom an offense has been committed, the institution has been spoken of as the Anglowho

agrees with the felon that he will not prosecute Saxon jury; what they swore to was not so much him, upon condition that the thief returns the stolen their knowledge as their belief. See Jury, Vol. goods, or who in any manner accepts reward or other | XIII, p. 784. consideration for not prosecuting the offender. This COMSTOCK, ANTHONY, an American moral offense was, at common law, punishable in the same reformer; born at New Canaan, Connecticut, manner as the felony compounded. Throughout the March 7, 1844; served in the Union army, 1863–65. United States the offense is indictable, and the pun. In March, 1873, he was appointed a post-office inishment fixed by statute, but is now usually punishable spector in New York, becoming at the same time only as a misdemeanor. Any note, receipt or other secretary and chief special agent of the New York contract given upon such consideration, in whole or Society for the Suppression of Vice. His activity in part, is void in law. The failure to prosecute in destroying obscene literature has been remarkdoes not constitute the offense, unless accompanied able. Several works, as Traps for the Young (1883), with the acceptance of some consideration, therefor. Morals versus Art(1887), and other similar books, Compounding a misdemeanor is also indictable, but came from his pen, as well as contributions to if the offense be such that an action for damages the periodical press. will lie against the offender at the suit of the party

COMSTOCK, CYRUS BALLOU, an American injured, the law will generally permit a compromise, military engineer; born in Massachusetts, Feb. 3, even though a criminal prosecution could have been 1831; graduated at West Point in the class of maintained. Advertising a reward for the return 1855. After some service in constructing fortifiof stolen property, with an offer not to prosecute, is cations, and as an assistant professor at West a similar offense to compounding the theft.

Point, he was called to Washington in 1861, to COMPRESSED AIR. See AIR-COMPRESSORS assist in erecting defenses against the threatened AND USES OF, in these Supplements.

rebel attack. He was prominent as an engineerCOMPRESSED-AIR MOTORS. See MOTORS, officer in many of the principal battles of the war, in these Supplements.

repeatedly earning promotion and the commenCOMPTON, BARNES, an American public man;

dations of his superiors. At the close of the war, born in Port Tobacco, Maryland, Nov. 16, 1830 Colonel Comstock held the rank of a brevet brigaHe graduated at Princeton in 1851.

He was

dier-general in the army and brevet major-general elected a member of the state house of delegates of United States volunteers. He was successively from Charles County in 1860 and 1861, and of the superintendent of the Lake Geodetic Survey; presistate senate in 1867, 1868, 1870 and 1872, serving dent of the Mississippi River Commission; memas its president in 1868 and 1870. Was elected ber of the Board for Fortifications and Harbor Imstate treasurer of Maryland six times, holding the provement; and colonel commanding the United office eleven

years and two inonths, when he resigned. States corps of engineers. In 1884 he was a memIn politics he was a Democrat, and was elected a ber of the board of visitors of the Engineer School, representative from the fifth Congressional district and in the following year was elected a member of Maryland to the Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Con of the National Academy of Sciences. gresses. He was declared re-elected to the Fifty- COMSTOCK, JOHN HENRY, an American enfirst Congress, but was unseated by the House tomologist; born at Janesville, Wisconsin, Feb. 24, of Representatives. He was elected to the Fifty- 1849, and educated at Cornell University, where second and Fifty-third Congresses from the same he was instructor in entomology, assistant profesdistrict.

sor, and professor of entomology and general inCOMPTROLLER

CONTROLLER, vertebrate zoology. From 1879 to 1881 he was officer of a country, state, municipality or cor- United States entomologist, and issued two official poration whose duties are specially connected reports, in addition to a report on the cotton inwith fiscal affairs, as to examine, certify, audit, sects. His Monograph of the Diaspina (1883) and or in other ways superintend accounts. The Introduction to Entomology (1888) are standard conUnited States has three comptrollers: A first tributions to entomological literature.

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