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and their constitutions are matters over which this bishops of Europe, and every ten years by those committee has jurisdiction. Abuse in confer- of America and other countries. Another ring degrees (see Titles, ROMAN CATHOLIC, in subordinate committee is that For Reviewing these Supplements) by Catholic universities is Provincial Councils, which was established by Pius also in its purview. The congregations which IX, in 1849, to hasten the review and approval of attend to questions of worship in the church are: these meetings of local bishops. Both these The Congregations of Rites, on Ceremonies, on committees are made up of some of the cardi. Indulgences and Relics, for the Fabric of St. nals belonging to the Congregation of the CounPeter's.
cil. In the same way the Congregation on EcclesiThe CONGREGATION OF RITEs was instituted by astical Immunity, which was instituted by Urban Sixtus V in 1587. About 35 cardinals, half of VIII for the protection of the rights and privi. whom live away from Rome, make up this com- leges of the church, is now merged into that of mittee. They are assisted by 31 consultors and the council, and much of its work is done immediother officials.
ately by the Cardinal Secretary of State. The THE CONGREGATION ON CEREMONIES is a deriva- Congregation on the Residence of Bishops, also auxtion from that on rites, and it exercises a watchiliary to that of the council, treats of questions ful care over the rites and ceremonies, civil and concerning the obligation of bishops to reside in ecclesiastical, of the court of the pope. It also their own dioceses and other beneficiaries in their resolves questions regarding pre-eminence among benefices. Leave of absence is granted by this cardinals and prelates. Further, it instructs those committee, which formerly had six cardinals, but concerned in the conferring of insignia on newly whose work is now done by the cardinal vicar of created cardinals. The dean of the College of Rome, and the secretary of the Congregation of Cardinals is always prefect of this congrega- the Council. tion.
The CONGREGATION OF BISHOPS AND REGU. THE CONGREGATION ON INDULGENCES LARS is a union of two committees, one of which Relics was established by Clement IX, in 1669, treated questions concerning the secular, the to do away with any chance of abuse in the mat- other questions concerning the regular, clergy. ter of indulgences and relics. It does not grant To insure uniformity they were united in 1601. any indulgence, that being done by the pope, but Twenty-four cardinals make up this committee, it sees that indulgences are not abused, and that and they are assisted by consultors and officials. false relics of saints are not given out as true. Questions, either in the first instance or on Thirty-two cardinals are attached to this congre- appeal, which arise between bishops and their gation. It has also 17 consultors and a secretary, clergy, or between the secular and regular clergy, all of whom are prelates, and appointed by the are referred to this committee for settlement, pope.
either summarily or by judicial process. By The CONGREGATION FOR THE FABRIC OF ST. special authorization from the pope, it can also Peter's church in Rome is a development of a try and remove bishops. Special committees on special committee appointed for the rebuilding of The Discipline of Regulars and State of Regulars this basilica, and was instituted by Clement VIII attend to the observance by religious orders of in 1593. Formerly it had much work; to-day their special rules and constitutions. Changes it has little, other than the care of St. Peter's are also authorized in these rules when circumbasilica, the cardinal archpriest of which is stances render them necessary. Most of the always its prefect.
work of these committees is now done by that on The congregations whose specified object is the bishops and regulars. enforcement of proper discipline are the Congre. THE CONGREGATION OF THE PROPAGANDA was gation of the Council, with several subordinate instituted to spread the faith in infidel countries committees, and the Congregation of Bishops and attend to questions of discipline which may and Regulars, also with subordinate committees. there arise among missionaries and bishops.
THE CONGREGATION OF THE COUNCIL interprets (See PROPAGANDA, Vol. XIX, pp. 809-811.) The and applies the acts of the Council of Trent in all Roman congregations usually give no reasons that relates to discipline, but its faculties do not for their decisions. They examine the questions, extend to decrees regarding faith. It is com- and simply reply affirmatively or negatively. posed at present of 28 cardinals, some of whom Though each congregation has its special work, reside away from Rome, and it has a secretary, questions once referred to a congregation are an auditor to summarize cases, and eight officials. treated by it also in those matters which may be A school for young canonists is attached to this in the purview of other congregations. The congregation. A subcommittee for Receiving decision of one congregation is always recognized and Examining the Reports of Bishops on the State by all the others. Many cardinals belong to sevof their Churches was instituted by Benedict eral of these committees, there being only about XIV, in 1740, to relieve the main congregation thirty in Rome to do the work of all. Trials and facilitate the work of examining and reply before the congregations, except the Holy Office ing to the reports and questions which bishops and the Index, are public. The questions are bring or send to the Holy See at stated times. usually presented to the cardinals in general comThis is termed the visit ad limina apostolorum, mittee by the secretary of the congregation. and must be made every three or five years by | When a decision is reached, especially in import
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES
ant matters, it is referred to the pope for ap- nications addressed to the Senate, and also such proval. The Latin or Italian language may be bills, joint resolutions and other messages as may used. French is tolerated.
come from the House. He then calls, in the orP. A. BAART.
der named, for the presentation of petitions and * CONGRESS, AND THE LEGISLATIVE memorials, reports of committees, the introducPOWER OF THE UNITED STATES. The tion of bills and joint resolutions, and finally, legislative power of the United States is vested concurrent and other resolutions. Until the mornin the Senate and House of Representatives, col. ing business shall have been concluded, and so anlectively called The Congress, under the super- nounced from the chair, or until one o'clock, no vision of the veto power granted to the President. motion to proceed to any subject on the calendar Each of these bodies is sole judge of the election, is entertained by the presiding officer, except by returns and qualifications of its members, and unanimous consent. Petitions and memorials are has power to compel attendance of its members. referred without putting the question, unless there Each may determine the rules of its proceedings, is objection, in which case all motions relating to may punish members, and, with the consent of reception or reference are put without amendment, two thirds, expel a member. A majority in each except to add instructions. Any matter from the constitutes a quorum, the presence of which is President or House may be taken up at once by necessary to transact business. Each House motion determined without debate, or the presidmust keep a journal, and one fifth of the members ing officer may lay it before the Senate. Bills in each can cause the yeas and nays to be entered offered may be objected to, and thereupon lie over on the journal. Neither House, during the session one day. All bills must be read three times, and, of Congress, can, without the consent of the other, except by unanimous consent, on three separate adjourn for more than three days, nor to any days. After a bill has been twice read, it may be other place than where they shall be sitting. amended or committed. All bills, after the second Members of Congress are paid for their services reading, are considered by the Senate as in the Comout of the Treasury. At present the compensa- mittee of the Whole, where any amendments are tion is $5,000 per annum, payable monthly, and a considered, and then reported to the Senate, where mileage of twenty cents for each mile traveled by the amendments are again considered, after which a customary route in going to and returning from further amendments may be proposed. After the each session of Congress. Members can hold no third reading, amendments are not in order; but office under the United States. The Congress the bill may be sent to a committee, and, after the meets the first Monday in December of each year, report of the committee, goes to the calendar, and can change by law this time of meeting if it sees must be again considered in committee of the fit, and can be called in extra session by the Pres- whole. After each day's morning business is over, ident.
or at one o'clock, unless the Senate otherwise orThe Senate consists of two Senators from each der, all bills not objected to are disposed of, destate, chosen by the legislature thereof for six bate being limited to five minutes for each Senator. years, and is a permanent body. No state can be Objection can be made at any time; but on modeprived, without its consent, of its equal suffrage tion without debate, the Senate may continue conin the Senate. Senators are divided into three sideration. In that case the five-minute restricclasses, and one third of the number goes out | tion is removed. This may go on until two o'clock, every second year. Besides its legislative duties, or until two hours have expired, if the Senate the Senate, by its advice and consent on a two meets at another time than noon. After two thirds vote, enables the President to make treaties, o'clock, or after two hours, the calendar of genand by a majority vote confirms the appointments eral orders is taken up. This order of business on of important officers. The Senate is also a court the calendar may be interrupted by appropriation of impeachment, thus in a limited way having bills, a motion to take up some other bill, a moexecutive and judicial, as well as legislative, func- tion to pass over the bill under discussion, or a tions.
motion to put it at the foot of the calendar. All As legislative bodies, the Senate and the House these motions are decided without debate. Any have equal powers; but all bills for raising revenue subject may be made a special order by a two-thirds must originate in the House, except that the vote, and special orders take rank by seniority, Senate may propose or concur with amendments, unless changed by direction of the Senate. When as in other bills. Custom, also, has made it im- bills go to a committee and are reported, they are perative that the general appropriation bills shall placed on the calendar with bills which have been originate in the House. The Senate, however, read twice and objected to and not referred. When derives power in many ways from the fact that it a bill has been taken up and is under discussion, is a permanent body and from its participation in a motion to take up and consider another bill on the executive functions.
calendar, or any question of privilege, disposes of The ordinary course of business in the Senate the first, which cannot be again resumed except requires that after the journal has been read and by a direct vote of the Senate. The precedence approved, the presiding officer shall lay before the of motions is as follows: To adjourn, to adjourn Senate messages from the President and commu- to a day certain, or that when the Senate adjourns nications from the heads of departments, com- it be to a day certain, to take a recess, to proceed monly called Cabinet officers, and other commu- to the consideration of executive business, to lay
* Copyright, 1897, by The Werner Company.
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES
on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to postpone morning hour for the consideration of bills. to a day certain, to commit, to amend. It will be These bills must be on the House Calendar, and seen that there is no motion for the previous ques- must be called up by the committees.
The morntion; hence there is no method of closing debate ing hour is not necessarily limited to sixty minexcept by unanimous consent. On an amendment, utes, but may continue all day if the House so however, debate may be closed by laying the desire. At the end of sixty minutes, however, amendment on the table, which does not carry the the House may go into the Committee of the bill with it.
Whole House on the State of the Union, either to The foregoing is a brief outline of the method take up bills in their order, or, when a committee of doing business in the Senate, according to the authorizes a motion to be made, to take up a parstanding rules.
In practice this system is much ticular bill. If motions for these purposes are modified by what is called “Senatorial courtesy, voted down, then the morning hour continues which is but another name for the comity that until the adjournment, or until the business in grew up naturally in a body originally small in hand is finished. All appropriation bills, and bills number, where every consideration is extended to raise revenue, are considered first in a Comby the members each to the other. Sometimes mittee of the Whole House on the State of the it is claimed rather to the detriment of public Union. The general appropriation bills, which business. In ordinary assemblies, for instance, provide for the different branches of the public a member discusses a question only when it is be- service, and bills to raise revenue, havethe right of fore the body for action. In the Senate, if a way against everything but questions of priviSenator announces that at a day named in the lege and conference reports. They cannot infuture he will state his views on a bill presented terrupt other business already begun, but may at by him or some one else, he is permitted so to do, any other time obtain consideration. On Fridays, and speaks without limit. At no time is there private bills are entitled to be considered, unless any limit to the time a Senator may speak. the House refuses to go into the Committee of Seventy-two hours with intermissions, and 14 the Whole, in which case the public business prohours without intermission, are perhaps the ceeds as on other days. Congress not only legishighest records thus far made.
lates for the whole country, but in particular for In the House of Representatives, now com- the District of Columbia. Hence on the second posed of 357 members, there is necessarily a dif- and fourth Mondays of each month District of ferent system of procedure and different rules. In Columbia business is in order. the days of John Quincy Adams, all matters, even On the first and third Mondays of each month, petitions and memorials, were presented in the and during the last six days of each session, the open House, and much time was consumed in rules may be suspended and bills and resolutions mere routine. Among the more valuable re- may be passed by a two-thirds vote after a disforms introduced into the House in the Fifty-first cussion of forty minutes, one half of which is Congress (1889–91) was that system which now given to either side. The precedence of motions prevails, by virtue of which, without taking any in the House is as follows: To adjourn, to lay on of the time of the House, all bills, petitions, the table, for the previous question (which motions memorials and communications from the heads shall be decided without debate), to postpone to of departments and bills from the Senate are re- a day certain, to refer, to amend, or to postpone ferred by the Speaker to appropriate committees, indefinitely. and all reports of committees, or rather the ac- It will be seen that, unlike the Senate, the companying bills, except those which are privi- House has the motion for the previous question, leged, are placed upon the calendars to which and it may be added, that as the previous questhey belong. Messages from the President are tion may be ordered on any proposition or motion always read to the House.
and on a bill to its final passage, the closure is The calendars are three in number: The House ample. To prevent, however, undue use of it, Calendar, the Union Calendar and the Private no main question can be ordered to a vote withCalendar. To the Private Calendar go all the out debate; for, unless there has been previous private bills, to the Union Calendar all bills debate, forty minutes are allowed, except where which appropriate money or require such appro- | the bill has been in a committee of the whole. priations. The House Calendar receives all There are two committees of the whole; the other bills. No bill goes to either calendar until Committee of the Whole House on the State of the reported from a committee.
Union, in which appropriation bills and revenue The order of business is as follows: Bills which | bills are considered, and the Committee of the do not carry appropriations, and which, having Whole House, wherein are considered private passed the House, are amended by the Senate bills alone. and sent back, are first disposed of, and then the In the House, and in these two committees, same class of bills passed by the Senate and sent each member is limited to one hour, and can to the House, which are substantially the same as speak but once, though this last prohibition is bills of the House already reported by a House much disregarded. In committees of the whole, committee, can be disposed of when that com- after general debate on the whole bill is closed, mittee request it. After this comes the unfin- the bill is open to amendments, and to remarks ished business of the previous day, and next the for or against the amendment, limited to five
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES
minutes for and five minutes against. This is which may then act upon
it. In practice, almost called debate under the five-minute rule. By the all the work is done by committees, certainly device of amending by striking out the last word, in all important cases. In the House, all matthis kind of debate is often kept up a long time, ters, even those relating to the House alone, go as the five minutes are often lengthened by unan- to committees as of course, and are there disimous consent.
cussed, acted upon and reported, or laid aside and Bills and joint resolutions, of course, have to not reported. The House cannot, under its orpass both Houses to become law, or in case | dinary course of procedure, discharge one of its of concurrent resolutions, to accomplish their committees from the further consideration of a purpose. Hence there must be communication bill and order it reported for action.
There are between the two Houses, and some joint action. no provisions in the order of business for such a Such communication is by way of messages pre- course. The committees of the House have sented by the clerk of the House to the Senate, therefore the most complete control of the bill in and by the secretary of the Senate to the House, its early stages. When it is brought into the House and by the conference committees. Each House and is laid before the House for consideration, it is receives in person or by uty the clerk or still under the fostering care of the committee; for secretary of the other, and suspends all business the custom of the House requires, or rather exto receive the message, which is disposed of under pects, that the members of the committee shall the rules of each body. When the two Houses first be heard in explanation of the bill, and in have reached a point of disagreement, each debate thereon. This proceeds upon the theory appoints a conference committee of several mem- that they, having given special study to the subbers, usually three, who meet each other and ject, are best fitted to enlighten the House endeavor to compose the differences. If they do not succeed, each committee reports the con- Such is the great amount of business pretinued disagreement to its own House, which sented to the Congress, more than ten thousand either lets the matter drop, which case the bills being before the House of Representatives bill is lost, or asks another conference. If the two every two years, that a very small percentage of committees, by a majority of each, agree, then it is ever discussed or passed upon. A report the agreement is reported, and if the two Houses from a committee is very far from being a passratify the agreement, the bill thus modified port to consideration, though without a report becomes law, so far as the two Houses can make no progress can be made. it so.
Such being the power of committees, it is imUnder the constitution, however, the bill, after portant to know how they are created. In the passing the two Houses, must undergo the scru. Senate, they are chosen apparently by the body tiny of the President. If he approves it, he signs itself, but the choice is really made by it, and it becomes a law; if he does nothing, and cus committees, selected by each side after diCongress remains in session for ten days (Sun- vision is made between the parties. The Senate days excepted) after the bill is presented to him, thereupon ratifies the action taken. The House it becomes a law; otherwise not. If he disap- is too large a body for such a method. Comproves the bill, he transmits it, with his objec- mittee appointments there are all, made by the tions, usually called a veto message, to the | Speaker and announced to the House. Naturally, House in which it originated. The objections the Speaker has great power in determining the are entered in the journal, and that House pro- general policy of the House at the outset. At ceeds to reconsider it. If, after such reconsidera- least, as the power is necessarily vested in him tion, two thirds of that House agree to pass the to determine who shall first be recognized in bill, it is sent, together with the objections, to many cases to offer business to the House, he is the other House, and if that House passes it by forced to give much attention to the whole state a two-thirds vote, it becomes a law. The votes of public business. As the general order of business of both Houses must be by yeas and nays.
is far from reaching all the matters which have It will be seen that the President thus exer- to be taken up and disposed of, the Committee on cises a very important legislative power; and Rules, of which the Speaker is chairman, has gradthat a veto message makes one man in either ually become a committee on order of business, House who thinks with the President the equal and has the power at any time to direct what matof the two who do not.
ters shall be taken up, the method of procedure Such, in general, is the way of doing the rou- and the limitation of debate and amendment. The tine business of both Houses. In both of them use of this power depends entirely on the amount it will be seen that the work and direction of af- of business deemed advisable to be done, which, fairs are largely in the hands of committees. In in turn, depends on public sentiment. the Senate, a bill, which in this article is used as The first Senate had 26 members; the Senate a general term to include all propositions pre- of 1896, 90 members. The constitution presented, may go to a committee or not, as the scribed that the first House of Representatives Senate may determine. In the Senate, a com- should consist of 65 members. The House of mittee may, by order of the Senate, be dis- Representatives now consists of 357 members. charged from the consideration of a particular The Representatives are chosen every second bill, and required to report it back to the Senate, 1 year, and the term of service begins the fourth
day of March following the election, which takes sexual cells are known as gametes. The fusion of place at a time fixed by each state, but this time similar gametes is called conjugation and the is usually during November of the even years. product a zygospore. The fusion of dissimilar Their number is fixed by law, based on the pre-gametes (spermatozoid and oösphore) is called ceding decennial census, and is distributed fertilization and the product an oöspore. among the several states in proportion to popula- CONJUNCTION, in astronomy, one of the astion, but each state creates its own representa- pects of the planets. Two heavenly bodies are tive districts, or may elect members at large; in conjunction when they have the same longithat is, members chosen by the entire vote of the tude; that is, when the same perpendicular to state, when the apportionment is in excess of the the ecliptic passes through both. The sun and number of districts. Territories are represented moon are in conjunction at the period of new by one delegate each, who may address the House moon. In general, a heavenly body is in conand receive the same pay and perquisites as a junction with the sun when it is on the same side member, but cannot vote.
of the earth and in line with the sun. T. B. REED.
CONKLING, Roscoe, an American Statesman, CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENTS. was born in Albany, New York, Oct. 30, 1829; See CONGRESS, AND THE LEGISLATIVE POWER OF
died in New York, April THE UNITED STATES, in these Supplements.
18, 1888. His father, AlCONGRESSIONAL LIBRARY. See NA
fred Conkling (1789TIONAL LIBRARY and ARCHITECTURE, in these
1874), served in Congress Supplements.
in 1821-23, and was minisCONGREVE, RICHARD, an English author;
ter to Mexico in 1852. born Sept. 4, 1818, and educated under Arnold at
The son received an acadRugby, passing afterward to Wadham College,
emic education, removed Oxford, of which he became successively scholar,
to Utica, studied law, and fellow and tutor, but resigned after having
was admitted to the bar become definitely a disciple of Comte. In 1855
in 1849. In 1850 he behe published a good edition of Aristotle's Politics.
came district attorney for Later works are Lectures on the Roman Empire of
Oneida County, and was the West (1855); Elizabeth of England (1862);
made mayor of Utica in Essays—Political, Social and Religious (1874).
1858. In that year he CONGRUITY, a term applied in geometry to was chosen as a Republican to Congress, and was lines and figures which exactly correspond when re-elected in 1860; was defeated in 1862, but was laid over
one another. See COINCIDENCE, in re-elected in 1864. In this term he was made these Supplements.
chairman of the Committee on the District of CONIFERÆ OR CONE-BEARERS. See VEG- Columbia, was a member of the Committee on ETABLE KINGDOM, Vol. XXIV, p. 131; also AR- Ways and Means, and of the special reconstrucBORICULTURE, Vol. II, pp. 315, 321.
tion committee of fifteen. His first important CONINE OR CONIA (C*H*N), (or CH"N, speech was in support of the fourteenth amendaccording to Hofmann), a liquid and volatile ment to the constitution. He attacked Mcalkaloid extracted from the HEMLOCK (Conium Clellan's generalship, opposed Spaulding's legalmaculatum); 4.v., Vol. XI, p. 647. The seeds are tender act and advocated the prosecution of the crushed and distilled with sodium hydrate, and Civil War. . after passing through several other processes the Mr. Conkling, on resuming his seat in Conproduct is dried over some fragments of calcium gress in 1864, took a violent dislike to James G. chloride and rectified in a vacuum. Conine is a Blaine, who had been elected to Congress in limpid, oleaginous liquid, with a penetrating and 1862, which resulted in mutual recriminations nauseating odor, recalling that of hemlock. It on the floor, as well as attempts to injure each boils at 168°, and is a deadly poison.
other's interests elsewhere. Probably Mr. Blaine CONIROSTRES, a class of birds in which owes his defeat for the Presidency to the bitter Cuvier included a great variety of forms with a attacks and untiring work against him of Mr.
strong conical | Conkling.
use the term to Senate to succeed Ira Harris, and was re-elected [ include finches, in 1873 and in 1879. He was a member of the
weaver - birds Judiciary Committee, and of nearly all of the and tanagers, leading committees on commerce and revision of
but it is practi- | the laws. He was instrumental in the passage Z A
cally obsolete. of the Civil Rights Bill, and advocated the reTwo filaments of Spirogyra, showing
CONJUGA- sumption of specie payments. In 1877 he took conjugation. A. Gametes; Z. Zy- TION, in bot- an important part in framing the Electoral Comgospore. (Original.)
sexual mission Bill, which he supported by an able process found among the lower algæ and fungi, speech. and distinguished from fertilization. The two Mr. Conkling received 93 votes for the Repub