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CONSTANT-POTENTIAL MACHINES. See | expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at ELECTRICITY, $ 84, in these Supplements.

the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may CONSTIPATION, an irregular and insufficient

be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by

resignation or otherwise during the recess of the legislaaction of the bowels, due either to deficient secre- ture of any state, the executive thereof may make temtion of fluids in the digestive organs, or to imper- porary appointments until the next meeting of the legis

lature, which shall then fill such vacancies. fect muscular action of the bowels, but usually to both these causes combined.

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have

The retention, attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years within the organism, of matters which should reg- a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when ularly be evacuated as they are formed, and their elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall

be chosen. consequent absorption into the blood and tissues

4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be of the body, often lead to a whole train of un

President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless pleasant symptoms; headache, or pain in other they be equally divided. regions, irritability, lassitude and debility.

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also CONSTITUTIONAL UNION PARTY, THE. a president pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-PresiSee UNITED STATES, Vol. XXIII, p. 772.

dent, or when he shall exercise the office of President of

the United States. CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED 6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all imSTATES. For its history and limitations, see peachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall UNITED STATES, Vol. XXIII, pp. 744 et seq.

be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the The text of the constitution of the United

United States is tried, the chief justice shall preside;

and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence States of America is as follows:

of two thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend We, the people of the United States, in order to form

further than to removal from office, and disqualification to

hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit, under a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the

the United States; but the party convicted shall, nevergeneral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to

theless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this

ment and punishment according to law.

Sec. 4. constitution for the United States of America.

1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be pre

scribed in each state by the legislature thereof; but the Sec. I.

All legislative powers herein granted shall be Congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Sec. 2. 1. The House of Representatives shall be com- year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in posed of members chosen every second year by the peo- December, unless they shall by law appoint a different ple of the several states, and the electors in each state day. shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the

1. Each House shall be the judge of the elecmost numerous branch of the state legislature.

tions, returns and qualifications of its own members, and 2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do busihave attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been ness; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall

day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which absent members, in such manner and under such penalhe shall be chosen.

ties, as each House may provide. 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned 2. Each House may determine the rules of its proamong the several states which may be included within

ceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, this Union, according to their respective numbers, which and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member. shall be determined by adding to the whole number of 3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, free persons, including those bound to service for a term and, from time to time, publish the same, excepting such of years, and, excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and the all other persons.

The actual enumeration shall be yeas and nays of the members of either House, on any made within three years after the first meeting of the question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, Congress of the United States, and within every subse- be entered on the journal. quent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall 4. Neither House, during the session of Congress. law direct. The number of Representatives shall not shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall than three days, nor to any other place than that in which have at least one Representative; and, until such enu- the two Houses shall be sitting. meration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall Sec. 6. 1. The Senators and Representatives shall rebe entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode ceive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Caro- and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during lina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, 4. When vacancies happen in the representation from and in going to and returning from the same; and for any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be writs of election to fill such vacancies.

questioned in any other place. 5. The House of Representatives shall choose their 2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office of impeachment.

under the authority of the United States, which shall 1. The Senate of the United States shall be have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the been increased, during such time; and no person holdlegislature thereof for six years; and each Senator shall ing any office under the United States shall be a memhave one vote.

ber of either House during his continuance in office. 2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in conse

1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate quence of the first election, they shall be divided, as in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the

propose or concur with amendments as on other bills. Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of tion of the second year, of the second class at the Representatives and the Senate shall, before it become

Sec, 5.

Sec. 3.

Sec. 7.



Sec. 9.

a law, be presented to the President of the United 18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and
States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers,
return it, with his objections, to that House in which it and all other powers vested by this constitution in the
shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at government of the United States, or in any department or
large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, officer thereof.
after such reconsideration, two thirds of that House shall

1. The migration or importation of such per-
agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the sons as any of the states now existing shall think proper
objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise to admit shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to
be reconsidered, and is approved by two thirds of that the year one thousand eight hundred and eight; but a tax
House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceed-
votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and ing ten dollars for each person.
nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against 2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not
the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House, be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or inva-
respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the sion, the public safety may require it.
President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it 3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be
shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a passed.
law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, un-
Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in less in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbe-
which case it shall not be a law.

fore directed to be taken. 3. Every order, resolution or vote to which the con- 5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported currence of the Senate and House of Representatives from any state. may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) 6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of shall be presented to the President of the United States, commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those and before the same shall take effect shall be approved of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed be obliged to enter clear or pay duties, in another. by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representa- 7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in tives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed consequence of appropriations made by law; and a reguin the case of a bill.

lar statement and account of the receipts and expendiSec. 8. The Congress shall have power,

tures of all public money shall be published from time to 1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and ex- time. cises, to pay the debts and provide for the common de- 8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United fense and general welfare of the United States; but all States; and no person holding any office of profit or trust duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, the United States;

accept of any present, emolument, office or title, of any 2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States; kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign state.

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and Sec. 10. 1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliamong the several states, and with the Indian tribes; ance or confederation; grant letters of marque and re

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and prisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts ; the United States;

pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law im5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of for- pairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of eign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures; nobility.

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the 2. No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, securities and current coin of the United States;

lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except 7. To establish post-offices and post roads;

what may be absolutely necessary for executing its in8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, spection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imby securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, posts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be the exclusive right to their respective writings and dis- for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all coveries;

such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of 9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme the Congress. court;

3. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay 10. To define and punish piracies and felonies com- any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time mitted on the high seas, and offenses against the law of of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with annations;

other state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, 11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and re- unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as prisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and will not admit of delay. water;

12. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two

Sec. I.

1. The executive power shall be vested in a years;

President of the United States of America. He shall hold 13. To provide and maintain a navy;

his office during the term of four years, and, together with 14. To make rules for the government and regulation the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be elected of the land and naval forces;

as follows: 15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute 2. Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal invasions;

to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to 16. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplin- which the state may be entitled in the Congress; but no ing the militia, and for governing such part of them as Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of may be employed in the service of the United States, re- trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed serving to the states respectively the appointment.of the an elector. officers, and the authority of training the militia, according 3. The electors shall meet in their respective states to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one, at least, 17. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatso- shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) | selves. And they shall make a list of all the persons as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list of Congress, become the seat of the government of the they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the United States, and to exercise like authority over all seai of the government of the United States, directed to places, purchased by the consent of the legislature of the the president of the Senate. The president of the Senate state in which the same shall be, for the ereciion of forts, shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Repremagazines, arsenals, dockyards and other needful build- sentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then ings; and

be counted. "The person having the greatest number of

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Sec. 4.


votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority case of disagreement between them with respect to the of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time more than one who have such majority, and have an as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives and other public ministers; he shall take care that the shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the President; and if no person have a majority, then, from officers of the United States. the five highest on the list, the said House shall, in like

1. The President, Vice-President and all civil manner, choose the President. But in choosing the Presi- officers of ihe United States shall be removed from office dent, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or from each state having one vote; a quorum for this pur- other high crimes and misdemeanors. pose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall

'Sec. I. be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice

The judicial power of the United States shall of the President, the person having the greatest number

be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But

courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain if there should remain two or more who have equal

and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and in

ferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the

and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a comVice-President. (This clause is annulled by Article XII of the Amendments.]

pensation which shall not be diminished during their con

tinuance in office. 4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing

Sec. 2. the electors, and the day on which they shall give their

1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases,

in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United

laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which States.

shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affect5. No person, except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of

ing ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all

cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controthis Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of Presi

versies to which the United States shall be a party; to dent; neither shall any person be eligible to that office

controversies between two or more states, between a state who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years,

and citizens of another state, between citizens of different and been fourteen years a resident within the United

states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands States.

under grants of different states, and between a state, or 6. In case of the removal of the President from office,

the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subor of his death, resignation or inability to discharge the

jects. powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law pro

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public min

isters and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a vide for the case of removal, death, resignation or in

party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. ability, both of the President and Vice-President, declar

In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court ing what officer shall then act as President, and such

shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be re

with such exceptions and under such regulations as the moved, or a President shall be elected.

Congress shall make. 7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachservices a compensation, which shall neither be increased

ment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the nor diminished during the period for which he shall have

state where the said crimes shall have been committed; been elected, and he shall not receive, within that period,

but when not committed within any State, the trial shall any other emolument from the United States, or any of

be at such place or places as the Congress may by law them.

have directed. 8. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall

1. Treason against the United States shall contake the following oath or affirmation:

sist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully

their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person execute the office of President of the United States, and

shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and de

two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in fend the Constitution of the United States."

open court. Sec. 2. 1. The President shall be commander-in-chief

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the pun. of the army and navy of the United States, and of the

ishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion,

corruption of blood or forfeiture, except during the life of

the person attainted. in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant

Full faith and credit shall be given in each reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United state to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings States, except in cases of impeachment.

of every other state. And the Congress may, by general 2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nomi

Sec. 2.

1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to nate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Sen- all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several ate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other 2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony officers of the United States whose appointments are not or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be estab- in another state, shall, on demand of the executive lished by law; but the Congress may by law vest the ap- authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, pointment of such inferior officers as they think proper in to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads crime. of departments.

3. No person held to service or labor in one state, under 3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacan- the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consecies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by quence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged granting commissions which shall expire at the end of from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on their next session.

claim of the party to whom such service ar labor may be 1. He shall, from time to time, give to the due. Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall

1. New states may be admitted by the Con.

gress into this Union; but no new state shall be formed judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state, nor occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in any state be formed by the junction of two or more states

Sec. 3.


Sec. 1.


Sec. 3.

Sec. 3.




or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures DANIEL OF ST. THOMAS JEN

South Carolina. of the states concerned as well as of the Congress.


JOHN RUTLEDGE. 2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and DANIEL CARROLL.

CHARLES PINCKNEY. make all needful rules and regulations respecting the


territory or other property belonging to the United States;
and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as

JOHN Blair.

10 prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any
particular state.

North Carolina.

Georgia. Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every


William Few. state in this Union a republican form of government, and


ABRAHAM BALDWIN. shall protect each of them against invasion; and on ap- Hugh WILLIAMSON. plication of the legislature, or of the executive (when the

Attest: William JACKSON, Secretary. legislature cannot be convened), against domestic vio

The constitution was ratified by the convenlence.

tions of the several states, as follows: 1. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses Delaware, Dec. 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, Dec. 12, 1787; shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this New Jersey, Dec. 18, 1787; Georgia, Jan. 2, 1788; Conconstitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of necticut, Jan. 9, 1788; Massachusetts, Feb. 6, 1788; Maryiwo thirds of the several states, shall call a convention land, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be Hampshire, June 21, 1788; Virginia, June 26, 1788; New valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of this consti- York, July 26, 1788; North Carolina, Nov. 21, 1789; Rhode tution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths Island, May 29, 1790. of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths

The following are the articles in addition to and thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided, that no amend

in amendment of the constitution of the United ment which may be made prior to the year one thousand States of America, proposed by Congress, and eight hundred and eight shall, in any manner, affect the ratified by the legislatures of the several states, first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first

pursuant to the fifth article of the original conarticle; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

stitution. ARTICLE VI.

[During the session of the First Congress of the United 1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into

States in 1789 the first ten of the amendments were probefore the adoption of this constitution shall be as valid

posed. They were afterward ratified by the states in against the United States under this constitution as under

1791. The Eleventh Amendment was proposed by the the confederation.

Third Congress in 1794 and ratified in 1798. The Twelfth 2. This constitution, and the laws of the United States

Amendment was proposed by the Eighth Congress in 1803

and ratified in 1804. The Thirteenth Amendment was which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made or which shall be made under the authority of the

proposed by the Thirty-Eighth Congress in 1865 and rat

ified the same year. The Fourteenth Amendment was United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby,

proposed by the Thirty-Ninth Congress in 1866 and ratianything in the constitution or laws of any state to the

fied in 1868. The Fifteenth Amendment was proposed by

the Fortieth Congress in 1869 and ratified in 1870.] contrary notwithstanding.

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment executive and judicial officers, both of the United States of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or and of the several states, shall be bound, by oath or affir- | abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the mation, to support this constitution; but no religious test right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or the government for redress of grievances. public trust under the United States.

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security 1. The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution be- arms shall not be infringed. tween the states so ratifying the same.

ARTICLE III. Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the

house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eightyseven, and of the independence of the United States of

war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. America, the twelfth. In witness whereof,, we have hereunto subscribed our names.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, GEORGE WASHINGTON, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches

President, and Deputy from Virginia. and seizures shall not be violated; and no warrants shall New Hampshire.


issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirJohn LANGDON. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.

mation, and particularly describing the place to be NICHOLAS GILMAX. ROBERT MORRIS.

searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Massachusetts.


No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other-
Rufus King

wise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictGEORGE CLYMER.

ment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land Connecticut. JARED INGERSOLL.

or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service WILLIAM SAMUEL JOHNSON. GOUVERNEUR MORRIS.

in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be Roger SHERMAN.


subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy New York. GEORGE READ).

of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal ALEXANDER HAMILTON. GUNNING BEDFORD, JR.

case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of

life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor
New Jersey.

shall private property be taken for public use without just WuLIAM LIVINGSTON.

compensation. David BREARLEY.

JACOB Broom. William PATERSON.


In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the JONATHAN DAYTON. JAMES MCHENRY.

right to speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of















the state and district wherein the crime shall have been

Sec. 2.

Congress shall have power to enforce this articommitted, which district shall have been previously as- cle by appropriate legislation. certained by law; and to be informed of the nature and

ARTICLE XIV. cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the wit

Sec. I.

All persons born or naturalized in the United nesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtain

States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens ing witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of

of the United States, and of the state wherein they reside. counsel for his defense.

No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge

the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; In suits at common law, where the value in controversy nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall property without due process of law, nor deny to any perbe preserved; and no fact tried by a jury shall be other- son within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. wise re-examined in any court of the United States than Sec. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the according to the rules of the common law.

several states according to their respective numbers,

counting the whole number of persons in each state, exExcessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines

cluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at

any election for the choice of electors for President and imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in

Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or The enumeration, in the constitution, of certain rights the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained

the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years by the people.

of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way

abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other The powers not delegated to the United States by the

crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are re

in the proportion which the number of such male citizens served to the states respectively, or to the people.

shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twentyone years of age in such state.

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative The judicial power of the United States shall not be in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, com- hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, menced or prosecuted against one of the United States by or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United foreign state.

States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an

executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the The electors shall meet in their respective states, and

Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of

insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same

comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the

vote of two thirds of each House, remove such disability. person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of

payment of pensions and bounties for services in supall persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number pressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify,

But neither the United States nor any state shall assume and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurUnited States, directed to the president of the Senate; the

rection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim president of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate for the loss or emancipation of any slave, but all such and House of Representatives, open all the certificates,

debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and and the votes shall then be counted; the person having

void. the greatest number of votes for President shall be the

Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by President, if such number be a majority of the whole appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. number of electors appointed; and if no person have such a majority, then, from the persons having the highest num

Sec. I.

The right of citizens of the United States to bers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as

vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, President, the House of Representatives shall choose im

or by any state, on account of race, color or previous conmediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the dition of servitude. President, the votes shall be taken by states, the repre- Sec. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this sentation from each state having one vote; a quorum article by appropriate legislation. for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all

CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON. See the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the CLARENDON, ConstituTIONS OF, in these SuppleHouse of Representatives shall not choose a President, ments. whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them,

CONSUBSTANTIATION (Lat. con, together; before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the

and substantia, being substance); a name often death, or other constitutional disability, of the President. given to the Lutheran doctrine of the real presThe person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- ence of Christ in the Lord's Supper. The doctrine President shall be the Vice-President, if such number be is, that the body and blood of Christ are really a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then, from the two

present in and under the bread and wine, so highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the that the communicant partakes of them, while Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of yet the bread and wine are not changed into two thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a ma

them, and while no new substance is formed by jority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office

a union of the bread and wine with them. The name of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of has never been used by the Lutherans to desig. the United States.

nate their doctrine; on the contrary, they repudi

ate it, on the ground that it more naturally desigSec. I. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, ex

nates the doctrine held by John of Paris, that cept as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United

there is a substantial conjunction of the bread States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

and wine and the body and blood. Those who ap



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