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CORNELL-CORNING CORNELL, Ezra, an American philanthropist; ments of architecture, arts, philosophy, science and born at Westchester Landing, New York, Jan. 11, letters. Co-education has existed since 1872. Fif
1807 He settled in Ithaca teen fellowships and thirteen scholarships are
nell founded the University at Ithaca, New York, which bears his name. He died at Ithaca, New York, Dec. 9, 1874.
CORNELL COLLEGE, an educational institution at Mount Vernon, Iowa, dating back as far as CORNER. In the vernacular of the commercial 1852 for its inception, and to the year 1857 for world, a corner is an existing shortage in any parits collegiate organization. The institution is ticular stock or commodity, brought about by the sectarian, being conducted under the auspices preconcerted purchase, by one or more parties, of of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The college such stock or cominodity in such quantities as pracbuildings consist of an art hall, a science hall, Bow tically to preclude others from buying on the open man Hall, and the main college building of brick market. The result of this is to place all outsiders and a Gothic chapel of stone construction. In addi- at the mercy of the cornerer, who thus is enabled to tion to the four regular courses, namely, classical, dictate his own terms of sale. philosophical, scientific and civil-engineering, there CORNET, a wind instrument.
See ZINCKEN, are preparatory, normal, art and musical depart. Vol. XXIV, pp. 787, 788. ments, The faculty consists of thirty professors and CORN-FLOWER, a name given to Centaurea teachers, and the annual enrollment of students is Cyanus, a star-thistle of the family Composita. It over five hundred and seventy. An army officer is is a native of Europe, but is cultivated in gardens detailed for the purpose of military instruction. The and runs wild in the United States. It is cotinstitution possesses productive funds of $110,000, tony, with linear stem leaves, a solitary longderiving an income therefrom, and from tuition fees, stalked head of large blue flowers, varying to white of $23,850. Co-education of the sexes exists, and and rose-color. It also is called “ bluebottle.” the institution is under the presidency of the Rev. CORN-HARVESTERS. See HARVESTING MADr. W. F. King. Its high intellectual and relig: Chinery, in these Supplements. ious standards have been noticeable from its early CORNIFEROUS, a period in geology to which days.
belongs the corniferous limestone. This latter exCORNELL UNIVERSITY, a non-sectarian edu- tends from near the Hudson, in eastern New York, cational institution, picturesquely situated in its westward through the state, and at the Niagara River grounds of 270 acres, on the high banks of Cayuga forins the rapids at Black Rock. It also occurs in Lake, Ithaca, New York. It ranks as one of the Ohio, northern Michigan, Illinois, Kentucky, eastprincipal and abundantly endowed universities in ern Iowa and Missouri. The limestone is comthe Union. Chartered in 1865 and 1867 by the monly light gray to bluish or buff; occasionally it legislature of the Empire State, Cornell received the is blackish and rough, from the abundance of hornincome of an enormous land grant of nine hundred stone masses which are left projecting by surface and ninety thousand acres, and the interest on half a
See also GEOLOGY, Vol. X, p. 345. million dollars given to the university by the Hon. CORNING, a town and the capital of Adams Ezra Cornell, after whom it is named. To his finan- County, southwestern Iowa, 73 miles S.W. of Des cial management its present opulence is largely Moines; on the Nodaway River, and on the Chicago, due. The university has received munificent dona- Burlington and Quincy railroad. Some of the industions, also, from John McGraw, Hiram Sibley, Henry tries of the town are fruit-canning, cheese and butW. Sage, A. S. Barnes and A. D. White.
ter making, four-milling, stone-quarrying and brickopened formally for students in 1888, and has 165 making. . Population 1895, 1,769. professors and teachers shaping the studies of 1,688 CORNING, an important town of Steuben pupils, all under the presidency of Jacob G. Schur County, western central New York, and one of the man, D.Sc., LL.D. It includes a college of agricul capitals of the county, pleasantly situated on the ture, the Sibley College of Mechanical and Electrical Chemung River, about 17 miles W. of Elmira, on the Engineering, the School of Law, and has depart- Fall Brook and New York, Lake Erie and Western
railroads. It has excellent educational facilities, and cotton fabrics, paper-mills, Alouring-mills, etc. and contains a variety of manufactories, including Population 1891, 6,805. flint-glass and railroad cars. Population 1890, 8,550.
CORN-WEEVIL, a wheat-pest. See WHEAT, CORNISH DIALECT. See Celtic LITERA- | Vol. XXIV, p. 536. TURE, Vol. V, p. 298.
CORN-WORM (Heliothis armigera), a name apCORN, MAIZE OR INDIAN CORN. Corn, as plied to the larva of a moth, also known as bollusually applied, is a generic name for all seeds used
The larva feeds on corn, cotton, tomato in making bread, especially the seeds of cerealia. In and other plants. Some years almost one fourth of England, corn means wheat, rye, oats or barley; in the cotton-crop in the southern United States has Scotland, oats; and in the United States, maize. As been destroyed by this worm. It is called boll-worm to all these matters, see AGRICULTURE, in these because it begins its ravages by destroying the Supplements; and Maize, Vol. XV, p. 309.
young bolls, or fruit, of the cotton-plant, later eating CORN-MOTH (Tinea Granella), a small species the plant itself. of moth, very destructive to grain-sheaves in the COREBUS, the name of a semi-mythical Greek field and stored grain, among which it lays its eggs. athlete who is said to have won the principal footThe larva, which, for its voraciousness, is known as race at the Olympian games in 776 B.C. The “the wolf,” eats into the grain and joins it together Olympian era dated from this victory. See CHROby a web.
Frequent turning is resorted to for the NOLOGY, Vol. V, p. 711. destruction of the eggs and larva, and salt is mixed CORONA BOREALIS, a small and bright conwith grain for the same purpose.
stellation near Hercules. It is visible in the northCORNPLANTER, a half-breed Seneca Indian, ern hemisphere from May till July, near the zenith, chief of the Six Nations. He was born about 1732, in the shape of a semicircle of small but brilliant and is said to have been the son of John Abeel, a
stars. white trader. He sided with the French as against CORONADO, a celebrated summer and winter the English and colonists, whose implacable foe he resort of San Diego County, California, situated on was during the Revolution. With peace concluded the Pacific Coast, near San Diego, and just north of with England, Cornplanter was politic and made the Mexican boundary line. It is noted for its friends with the United States. He died in Warren medicinal spring, its fine bathing facilities, its exhilCounty, Pennsylvania, Feb. 18, 1836, and the state arating climate and its magnificent scenery. The of Pennsylvania erected a monument to his meinory springs are sulpho-carbonated sodic. in 1867. Cornplanter was of considerable intelli- CORONADO, FRANCISCO VASQUEZ DE, a noted gence and moral worth.
Spanish explorer; born in Salamanca, Spain, about CORNSNAKE (Coluber guttatus), a small brown 1510. In 1539 he started to explore the northern non-venomous snake found in the southern United regions of Florida, intelligence of which had been States.
brought by Cabeza de Vaca. He sailed from CuliaCORNO, MONTE OR GRAN SASSO D'ITALIA, a can, on the Pacific coast, in April, 1540, explored mountain in southern Italy, the culminating peak the whole of the present state of Sonora, in Mexico, of the Apennines. See APENNINES, Vol. II, p. 170; and traveled up the Gila valley. He then penetrated and ITALY, Vol. XIII, p. 437.
the country of the Little Colorado, visiting the CORNS. See Skin DISEASES, Vol. XXII, p. 121. famed seven cities of Cibola, the villages of the
CORNU, MARIE ALFRED, a French scientist; Pueblo Indians, and from there marched as far as born March 6, 1841. In 186,7 he was appointed Gran Quivira, near lat. 34° N., and about 170 miles professor of physics at the École Polytechnique, from El Paso, Texas. On his return journey he is and succeeded Becquerel as member of the Acad- said to have fallen from his horse and to have beemy of Science; received the Rumford medal of the come insane. Coronado is remarkable as the leader Royal Society of London. He was president of of the first expedition which met with the American the French Association for the Advancement of bison, or buffalo, and as the first to explore or view Science, and was decorated with the Legion of the prairies and plains of New Mexico. He died Honor. Professor Cornu's researches have chiefly in 1542.
See also COLORADO, Vol. VI, p. 163; been devoted to optical subjects. He was one of NEBRASKA, Vol. XVII, p. 309; and New Mexico the first living authorities upon light, and gave to
Vol. XVII, p. 401, measurements of the velocity of light a precision CORONATION GULF, an inlet of the Arctic which was previously impossible. His principal | Ocean, in British North America, forming the southexperiments upon this subject are recorded in the east part of the land-locked and isle-studded bay annals of the Paris Observatory; inany of his other that receives the Coppermine River.
Lat. 68° 30' papers are in the Comptes Rendus, and deal with N., long. 46° 52' W. crystalline reflexion, the reversal of the lines in the CORONELLA, a genus of small, non-venomous spectrum of metallic vapors, the spectra of the serpents of the family Colubride, having a somewh it aurora borealis and the normal solar spectrum. compressed and pentagonal body, and rather lon,
CORNWALL, a town and port of entry of Corn- conical tail. They inhabit the warm and temperaie wall and Storment County, eastern Ontario, at the parts of the world. mouth of the Cornwall canal, and separated by the CORONER. The gradual progress of codificaSt. Lawrence from New York state. It is on the tion and revision of statute law in England brought Grand Trunk railway, 67 iniles S.W. of Montreal. the office and duties of a coroner within the contemIt has abundant water-power for factories of woolen | plation of Parliament in 1890. A Coroner's Act
was passed, abolishing many useless and obsolete | Pennsylvania, 26 miles E.S.E. of Erie, on the New incidents of the office, clearly defining the duties of York, Lake Erie and Western, the Pennsylvania, a coroner, and codifying, within the brief limits of and the Western New York and Pennsylvania raila single statute, the common-law decisions in rela- | roads. It has a large number of manufactories, tion to the office, which previously had reposed in among them boring-machine factories, locomotive the midst of hundreds of dusty volumes evolved by and car shops, boiler-works and numerous other 850 years of English jurisprudence and its prover- machine-shops. The town has electric lights, water bially slow progress. See also CORONER, Vol. VI, and gas works. Population 1890, 5,677. p. 430.
CORSE, JOHN Murray, an American soldier; CORPANCHO, MANUEL NICHOLAS, a Peruvian born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, April 27, 1835; poet; born in Lima, Dec. 5, 1830; died Sept. 13, entered the army as major of volunteers in August, 1863. See Peru, Vol. XVIII, p. 676.
1861, fought at Chickasaw and Missionary Ridge, CORPUS CHRISTI, a city and the capital of and was wounded severely at Allatoona. He was Nueces County, southern Texas, on the Mexican brevetted major-general, May 5, 1864; became colNational railroad. It is on Corpus Christi Bay, and lector of internal revenue in Chicago in 1867, and has a harbor unsurpassed by any on the coast. It postmaster of Boston in 1886. He died April 27, is the terminus of the San Antonio and Aransas Pass 1893 railroad, and is the center of a large and growing CORSICANA, a flourishing city and railroad cen
CAN commerce. Population 1890, 4,387.
ter, and the capital of Navarro County, east central CORPUSCULAR THEORY OF LIGHT. See Texas. It has several seminaries and the State LIGHT, Vol. XIV, P 580.
Orphan Asylum, and manufactories of flour, ice, CORPUS DELICTI, a term used in criminal brick and carriages, and foundries and planinglaw, signifying the substance of a crime, or the mills. It ships cotton, grain, wool and hides. actual fact that a crime has been committed as Population 1890, 6,285. charged. Thus in the case of murder, the fact of CORSITE. See CORSYTE, in these Supplements. the death of the victim and that the crime charged CORSNED or CORSNÆD. See ORDEAL, Vol. against the accused had actually been committed by XVII, p. 819. some one, is called the corpus delicti ; and without CORSON, Hiram, an American educator and proof of this fact, no matter how suspicious the man of letters; born in Philadelphia in 1828. He other circumstances, such as the disappearance of was for some years an assistant in the Library of the victim, the known hatred of the accused toward Congress and Smithsonian Institution; was appointed him, or other actuating motives, the opportunity for professor in history and rhetoric in Girard College the commission of the crime, or the innumerable in 1865, and in St. John's College, Annapolis, Mary. other incriminating circumstances, a conviction of land, in 1866. In 1870 he became professor of murder would not be justified. The fact that the English language and literature in Cornell Univerperson was killed as charged must always be proved.sity. His published works include an edition of The fact that, after the accused has been convicted Chaucer's Legende of Goode Women; A Thesaurus of and put to death, the supposed victim has in several Early English; An Introduction to the Study of instances made his appearance alive, makes the wis- Browning; and A Handbook of Anglo-Saxon and dom of the rule apparent. The rule that the corpus | Early English. delicti must be proved applies to other crimes. CORSYTE, a term in geology to describe certain Under a charge of larceny this proof is supplied eruptive rocks found in Corsica and the Shetland when proof of the felonious taking has been made. Isles. It also is called Orbicular Dioryte, and con
CORRIGAN, MICHAEL AUGUSTINE, an American sists of anorthite and hornblende, with some quartz Roman Catholic prelate; born at Newark, New Jer- and biotite.
sey, Aug. 13, 1839. He CORTLAND, a railroad junction and the county
dinal McCloskey, arch- a considerable trade with Bolivia. Population, about bishop of New York, under the title of Archbishop 5,000. of Petra, and on the death of the Cardinal in 1885 CORUNDUM. See Emery, Vol. VIII, p. 171. he became metropolitan of the diocese of New York, CORUNNA, a city and the capital of Shiawassee receiving the pallium shortly afterward.
County, southeastern central Michigan, on the CORRY, a city of Erie County, northwestern Shiawassee River, and on the Michigan Central,
Ann Arbor, and Detroit, Grand Haven and Mil- CORYDON, a town and the capital of Wayne waukee railroads, 75 miles N.W. of Detroit. It has County, central southern Iowa, 61 miles S. of Des Aouring and woolen-mills, coal-mines and large Moines, on the Keokuk and Western railroad. Popusandstone-quarries. Population 1895, 1,551.
lation 1895, 1,058. CORVALLIS, a thriving town and capital of CORYMB. See BOTANY, Vol. III, pp. 122, 123. Benton County, central western Oregon, situated on CORYMBUS, a mode of dressing the hair among the west bank of the Willamette River, at its junc- the Greeks by tying it in a cluster or knot on the ture with St. Mary's River, about 30 miles S. of top of the head. The hair often was covered with Salem. It is the seat of the State Agricultural Col- a sort of open ornamental work. The name was lege. It is the center of a rich agricultural region, also given to the cluster of ivy leaves, garlands or and, having two railroads, the Oregon Central and berries with which Greek vases were encircled, and service for two thirds of the year, it enjoys a large CORYPHA, a genus of tropical Asiatic palms, shipping trade, especially in wheat. Population with very large fan-shaped leaves and a terminal in1890, 1,527.
florescence. C. umbraculifera is the talipot of Ceylon. CORVIDÆ. See Crow, Vol. VI, p. 617.
CORYPHENE (Coryphæna), a genus of fishes of CORWEN (“ the white choir "), a town in Meri- the family Coryphænida. This family comprises the onethshire, North Wales, on a height overlooking the fishes known as dolphins, related to the mackerels. Dee, 10 miles W. of Llangollen. It is said to Most of them exhibit brilliant, iridescent colors. be the place to which Owen Glendower retreated Some of them are excellent as food.
Two species when Henry IV invaded and overran Wales, and are sometimes found along the Atlantic coast of the tradition points out his tomb in the parish church- United States. yard. The Great Western railway has a station in CORYPHODON. See MAMMALIA, Vol. XV, the town. Population, 2,646.
CORWIN, THOMAS, an American statesman; born COSCINOMANCY, a form of divination pracin Bourbon County, Kentucky, July 29, 1794. His ticed in early times by suspending a sieve from the
father removed to Leba-point of a pair of shears. See DIVINATION, Vol.
office he held for one In his twentieth year he acquired the degree of term. In 1844 he was elected to the United States LL.D., and, embracing Christianity, was baptized. Senate, where he opposed the annexation of Texas, This subjected him to considerable persecution, and in 1847 delivered a notable speech against the which, however, subsided as his genius gradually war with Mexico. He was appointed, by President gained recognition. The most interesting of his Fillmore, Secretary of the Treasury in 1850, and after writings are his translation of Byron's Cain; Harhis service there returned to the practice of law in mony of the Gospel; etc.
His Battle of Nieuwpoort, Lebanon. In 1858 he was elected to Congress as a the last of his poems, is one of his masterpieces. Republican, and was re-elected in 1860. President COSTA, SIR MICHAEL, an English musician and Lincoln appointed him minister to Mexico in 1861; composer; born in Naples, Feb. 4, 1810. but, on the arrival of Maximilian, he returned to sent to the Conservatoire in his native city for educaWashington and practiced law. He had much repu- tion, where he greatly distinguished himself. In tation as an orator. See the Life and Speeches of 1830 he was appointed conductor of music in the Thomas Corwin, edited by Isaac Strohn (Dayton, Italian Opera, London, an office which, in 1847, he 1859). He died in Washington, District of Colum- resigned for a similar one in the Royal Italian bia, Dec. 18, 1865.
Opera, Covent Garden. His oratorios of Eli and CORYDON, a town and the capital of Harrison Naaman have often been performed, but have little County, southeastern Indiana, and former capital merit. He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1869, of the state, situated on Indian Creek, 115 miles and received the Royal Order of Frederick from the S. of Indianapolis, and on the Louisville, New Al-King of Würtemberg. He died in England, April bany and Corydon railroad. It is the seat of an academy, contains various manufactories, and is COSTANOAN INDIANS. See Californian Innoted for its sulphur spring. Population, 880. dians, under INDIANS, Vol. XII, p. 866.
COSTA RICA (República de Costa Rica), the the highest lakes in the world. The mountain is of southernmost republic of Central America. (See volcanic origin and shows marks of violent earthCosta Rica, Vol. VI, pp. 449-451.) The legislative quakes; it has, however, no crater at its summit, power is vested in a single chamber of 21 repre- though the lake occupies a former one. It is very sentatives—one for each ten thousand inhabitants - difficult of ascent. the members of which serve for four years, one half COTES, Mrs. EvERARD (pen name, SARA retiring every two years. The President is elected JEANNETTE DUNCAN), a Canadian novelist and writer for four years in the same manner, the present occu- of travels and descriptive sketches; born in Brantpant of the office being Señor Don Rafael Iglesias, ford, Ontario, Canada, in 1863, and educated at the whose term expires May 8, 1898. Official statistics Collegiate Institute of that city. She was the daughmake the area of the republic 23,000 square miles, ter of Charles Duncan, a merchant of Brantford, and but geographers deny that it exceeds 20,980 square made her debut as a writer in the Canadian Monthly miles. The census of Feb. 18, 1892, showed a pop- of Toronto. During the years 1883-88 she wrote ulation of 243,205, of whom 122,480 were males and largely for the Canadian newspaper and periodical I 20,725 females.
Of these, 3,500 were Indians in a press, including the Toronto Globe, The Week and savage state.
In 1896 the republic took the un- the Montreal Star, and was for a time a newspaper usual course, for a South American republic, of de correspondent at Washington, District of Columbia. claring against a silver monetary standard, and of She early developed a felicitous prose style, which adopting a gold standard. As regards commerce, gave charm to her social and literary contributhe development of the coffee industry has made tions, which at this period appeared under the Costa Rica one of the richest countries, for its size, nom de plume of “Garth Grafton.” In 1888 she in the world. The revenue of the republic in 1894 made a tour of the world in the interest of a Canawas $4,300,000, and the expenditures $4,700,000; dian literary syndicate, accompanied by a fellowforeign debt, $10,000,000. The chief exports are journalist, Lilian Lewis, a young lady of Moncoffee, bananas and sugar. Valuable metals exist in treal. The result of this tour is embodied in her various parts of the country, and the mining industry first production, A Social Departure; or, How Theois making progress. In 1892 there were 180 miles docia and I Went Round the World. The work, which of railway and 630 miles of telegraph. Education appeared simultaneously in England and America is compulsory and free. In 1892 there were 272 in 1890, was first contributed to the London Ladies' primary schools with 15,000 pupils, besides 90 pri- Pictorial, by whose artist staff it was delightfully vate schools with 2,500 pupils. . The army consists illustrated.' This was quickly followed (for A Social of 600 men in time of peace, and on a war-footing | Departure was a gratifying success) by An American commands 35,000 militia, as every male between Girl in London (1891). In 1893 appeared The Simple 18 and 50 is bound to serve. The imports for 1893 | Adventures of a Mem-Sahib, and in the following amounted to 5,833,427 pesos, and the exports to year A Daughter of To-day and Vernon's Aunt. In 9,619,064 pesos. To facilitate agricultural opera- 1895 two further works came from her pen, The tions and immigration, a concession has been
concession has been Story of Sonny Sahib and His Honor and a Lady. granted for an agricultural bank with a capital of The latter, a clever, realistic novel of Anglo-Indian $5,000,000. The bank makes advances on the life, appeared serially in the Pall Mall Magazine, security of lands and produce, and will bring out and in book-form was also issued on both sides of colonists and settle them on lands ceded to the the Atlantic. All of Mrs. Cotes's productions show company. In 1896 Costa Rica adopted the single the working of a bright and original mind. She is gold monetary standard.
gifted with a fine perception of the eccentricities and COSTMARY ("plant of Mary") Tanacetum Bal. weaknesses of human nature, and a pervasive humor. samita), a perennial plant of the family Composita, She has also great facility in portraying character and a native of the south of Europe, long cultivated in sketching lightly scenes and incidents in social life. gardens for the agreeable fragrance of its leaves. In 1890 she married Everard Cotes, a scientist in the
COSTROMA or KOSTROMA, a town and the East India Company's service, and made her home capital of the province of Costroma, central Euro- in Calcutta, India.
G. MERCER ADAM. pean Russia, situated at the confluence of the Costroma with the Volga. It has manufactories of COTGRAVE, RANDLE, an English lexicographer, linen, leather, soap and Prussian blue. Population, of whose life little is known save that he was a na27,178.
tive of Cheshire, and was admitted scholar of St. COSWAY, RICHARD, a noted English artist; born John's College, Cambridge, in 1587; became secreat Tiverton, Devonshire, in 1740. As a miniature-tary to William Cecil, Lord Burghley, and was livpainter he was particularly famous, and gained the ing as late as 1632, and died probably in 1634. He patronage of most of the nobility of his time. was author of our earliest French dictionary (1611), Many of his works were distinguished by great del- remarkable book for its time, and still of value icacy of treatment and correctness of detail.
to the philologist, as it fixes the actual forms of died in London, July 4, 1821.
French words at the time when they were borrowed. COTA-CACHI, a mountain in the western Cor- COTINGA, a genus of birds of the family Cotindillera of the Andes, in the northern part of Ecua- gida, found in tropical regions of America. They dor, 60 miles N. of Quito. It is 16,453 feet high,
It is 16,453 feet high, are remarkable for their splendid and bright-coland has on its southern slope a lake, the Cuy-cocha, ored plumage and curious ornamentation. which is 10,200 feet above sea-level. It is one of COTONEASTER, a genus of Rosacea, closely al