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P. 818.

The Indian Cynanchum extensum yields fiber, and C. esculentus, of the Mediterranean region, is someCynanchum ovalifolium, a native of Penang, yields what cultivated for its nut-like sweet tubers, caoutchouc of excellent quality.

called “chufa." C. phymatodes and C. rotundus, CYNOCEPHALUS, an African ape. See APE, variety Hydra (“nutgrass" or "coco-grass'') are Vol. II, p. 152.

troublesome weeds of the southern United States, CYNODON, a genus of grasses, having digitate propagating by nut-like tubers, and very difficult or racemose spikes, so named from its sharp- to extirpate. pointed underground shoots. The most import- CYPRINIDÆ, a large family of fresh-water ant species (C. Dactylon) is the widely distributed bony fishes, with open swim-bladders. Barbel, and well-known Bermuda grass. It is the princi- bream, carp, chub, dace, gold-fish, gudgeon, pal fodder and pasture grass of India, where it is minnow, roach, and tench are familiar examples. known by the names of dhob, doorba, etc.

They are distinguished by their small, toothless CYNOGALE, an animal of the civet family. mouths, naked head, usually scaled body, and by See MAMMALIA, Vol. XV, p. 436.

the absence of the adipose fin. The family in CYNOMORIUM, a genus of the curious para- cludes over a hundred genera, and eight times as sitic family Balanophoracea. C. coccineum, a plant many species. See ICHTHYOLOGY, Vol. XII, p. 692. of a strange fungus-like appearance, is found in CYPRINODONTIDÆ (“toothed carp'') a famthe islands of Malta and Gozo, parasitic upon the ily of small bony fishes, with open swim-bladders. roots of Salicornia. It was long known as fungus They are allied to carps (Cyprinida), but the Melitensis, and enjoyed the highest reputation as mouth bears teeth, the head and body ase scaled, a styptic, besides being used as an astringent in and there are never barbules. The family indysentery and other maladies. These uses, how- cludes twenty genera and over a hundred species, ever, depended on the doctrine of signatures widely distributed in the warm and tropical alone, its scarlet color and blood-like juice being zones, both fresh-water and marine. interpreted as providential indications of its cura- CYPRIPEDIUM. See Orchids, Vol. XVII, tive destination for all injuries or diseases accompanied by bleeding.

CYPRIS, a very common, small fresh-water CYNOSURE (literally, “the dog's tail ''), the crustacean, type of a family (Cyprida) in the order constellation of the Little Bear. As the pole-star Ostracoda. Like other ostracods, this small is the principal star of the constellation, the eyes "water-flea ” has an unsegmented body, seven of mariners are frequently directed to it, hence pairs of appendages, a rudimentary abdomen and the common application of the term cynosure to a bivalve mollusk shell inclosing all. The shell anything that strongly attracts attention; a center of cypris is dainty and elastic; the posterior anof attention.

tennæ bear a long tuft of bristles on their second CYNTHIANA, a city and capital of Harrison joint; the second pair of maxillæ have a small County, northern Kentucky, on the south fork of gill appendage. See also CRUSTACEA, Vol. VI, the Licking River, about 65 miles S. of Cincinnati. p. 664. It has a college for women; its manufactories CYPRUS, a large, historic island in the eastern are principally flouring-mills and carriage facto part of the Mediterranean Sea. For its history ries; and it manufactures the famous “Bourbon down to 1875, geography and general description, whisky. There is a fine race-course here. The see Vol. VI, pp. 747-750. place was named from Cynthia and Anna Harri- By virtue of a convention concluded between son, daughters of an early settler. Three battles the representatives of England and the sultan of between the Union and Confederate forces were Turkey, in Constantinople, June 4, 1878, the fought here; the first two were won by the Con- island became a British colony. Under the same federates under General Morgan, the last by the convention it became obligatory upon the inhabiUnion forces under General Burbridge, the dates tants of the island to pay each year to the Subbeing July 17, 1862; June 11, 1864, and June 14, lime Porte a tribute of £92,800. There was 1864. Population 1890, 3,016.

extended to the people in 1882 the privilege of CYPERACEÆ, the family of sedges, nearly the election of their own representatives in a akin to grasses, but easily distinguished by their newly created legislature of limited power. In solid, unjointed, generally triangular stems, un- April of 1895 there began in the island, with apdivided leaf-sheaths and absence of paleæ. There parent spontaneity, a vigorous movement for the are between 2,000 and 3,000 species, widely dis- abolition of the objectionable tribute to Turkey tributed throughout all climates, but more espe. and for union with Greece. marshy soils, of which they often take almost en- whose capital, Nicosia (q.v., in these Supplements), tire possession. Characteristic genera are Cype has a population of 13,000. The island is 3,854 rus and Scirpus, while the largest genus, Carex, square miles in extent, and has a total population forms a highly specialized group.

of 225,000. Imports and exports alike amount to CYPERUS, a large genus of sedges, some- about £320,000 in their annual value. The coins of times called “galingales," and very widely dis- England and Turkey are current; the weights and tributed. It is characterized by its perfect flow- measures of the latter nation are used. Cotton, ers, flattened spicate or clustered spikelets, in- wheat and barley remain the agricultural exports volucrate inflorescence and absence of bristles. of chief importance, but the dwindling of the

cially in temperate and cold regions, and in Cyprus is politically divided into six districts,

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once famous forests of Cyprus, now almost totally | P. di Cesnola in 1870–75. These include pieces of lost, has greatly impaired the fertility as well as statuary and like objects. the climate of the island. The numerous flocks CYRIL OR CONSTANTINE, a missionary and of goats prevent the development of new vege- apostle to the Slavs. See METHODIUS, Vol. XVI, tation by the destruction of all young shoots. p. 194. The climate of Cyprus, though generally con- CYRIL LUCARIS. See GREEK CHURCH, Vol. sidered unhealthful, has proved beneficial to the XI, p. 158. English troops who are stationed there.

CYSTICERCUS. See TAPEWORMS, Vol. XXIII, Copper, for which Cyprus was once famous, p. 52. and which took its name from that of the island,

CYSTIDEA. See ECHINODERMATA, Vol. VII, has ceased to be an export of importance. An

p. 638. English corporation, which controls the Cyprian CYTOLOGY. See EMBRYOLOGY, in these Supoutput of this mineral, operates only a few mines plements. in the western portion of the island. Salt, once CYTOPLASM, a name applied to the general shipped, under the Turks, to a value of $40,000 per protoplasm of the cell, in which lie imbedded the annum, is only produced for local consumption. other cell-structures, as nucleus, plastids, centro

The highest official in the island is the High spheres, etc. It is a viscid substance, and as it is Commissioner, who is assisted by an executive

the chief seat of the nutritive processes, it must council, and by a legislature of 18 members, three contain at different times all the substances which of whom are elected (for five years) by Moham- enter into the structure of the plant. medan and nine by non-Mohammedan voters. An CZAR OR TSAR, a Slavonic word for prince, English judicial system is in vogue, and barrister not related to Cæsar; a monarch of absolute aujudges preside over the courts. Half a regiment | thority; specifically, the title of the emperors of of infantry constitutes the English force of occu- Russia. Ivan IV, " the Terrible," the first czar pation, which is quartered at Polymedia, four of Russia, was crowned in Moscow in 1547. The miles north of Limassæ, Telegraphic communi- empress of Russia is called the czarina; the heir cation with Europe has been established for many apparent, the czarevitch; his wife, the czarevna. years.

CZECH, SVATOPLUK, Czech poet, was born Cyprus is a field of great interest and fertility Feb. 21, 1846, at Ostredek, Bohemia. Having comfor the archæologist. Here, in the ninth century, pleted his studies at the gymnasium of Prague there was discovered the Codex Cyprius, in which and in the university of the same city, he divided is contained the oldest complete copy extant of his time between occupation as an advocate and the Holy Gospels. Late in the nineteenth century as the editor of various papers. In 1874 he travextensive and systematic excavations were begun eled extensively in Russia, and many of his writin Cyprus by the British Museum. These were ings are based upon material gained in this jourmade in the vicinity of the ancient town of

ney. Noteworthy among his contributions to Curium, and there were unearthed many inscrip- epic poetry are Dreams; The Adamites; Slavia; tions and other relics, important in historical

and Europe.

His collected lyric poems have been confirmation. It became evident, as stated by published under the title Narrations, Arabesques the historian Strabo, that the town Curium had and Humoristic Subjects. His epic poem, Dagmar, originally been founded by a colony from Argos. is thought to be unexcelled in contemporary There are contained in the Metropolitan Museum Czech literature. As one of the editors of Kvety of Art, in New York City, Cyprian relics of great and the Lumir, he has become prominent among antiquity, which were unearthed by General Louis Bohemians.



DA BO Platessa limanda), a smal, fat fish of the The fertile cone has usually

but one to six bracts,

30° N.

the sandy coasts of Great Britain. One species leaves, in the axils of which there develops a has been found on the New England coast. single seed with a fleshy aril.

DACELO, a genus of kingfishers. The best- . DACTYLOPTERUS. See FLYING-FISH, Vol. known species is the Dacelo gigas of New South IX, p. 352. Wales, commonly called the “laughing-jackass." DADAR, a town of Baluchistan, five miles S. E. The name was suggested by its harsh cry, uttered of the Bolan Pass. It is said to be one of the at early dawn. It inhabits hollow tree-trunks, hottest places in the world, although in latitude and feeds upon fish, reptiles, etc.

The British troops here routed a Kelat DACITE, volcanic rocks chiefly occurring in force in November, 1840. The neighborhood Transylvania, Austria; the forms of greenstone- produces grain, pulse, cotton, sugar, madder and trachyte in which quartz is contained. The name fruits. Population, about 3,000. was introduced in 1863 by the geologists, Von DADEVILLE, a village and the capital of Hauer and Stache, who, in their study of the Tallapoosa County, central eastern Alabama, sitgeology of Transylvania, found this formation fre- uated about 50 miles N. E. of Montgomery, on the quent in the old Roman province of Dacia. Ear- Central Railroad of Georgia. It has a mineral lier than this, these rocks, whose composition and spring and manufactories of buggies and wagons. classification have been the cause of much dispute Population 1890, 873. among geologists, had roughly been styled quartz- DADO (It., a die), a term applied in architectrachytes. Dacite is found in common occurrence ture to the body of a pedestal, the cubic block with the precious metals of the Cordilleras and between the base and cornice. It is also applied Andes of North and South America.

to a protection running around the bottom of the DA COSTA, JACOB M., an American physician; walls of a room, more commonly known as wainborn in the island of St. Thomas, West Indies, Feb. scoting. 7, 1833. He acquired his classical education in DAET, a town of the island of Luzon, in the Germany, and his medical training in Philadelphia, South China Sea, one of the Philippines. It is where he graduated at Jefferson College in 1852. situated in the southern part of the island, on a He was appointed lecturer on clinical medicine in river of the same name, and is the capital of the that institution, and in 1872 was chosen professor province of North Camarines. Population, 7,702. of the theory and practice of medicine. He has DAGNAN-BOUVERET, PASCAL ADOLPHE made a number of valuable contributions to med- JEAN, a French painter; born Jan.7, 1852, in Paris. ical literature, which include Epithelial Tumors He studied at the École des Beaux Arts as a and Cancers of the Skin; Inhalation in the Treat- pupil of Gérôme, and in 1876 won a second Grand ment of Diseases of the Respiratory Passages; and Prix de Rome. In the following year his work The Physicians of the Last Century. His specialty made its first appearance in the Salon, being repis diseases of the heart and lungs.

resented by two mythological subjects, Orpheus DACRES, SIR SYDNEY C., an English admiral; and the Bacchantes and Bacchus, Child. M. Dagborn at Totnes, Devonshire, England, Jan. 9, nan-Bouveret attained high rank in the contem1804. He entered the British navy at thirteen porary French school, his mastery of technique years of age; was lieutenant in the reduction of and color being of the first order. Primarily a the Morea Castle in 1828; captain in the Crimean genre painter, his subjects are always in admiraWar, and commanded the first ironclad squadron. ble taste. The Parental Blessing, in a Russian He was second in command in 1861, on the North collection, and The Conscripts, in the state collecAmerican and West Indian station, when the Trent tions of France, are the most highly regarded of affair was pending between England and America. his later achievements. He was made an officer In 1868 he became senior Lord of the Admiralty, of the Legion of Honor, Dec. 31, 1891. and retained this rank until 1872, when he was DAGO OR DAGÖE, an island in the Baltic Sea, appointed governor at Greenwich Hospital. His just south of the mouth of the Gulf of Finland, retirement occurred in 1874, and he died in belonging to the Russian government of Esthonia. March, 1884.

It is about 34 miles in length and 15 in breadth. DACRYDIUM, a genus of coniferous trees The soil is sterile and the coasts rocky. The of the family Taxaceæ, chiefly natives of Tas- population, numbering about ten thousand, is mania and New Zealand. The Huon Pine chiefly Esthonian, employed in fishing and cattle(D. Franklinii) is valuable for its timber, which raising. is excellent for spars. D. taxifolium, the Kaka- DAGOBERT I, a king of the Franks, a scion of. terra tree of New Zealand, attains a height of the Merovingian family; born about 602. He was two hundred feet, and is also valuable for timber. elected king of Austrasia in 622, and at the death 978



of his father, in 628, succeeded to the kingdom of conducted naval operations in Charleston harbor, Neustria, and to these added Aquitaine, after the nreventing blockade-running, and assisting in the death of his brother, Charibert, in 631. He thus destruction of Fort Sumter, and rendered importbecame a ruler of the whole Frankish empire, and ant assistance to General Sherman in his militurned his attention to restricting the power of the tary operations in South Carolina and Georgia. feudal lords and prelates. One of his greatest In 1866 he had command of the South Pacific feats was reducing the Frankish laws to a code. squadron, and in 1868 again took charge of the Before his death, which occurred in 638, he bureau of ordnance in Washington. Admiral placed his sons Sigebert and Hlovis II, who were Dahlgren's works on ordnance have been used as mere children, upon the thrones of Austrasia and textbooks by the government. He wrote treaNeustria, respectively. See FRANCE, Vol. IX, p. tises on Boat Armament; Percussion System; Shells 530.

and Shell-Guns; and Maritime International Law, DAHLAK ARCHIPELAGO, group of which were printed after his death. He died in islands in the southern part of the Red Sea, lat. Washington, District of Columbia, July 12, 1870. 16° N., long. 40° E., belonging to the Italian pro- DAHLGREN GUN, a form of ordnance named tectorate of Abyssinia. The largest is the coral for its inventor, Admiral Dahlgren of the United island of Dahlak, 33 miles long and 15 wide. The States navy. It was the result of a careful series chief industry of the inhabitants is pearl and coral of experiments on the construction of large guns. fishing. The whole archipelago has an area of 420 The chief improvement consisted in having relasquare miles and a population of 2,000.

tively less metal in front of the trunnions, and DAHLEN, a town of Germany in the Prussian more behind, where there is the greatest strain in Rhine province, about 26 miles E. of Leipsic. It firing.

It firing. The 9-inch and 11-inch Dahlgrens are has extensive manufactories of linen and silk. still the favorites of American seamen, and are Population, 6,000.

unsurpassed by any ship-gun in the world. DAHLGREN, FREDERIK August, a Swedish DAHLONEGA, a village and the capital of poet and critic; born in Nordmark, Sept. 20, 1816. Lumpkin County, central northern Georgia, on a He was graduated from the University of Upsala tributary of the Chattahoochee. Before the war in 1839, and in 1871, having become well known it contained a branch mint of the United States, as a historian, as a dramatic author, and as a and the building has been converted into the poet, was elected to the Swedish Academy. He North Georgia Agricultural College. Gold-mines was associated with Chemnitz in the publication have been opened in one of the spurs of the of The Thirty Years' War, monumental work, Blue Ridge Mountains, north of the village. and published several lesser historical works of Population 1890, 896. his own. His Vermländingarne, a national opera, DAHN, Julius Sophus Felix, a German pubwas brought out in 1846, and achieved great suc- licist, historian and poet; born in Hamburg, Feb. cess.

He also furnished for theatrical use trans- 9, 1834; studied law, philosophy and history at lations into Swedish of many of the plays of Munich and Berlin; became professor extraordiShakespeare.

nary at Munich in 1862, professor ordinary at DAHLGREN, JOHN ADOLPH, an American Würzburg in 1863, and in 1872 was appointed naval officer; born in Philadelphia, Nov. 13, to the chair of German jurisprudence at Königs

1809. His father, Ber- berg. Among his contributions to public law nard Ulric Dahlgren, was are the following: Das Kriegsrecht (1870); Han

merchant of Phila- delsrechtliche Vorträge (1875); Deutsches Rechtsbuch delphia, and for many (1877); and Deutsches Privatrecht (1878). Of his years consul to Sweden. historical works the chief are Prokopius von CäsaThe son entered the rea (1865); Die Könige der Germanen (1861–71); navy in 1826, passed Westgötische Studien (1874); and Geschichte der midshipman in 1832, and Deutschen Urzeit (1885). He has also written a afterward served in the series of popular historical romances, and lyrical coast survey. In 1845 and dramatic poems. he was assigned to ord- DAHOMEY. A complete account of Dahomey nance duty in Washing is contained in Vol. VI, pp. 764–767. Subsequent ton, and under his man- history alone need be added here. The kingdom agement the ordnance of Dahomey, formerly the most powerful on the

bureau acquired its pres- Slave Coast, Upper Guinea, has been greatly reent extensive works. The Dahlgren gun (q.v., duced in size and strength, especially by long in these Supplements), was perfected by him at and disastrous wars waged against Abeokuta and about this time. He was made chief of the ord- other petty Yoruba states on its eastern frontier. nance department in July, 1862, having, during It now comprises an area of about four thouthe previous year, been in command of the sand square miles, with an estimated population United States navy-yard at Washington. At the of a little over one hundred and fifty thousand, beginning of the Civil War he had charge of the and extends from Yoruba westward to the River defenses at Washington on the left, and in 1863 Volta, separating it from Ashanti, and borders was made rear-admiral and placed in command northward on the Wangera territory. It is entirely of the South Atlantic blockading squadron. He | an inland state. According to the treaty of delim






It is a

itation between British and French West African | important sources of deep-well supply in the Westpossessions, by convention of Aug. 10, 1889, ern states. Dahomey came within the sphere of France. DAKOTA INDIANS. See Sioux, in these SupEarly in 1890 difficulties arose respecting the dis- plements. puted stations of Porto Novo and Kotonu on the DAKOTA RIVER (called by French explorers south coast, but after a brief series of hostilities Rivière à Jacques) rises in eastern central North peace was concluded in September, 1890, Dahomey Dakota and flows south through South Dakota, recognizing the French claims to those places. emptying into the Missouri River about eight Hostilities were resumed by the war-loving natives miles below Yankton. It traverses a region alin 1893, and French troops under Colonel Dodds most destitute of forests. Estimated length, 600 advanced from the coast to the capital, Abomey, miles. which was captured in November, 1893, several DALAMOW OR DALMOW, a city of India, on disastrous battles having been fought during the the Ganges, in the department of Oude. campaign. King Behanzin surrendered uncondi- reputed holy place, containing two antique temtionally upon the 25th of January, 1894, and was ples of Siva. Population, 10,000. succeeded in the same month by King Guthili. DALBERGIA, a genus of trees and shrubs

There are annually exported from Dahomey named in honor of the Swedish botanist, Nicho10,000 tons of palm-oil and 20,000 of palm | las Dalberg. They are of the family Leguminosa, kernels.

having pinnate leaves, and bearing a flat pod conDAIMIO, the title of feudal lords of Japan. taining one to three seeds. All the species are They were petty sovereigns, 264 in number. This natives of warm climates, and several of them are old feudalism has been abolished, the daimios sur- valuable timber trees, the Dalbergia sissoo of Benrendering to the Mikado, in 1871, their lands and gal being especially prized. See also ROSEWOOD, privileges, and he, in turn, granting them large Vol. XX, pp. 851, 852. pensions. See JAPAN, Vol. XIII, pp. 578–583. DALE, ROBERT WILLIAM, an English Congre

DAINGERFIELD, a town and the capital of gational minister; born in London, Dec. 1, 1829. Morris County, northeastern Texas, situated 17 He was educated at Spring Hill College, Birmiles S. E. of Mount Pleasant, on the Rio Grande mingham, and at the University of London. In railroad. It is in a fine forest region, and has 1859 he became pastor of the Congregational manufactures of chairs and other wooden articles. church at Carr's Lane, Birmingham, having since Population 1890, 553.

1853 served as its associate pastor. For several DAIR-EL-KAMAR, a town of Syria, the capi- years editor of The Congregationalist, he delivered tal of the Druses, situated on the edge of a pictu- the Congregational Union lectures in 1873, and resque glen of Mount Lebanon. On the opposite took a prominent part in the movements of the side of the glen are the ruins of the palace Bteddin, churches of his denomination in England. Mr. formerly the residence of Emir Beshir, a ruler of Dale traveled in the Orient, and in 1877 visited Lebanon. It has a population of about eight | America at the invitation of the theological facthousand, chiefly engaged in the cultivation of ulty of Yale College

ulty of Yale College to deliver the Lyman mulberries, olives and vines.

Beecher lectures on preaching. On his return DAIRY PRODUCTS, in the United States. See to England he published, in The Ninteenth Century, AGRICULTURE, in these Supplements.

his Impressions of America. He was a frequent conDAKOTA CITY, a town 16 miles N. of Fort tributor to the English reviews, and wrote numerDodge, on the Blue Earth River, and on the Chi- ous works, among which are Week-Day Sermons; cago and North-Western railroad; the capital | The Ten Commandments ; Nine Lectures on Preaching; of Humboldt County, northwestern central Iowa, and Lectures on the Epistle to the Ephesians. He Humboldt College is situated one mile north of was a man of exceptional strength and breadth the town. Population 1890, 353.

of learning, famous as a writer upon popular DAKOTA CITY, capital of Dakota County, subjects, as well as a pulpit orator. He died in northeastern Nebraska. It is located on the west | London, March 13, 1895. bank of the Missouri, seven miles below Sioux DALECARLIA, the län or county of KopparCity, Iowa, and on the Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- berg, formerly a province of Sweden, lying in apolis and Omaha railroad. Population 1890, 510. the south-central part of the kingdom. The Dale

DAKOTA FORMATION, a geological forma- carlians are celebrated for bravery and patriottion of the Cretaceous period, whose name is ism, especially for the part they took in freeing taken from the Dakota Indians, in whose terri- their country from the rule of Christian II of Dentory it was first described. There are borne in mark. As a reward, they are accorded special this formation rich deposits of coal and of vege- | privileges by the king. The county is rich in table remains, indicating that the banks of the mineral resources, especially in iron and copper, water-body depositing the formation were heavily and is noted for its rugged and picturesque scentimbered. Frequent shale and sandstone beds ery. Area, 11,522 square miles; population, 201,common throughout the Great Plains, especially 674. in the western portion, and reappearing in the DALEVILLE, a village of Lauderdale County, Colorado uplands, mark the outcrop of this for- central eastern Mississippi, of importance only as mation. Reservoirs of artesian water occurring being the seat of Cooper-Huddleston College. in the sandstones of this formation are the most DALHOUSIE, a seaport town of northern New

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