« ПретходнаНастави »
(The questions submitted by Senator Fall, above referred to, and the replies of the President are here printed, as follows:)
Questions Asked By Senator Fall And Replies By President Wilson.
Questions By Senator Fall.
"1. In your judgment, have you not the power and authority, by a proclamation, to declare in appropriate words that peace exists and thus restore the status of peace between the Governments and peoples of this country and those with whom we declared war?
"2. Could not, in any event, the power which declared war—that is, Congress— joined by the President, as you affixed your approval of the declaration of war, by a resolution, or act of Congress, declare peace, as Germany did not declare war upon us?
"3. Is not the pending treaty, aside from the league covenant, merely a set of agreed rales and regulations to be observed after peace is established, and is not the state of war terminated merely by the riling of the first process verbal?
"4. The state of war being thus terminated by the filing of the process verbal, although we may not yet have ratified the treaty, Germany not having declared war upon us, could you not appoint or reappoint consular officers and agents in Germany, and by a proclamation of the status of peace authorize our citizens and without further delay resume governmental relations with Germany, and would we not then be off of a war basis as to business?
"ESTABLISHMENT OP THE LEAGUE.
"5. The agreement of the signatories to the treaty is that 'from the coming into force of the present treaty the state of war will terminate.'
"And under article 440 it is provided that as soon as the treaty shall have been ratified by Germany on the one hand and by three of the principal allied and associated powers on the other hand the first proces verbal of the deposit of ratification will be drawn, and 'from the date of this first proces verbal the treaty will come into force between the high contracting parties who have ratified it.'
"Am I correct in assuming:
"(a) That when three of the principal allied powers shall have ratified the treaty with Germany and the proces verbal is filed the league of nations is then established?
"(b) That all the other provisions of the treaty with Germany are in full force to such ratifying powers?
"(«) That as to the two remaining powers, should they not have ratified it (the one being the associated power, the United States), 'the state of war will terminate,' although the particular terms of the treaty itself will not be in force as to such nonratifying powers?
"(rf) That such last powers will not be members of the league until and unless thereafter they have either ratified the treaty and the league articles or shall have been otherwise accepted into the league under the provisions of the league articles as they now stand or as they may be in force at the time of admission?
"6. However desirable it might be to have the treaty immediately adopted with the articles of the covenant of the league as written, by what process will this, in view of your statement as to largely increased export within the near future or within one or two more years, reduce in this country the rentals, cost of necessaries, etc.?
"LICENSES FOR EVERY TRADE.
"7. Have you heard from Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and Switzerland, or either, as to whether they will join the league, and when?
''8. Are you issuing, or allowing to be issued, en bloc or otherwise, licenses to do business with those recently our enemies, and are you allowing ships and cargoes destined to ports of Germany or other recent enemy ports to clear from our ports?
"9. Have you requested consular representatives of other countries to act for us in Germany?
"10. Among the documents forwarded on the 8th instant to the chairman of the committee, by yourself, under No. 6, following the final report of the commission upon the league articles, I find the following recommendations: 'Resolved, That in the opinion of the commission the president of the commission should be requested by the conference to invite seven powers, including two neutrals, to name representatives nn a committee (a) to prepare plans for the organization of the league; (b) to prepare plans for the establishment of the seat of the league; (c) to prepare plans and the agenda for the first meeting of the assembly.'
"Was this committee appointed, and have they reported tentatively to the commission or to yourself, and, if so, is a copy of such report available?
"questions As To Territory.
"11. Under article 18, of the peace treaty, part 4, there is a general renunciation of all German rights to territory formerly belonging to herself or to her allies and a renunciation of all her rights, titles, and priviliges outside of her boundaries as fixed by the treaty which she held as against the allied and associated powers. There is no cession, apparently, of the territory to any particular power or association of powers, but there is an understanding on the part of Germany to recognize and conform in the measures which may be taken 'now, or in the future by the principal allied autl associated powers in agreement, where necessary, with third powers in order to carry the above stipulation into effect.'
"To what nation or nations or association of nations does the territory renounced under this article go, aside from such portions as are specifically assigned to certain nations or plebiscite commissions by the particular article of the German treaty, and by what character of title and what part, if any, does the United States take or has she taken with reference to the disposition of such property?
"12. Article 119, section 1, of Part IV, reads:
"Germany renounces in favor of the principal allied and associated powers all her rights and titles over her overseas possessions.'
"This appears to be a direct cession of the German overseas possessions to the principal allied and associated powers; of course, the United States being an associated power, what character of title does the United States receive to any part of the overseas possessions ceded by Germany through article 119?
"8AAR BASIN'8 DISPOSITION.
"13. Has there as yet been any agreement, tentative or otherwise, as to the disposition or the government of such overseas possessions or any part of same to which the United States is a party?
"14. Will you inform the committee whether, through an agreement between France and Great Britain, any disposition or agreement for the disposition of all or any part of the German overseas possessions in Africa has been arrived at • and if so. whether the United States has, tentatively or otherwise, consented thereto, and whether possession has been taken by either France or Great Britain of any such German territory by any such agreement or tentative agreement?
"15. Was it or is it now contemplated that, of the commission composed of fiv* members to be chosen by the council of the league of nations for the government of the Saar Basin, one of said commission to be a citizen of France, one a native of the Saar Basin and not a native of France, and the three other members belonging to three countries other than France or Germany, there should be one American commissioner among the membership of five: and if so, why is it necessary that America should be represented upon this commission?
"16. Why should the United States be represented by one member of the commission for the settling of the new frontier lines of Belgium and Germany under articles under sections 34 and 35?
"17. As article 48 of the treaty provides for a boundary commission for the Saw Basin, to be composed of five members, one to be appointed directly by France and one directly by Germany, why was it not provided that the other thrpe be nationals of other powers? Should each be named in the article to be appointed by some particular country, as is done with reference to the other two. rather than to leave the selection of such three to the council of the league of nations with the restrictive provisions that the said three should be selected from nationals of other powers than France and Germany?
"SETTLEMENT OF BOUNDARY DISPUTES.
"18. Why was it necessary to provide in article 83 that of the commission of seven members to fix the boundaries between Poland and the O.echo-Slovak State, ooe should be named by Poland, one by such Czecho-Slovak State, and the other five named by the five allied and associated powers, rather than that certain countries, specifically named, should nominate the five as well as the two?
"19. Has such commission been appointed, tentatively or otherwise, and has it proceeded to the performance of any of its duties, either in a temporary manner or otherwise?
"20. Why was it necessary to form a commission of four members, one to be designated by each the United States. France, the British Empire, and Italy, to exercise authority over the plebiscite area of Upper Silesia: that is to say. why was it necessary to name the United States as one of the powers which should appoint one of the four commissioners and then leave the decision of such commission to a majority vote?"
THE REr-LY OF THE PRESIDENT.
"my Dear Senator Fall: You left yesterday in my hands certain written questions which I promised you I would answer. I am hastening to fulfill that promise.
"I feel constrained to say in reply to your first question not only that in my judgment I have not the power by proclamation to declare that peace exists, but that I could in no circumstances consent to take such a course prior to the ratification of a formal treaty of peace.
"I feel it due to perfect frankness to say that it would, in my poinion, put a stain upon our national honor which we never could efface, if after sending our men to the battlefield to fight the common cause, we should abandon our associates in the war in the settlement of the terms of peace and dissociate ourselves from all responsibility with regard to those terms.
''I respectfully suggest that, having said this, I have in effect answered also your second, third, and fourth questions, so far as I myself am concerned.
"Permit me to answer your fifth question by saying that the provisions of the treaty to which you refer operate merely to establish peace between the powers ratifying and that it is questionable whether it can be said that the league of nations is in any true sense created by the association of only three of the allied and associated governments.
"WOULD REDUCE C08T OP LIVINO."
"In reply to your sixth question, I can only express the confident opinion that the immediate adoption of the treaty, along with the articles of the covenant of the league as written, would certainly within the near future reduce the cost of living in this country as elsewhere, by restoring production and commerce to their normal strength and freedom.
"For your convenience, I will number the remaining paragraphs of this letter as the questions to which they are intended to reply are numbered.
'"!. I have had no official information as to whether Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, or Switzerland will join the league.
"8. I answered your eighth question in reply to a question asked me at our conference the other day.
"3. In February, 1917, Spain was requested to take charge of American interests in Germany through her diplomatic and consular representatives, and no other arrangement has since been made.
"10. The committee to prepare plans for the organization of the league, for the establishment of the seat of the league, and for the procedure of the first meeting of the assembly has been appointed, but has not reported.
"11. Article 118 of the peace treaty, part 4, under which Germany renounces all her rights to territory formerly belonging to herself or to her allies, was understood, so far as special provision was not made in the treaty itself for its disposition, as constituting the principal allied and associated powers the authority by which such disposition should ultimately be determined. It conveys no title to those powers, but merely intrusts the disposition of the territory in question to their decision.
"TRUSTEESHIP POR COLONIES.
"12. Germany's renunciation in favor of the principal allied and associated powers of her rights and titles to her overseas possessions is meant similarly to operate as vesting in these powers a trusteeship with respect of their final disposition and government.
"13. There has been a provisional agreement as to the disposition of these overseas possessions, whose confirmation and execution is dependent upon the approval of the league of nations, and the United States is a party to that provisional agreement.
"14. The only agreement between France and Great Britain with regard to African territory of which I am cognizant concerns the redisposition of rights already possessed by those countries on that continent. The provisional agreement referred to in the preceding paragraph covers all the German overseas possessions in Africa as well as elsewhere.
"15. No mention was made in connection with the settlement of the Saar Basin of the service of an American member of the commission of five to be set up there.
"16. It was deemed wise that the United States should be represented by one member of the commission for settling the new frontier lines of Belgium and Germany, because of the universal opinion that America's representative would add to the commission a useful element of entirely disinterested judgment.
"SAAR BASIN UNDER LEAGUE.
"17. The choice of the commission for the Saar Basin was left to the council of the league of nations, because the Saar Basin is for 15 years to be directly under the care and direction of the league of nations.
"18. Article 83 does, in effect, provide that five of the members of the commission of seven to fix the boundaries between Poland and Czechoslovakia should be nominated by certain countries, because there are five principal allied and associated powers, and the nomination of five representatives by those powers necessarily means the nomination of one representative by each of those powers.
"19. No such commission has yet been appointed.
"20. It was deemed wise that the United States should have a representative on the commission set up to exercise authority over the plebiscite of Upper Silesia for the same reason that I have given with regard to the commission for settling the frontier line nf Belgium and Germany. "Sincerely, yours,
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 20, 1919.
United States Senate,
Washington, D. C. The committee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 10 o'clock a. m., in room 426, Senate Office Building, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge presiding.
Present: Senators Lodge (chairman), McCumber, Brandegee, Fall, Knox, Harding, Johnson of California, New, Moses, Hitchcock, Williams, Swanson, and Smith of Arizona.
The Chairman. The committee will come to order. Mr. Ferguson, will you be heard now?
STATEMENT OF MR. JOHN C. FERGUSON, ADVISER TO THE PRESIDENT OF CHINA.
The Chairman. Will you please state to the stenographer your full name and address? Also will you please state to us your work in China and your experience there?
Mr. Ferguson. My name, sir, is John C. Ferguson. I hold an official position under the Chinese Government as adviser to the President of China.
I went to China in 1887; was president of the Nanking University till 1897, and from that time till 1902 was president of the Nanyang College, Shanghai. Since 1894 I have held various advisory positions in connection with the viceroys at Nanking and Wuchang and in the railway administration. Since 1911 I have lived in Peking and have been associated with the four men who have held the office of President of the Republic of China. I am a resident of Newton, Mass. Is that sufficient, sir?
The Chairman. That covers your service entirely. I should like to know, from your experience, which has been a long one, what has been the general attitude of the United States toward China?
Mr. Ferguson. I should say that the general attitude of the United States toward China has been one of friendly cooperation and of solicitude for the welfare of China. The United States has scrupulously avoided any interference with the internal administration of China, and avoided any attempt to take part in any seizure of China's territory, or to connive at such seizure on the part of other powers.
The Chairman. Has the United States ever deviated from this policy?
Mr. Ferguson. Not as far as I have known, either from my experience or from official records. It has had provocation on three different occasions to deviate from the policy, at the request of the Chinese Government, for political reasons.
When concessions were obtained by other powers at the city of Canton in the south of China the United States was offered a special