« ПретходнаНастави »
(The statements referred to are here printed in the record, as follows:)
SHANTUNG AND OPIUM.
Under the dominating influence of Japan in China the opium business that had been stopped by England and China is being fully reestablished.
In Asia magazine of March, 1919. Putnam Weale says that the Japanese imported 20 tons of morphine a year into China. The Shanghai North China Daily News, the most conservative and reliable British newspaper and the mouthpiece of the British Legation, quoted in the Literary Digest of April 12, "In South China morphine is sold by Chinese peddlers, each of whom carry a passport certifying that he is a native of Formosa and would be entitled to Japan's protection. There are Japanese post offices everywhere in China and they carry the drug throughout the country, and the Chinese authorities are neither able to investigate nor interfere. They are helpless under Japanese domination. Japanese drug stores throughout China carry large stocks of morphine, and Japanese medicine venders look to morphine for their large profits throughout Tairen. Morphine circulates through Manchuria and the Provinces adjoining. Through Tsingtau morphine is distributed over Shantung Province, Anhui and Kiangsu Provinces. From Formosa morphine is carried with opium and other contraband by motor-driven fish boats to some point on the mainland, from which it is distributed throughout the Province of Fukien and north of Kwangtung. Everywhere it is sold by Japanese under extraterritorial protection. While the morphine traffic is large, there is every reason to believe that the opium traffic upon which Japan is embarking with enthusiasm is likely to prove more lucrative (IS tons of morphine sold in one year by Japan to China).
"In the Calcutta opium sales Japan lias become one of the considerable purchasers of Indian opium; she purchases for Formosa where the opium trade shows stendy growth and where opium is required for the manufacture of morphine. Sold by the Government of India, this opium is exported under lienuits applied for by the Japanese Government for shipment to Kobea and is transshipped to Tsingtau. Large profits are made in this trade, in which are interested some of the leading firms of Japan. It must be emphasized that this opium is not imported into Japan, but is transshipped in Kobea Harbor, irom which point assisted by the Japanese railroads to Tsinanfu and smuggled Io Shantung into Shanghai and Yangtsz Valley. Two thousand chests of opium are smuggled valued at $20,000 per chest, or $40,000,000, and the Japanese authorities recently taxed $5,000 a chest, or $10,000,000, which does not appear in the estimates.
"The customs and post offices, where smuggling is done, are wholly under Japanese control. Moreover, Japanese military domination would forbid in both ports any Interference with the traffic in which Japanese authorities are interested, either official or unofficial."
Under the 10-year arrangement with England in 1907 the Chinese cleared their Provinces of native opium in seven years, and then the Indian open trade was stopped, though British merchants were still allowed tacitly to smuggle. Lately the Chinese bought up the remaining fourteen million dollars' worth of opium and burned it, and now under Japan's domination China must submit again to this reestablishment of this vile trade.
Shall America indorse these Hunnish acts toward a sister friendly allied Republic by signing the treaty in Its present form?
W. E. Mackxin.
After many years of heroic efforts, the Chinese finally throw off the opium traffic, finally purchasing $14,000,000 worth of the drug and burning it. After all this sacrifice under Japanese domination, the opium trade is being fully reestablished. From the North China Daily News, the most conservative and reliable British newspapers In China, and the mouthpiece of the British legation, as quoted In the Literary Digest of April 12, says: "Eighteen tons of morphine was smuggled Into China in one yenr. Japanese post offices are in every part of China and carry the drug everywhere. No customs inspection by Chinese authorities allowed by the Japanese. In south China morphine is sold by Chinese peddlers, each of whom carries a passport certifying that he Is a native of Formosa, and therefore entitled to Japanese protection. Japanese drug stores throughout China carry large stores of morphine. Japanese medicine vendors look to morphine for their largest profit. Through Tarren morphine circulates throughout Manchuria and the Province adjoining. Through Tsingtan morphine is carried with opium and other contraband by motor driven fishing boats to some point on the mainland from whence it is distributed throughout the Province of Fukien and the north Kwanglwant. Everywhere it is sold by Japanese under extra territorial protection. While the morphine traffic is large there is every reason to believe that the opium traffic upon which Japan is embarking with enthusiasm is likely to prove more lucrative. In the Calcutta opium sale, Japan has become one of the considerable purchasers of Indian opium. She purchases for Formosa, where the opium trade shows a steady growth, and where opium is required for the manufacture of morphine. Sold by the Government of India, this opium is exported under permits applied for by the Japanese Government, is shipj>ed to Kobe, and from Kobe is transshipped to Tsingtau. Large profits are made in this trade. Id which are interested some of the leading firms of Japan. It must be emphasized that tills opium is not imported into Japan. It is transhipped In Kobe harbor from which point, assisted by the Japanese-controlled railroad throapli Tsinanfu it is smuggled through Shantung into Shanghai into Yangtse Valley. Two thousand chests are smuggled, selling at $20,000—.$40,000,000. Th-> Japanese authorities levy a tax upon this which does not appear in the esriniates, equivalent to $5,000 a chest, a total for 2,000 chest of $10,000,000. The customs where smuggling is done are wholly under Japanese control. Moreover, Japanese military domination would forbid in botli ports any interference with the traffic in which the Japanese are interested, either officially or unofficially."
From the Missionary Review of the World, May 19, E. W. Thwing, of the Idternation Reform Bureau, says: "Japan imports 20 tons of morphine a year into China."
Many quotations in Millards Review and the Far Eastern Magazine.
Under 10 year arrangement with England in 1007, the Chinese cleared all their Provinces of native opium in 7 years, and then the Indian opium trade was supposedly stopped, but tacitly smuggling still allowed, and now nnder Japanese domination, China must submit to the full reestablishment of the vile traffic. Shall America indorse such Hunnish acts toward a sister, friendly, allied republic by signing the treaty in its present form?
W. E. Mackljn.
The Chairman. The hearing is now closed. There will be an executive session of the committee this afternoon at the Capitol room at 3 o'clock.
(Thereupon, at 11.30 o'clock a. m. the committee adjourned until to-morrow, Friday, August 29,1919, at 10.30 o'clock a. m.)
Friday, August 29, 1919.
United States Senate,
Washington, D. C.
The committee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 10.30 o'clock a. m., in room 426 Senate Office Building, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge presiding.
Present: Senators Lodge (chairman), Brandegee, Harding, Johnson, New, and Moses.
The Chairman. The hour for the hearing having arrived, the committee are ready to hear the gentlemen who appear here in behalf of the mid-European peoples. The time is limited. The committee can not sit after 12 o'clock. I will call on Mr. R. T. Caldwell, of New York, representing the League of Four Nations in the American Mid-European Association.
STATEMENT OF MR. R. T. CALDWELL.
Mr. Caldwell. Gentlemen of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the United States Senate, it is always a pleasure for an American citizen to appear before any American tribunal or governmental body of any kind on behalf of an oppressed nationality.
During the Great War, I had the privilege of knowing Dr. Thomas G. Masaryk, the first President of the new Czecho-Slovak Republic. Through him I first became interested in the struggling nations of Europe who have been so long in subjugation. His sincere sympathy with all aspirations for freedom deeply moved me. I esteemed and admired his lofty and simple character and his great intellect. With his approval I participated in the formation of the Mid-European Association with the object of fostering relations between the United States and these suffering nations.
Later on I went overseas as the representative of the United States Department of Labor to attempt to aid in establishing closer relations between America and the European countries. I spent many weeks in Paris. I came to know very well many of the prime ministers and cabinets of these nations of Europe. My interest and my sympathy grew with my knowledge.
And so I am to-day, on behalf of the American Mid-European Association, and also on my own behalf as a citizen of the United States, presenting to your committee the cause of these four countries—Lithuania, Latvia, Esthonia, and Ukraine.
To me, gentlemen, it is a matter of great satisfaction that these peoples from remote places should turn by common consent to the American Senate for sympathy and aid in the hour of their perplexity, feeling as they do that here a friendly ear shall receive their petition.
If it is natural for these aspiring people to turn to the United States Senate for strength and guidance, it is no less natural for our Senate to extend them the hand of encouragement and friendship, for they seek the path our fathers trod.
Our forefathers undertook, 3,000,000 strong, to carve a nation out of a wilderness and in doing so planted the seed of national aspirations which still flourish, and their achievements find emulation among peoples everywhere.
The appearance of these four nations before you is a direct result of our own national achievements. Our generations before us have each met their problems as they arose. We having to meet the
firoblem of our day in helping to win the war, have set these nations roe from the bondage which has long oppressed them. But to set them free without means of sustenance is but to cast them adrift on the tide.
They are living on our bounty, which is a trying ordeal for any people worthy of their freedom. They are becoming more deeply in debt and we continually more involved. We can not forsake them nor can the}7 or we continue as we are.. We should arm them to fight back the murderous Bolsheviki.
The independence of these peoples have been recognized by various nations—Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland and Germany. Germany's recognition of Lithuania bodes no good to us, to the Lithuanians, nor to the peace of the world.
All these nations lie immediately between Germany and Russia. They are now the prey of Germany who seeks to control them in order to have an undisputed highway to the mastery of Russia, yet they are intensely anti-German.
Again, the record of all four of these countries is clean in rendering valiant service to the cause of the Allies in the defeat of the Bolsheviki. No more vital link in the whole universal body politic of the world exists for the peace of the world than Lithuania and these three neighbors.
if Germany is permitted to maintain a private highway to the political and commercial conquest of Russia, it bodes ill to the future of all. The steadfast refusal of the Germany Army to obey Foch's command to retire from Lithuania speaks plainly Germany's intention to retain Lithuania at all hazards. These Baltic Provinces are flooded with German printed money and with German troops. Shall we permit these anti-German allies to be Germanized against their will and against our interests? They have fought the fight and fight it still, never despairing against overwhelming odds.
Though stripped of their resources, though attacked on all sides, though poorly equipped are their armies and people, yet never once have they grown faint-hearted though the peace conference persistently passed them by. while besieged by the Poles on the south, by the Germans on the west, and the Bolsheviki on the east. Shall these brave people, all four of them, who have fought for their independence, since ravaged by the Teutonic knights, be deserted by u» to whom they rightfully look as to an elder brother? Until they receive recognition by us who have the greatest number of their nationals who have departed from their own borders, they have not the means of establishing their credit in the only quarter where natural conditions are favorable. For of these combined people*. embracing in all in excess of 60.000,000, we have in this country about 2,000.000. With recognition the people could sell a bond issue to their nationals here which would reestablish their commerce and create employment in their respective countries and offer the best offset to Bolshevism, and in turn render them good customers for the world. So long as they remain prostrate they remain a menace, and so long we must continue to feed and clothe them. Their combined nationals in the United States bought in excess of $70,000,000 of Liberty bonds, showing them a thrifty, frugal, patriotic body among us. These people have come among us and have become part of us. They are good citizens and largely naturalized.
The Congress who made Cuba, Porto Kico, Hawaii, and the Philippines to prosper and freed them from the pestilence of foreign oppression, who has been the support and friend of South and Central America, to such a Congress is it not on the record of history's pages that so deserving peoples as these should ask for bread and receive a stone?
Gentlemen, it is your privilege to render a great service to a vast people and in doing so to render service to our country and to the world distraught and torn. The world expects this thing of us by the record this Congress itself has established. A wonderful opportunity lies before us this morning. Will this committee give the message to the world that the principles of self-determination shall be applied to these nations and that Geimany after having lost the war shall not win the peace? Will we arm these nations to fight our fight, which thev desire to do? For myself I can not entertain a doubt of the attitude of this committee on this issue.
These nations ask each for a separate resolution from your committee recognizing its national independence and expressing sympathy with its national aspirations. These resolutions I hope may be considered as a matter entirely separate and distinct from the covenant of Paris. It is not our intention to intrude on the consideration of that question by your committee, but we do most earnestly hope and pray that your committee will grant to each of these four nations the recognition they ask and which they deserve.
Mr. George Gordon Battle, of New York bar, who is counsel for the Mid-European Association and for the representatives of the four nations, will briefly address you, and will then introduce the national spokesmen.
STATEMENT OF MR. GEORGE GORDON BATTLE.
Mr. Battle. Mr. Chairman and Senators, I appreciate that the time is limited, and shall proceed at once to the subject matter, and promise to be extremely brief. I can not, however, enter upon the actual discussion of what we have to say here this morning without expressing my profound gratitude and the gratitude of these four peoples whom I represent here this morning for the opportunity of appearing before this committee and of voicing their national aspirations before such a tribunal.
I appear, sir, as counsel for the League of Four Nations—the Esthonians, the Letts, the Lithuanians, and the Ukrainians—and also as counsel for the American Mid-European Association, and as an American citizen interested in this subject, as all American citizens are.
Let me first point out to the committee on the map just where these four nations are located. This map, which is behind the chair