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LIGHTS FOR FISHING VESSELS AND BOATS.

ART. 9. Open fishing-boats and other open boats shall not be required to carry sideights required for other vessels; but shall, if they do not carry such lights, carry a lantern having a green slide on the one side and a red slide on the other side, and on the approach of or to other vessels, such lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision, so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the The light on the starboard side. Fishing vessels and open boats when at anchor, or attached to their nets and stationary, shall exhibit a bright white light. FishingVessels and open boats shall, however, not be prevented from using a flare-up in addition, if considered expedient.

RULES GOVERNING FOG-SIGNALS.

FOG-SIGNALS.

ART. 10. Whenever there is a fog, whether by day or night, the fog-siguals described llow shall be carried and used, and shall be sounded at least every five minutes, viz:

(a) Steamships under way shall use a steam-whistle, placed before the funnel, not less than eight feet from the deck.

(b) Sailing-ships under way shall use a fog-horn.
lei Steamships and sailing-ships, when not under way, shall use a bell.

STEERING AND SAILING RULES.

TWO SAILING-SHIPS MEETING.

Art.11. If two sailing-ships are meeting end on, or nearly end on, so as to involve risk of collision, the helms of both shall be put to port, so that each may pass on the jort side of the other.

TWO SAILING-SHIPS CROSSING.

ART. 12. When two sailing-ships are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, then, if tbey have the wind on different sides, the ship with the wind on the port side shall Loep out of the way of the ship with the wind on the starboard side, except in the

in which the ship with the wind on the port side is close-hauled, and the other bip frre, in which case the latter ship shall keep out of the way. But if they have ibt vind on the same side, or if one of them has the wind aft, the ship which is to Finward shall keep out of the way of the ship which is to leeward.

TWO SHIPS UNDER STEAM MEETING.

Arr. 13. If two ships under steam are meeting end on, or nearly end on, so as to inFulve risk of collision, the helms of both shall be put to port, so that each may pass * the port side of the other.

TWO SHIPS UNDER STEAM CROSSING.

ART. 14. If the two ships under steam are crossing, so as to involve risk of collision, the ship which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.

SAILING-SHIP AND SHIP UNDER STEAM.

ART. 15. If the two ships, one of which is a sailing-ship, and the other a steamship, are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, the steamship shall keep out of the way of the sailing-ship.

SHIPS UNDER STEAM TO SLACKEY SPEED,

ART. 16. Every steamship when approaching another ship so as to involve risk of Follision, shall slacken her speed, or, if necessary, stop and reverse ; and every steamsup shall, when in a fog, go at a moderate speed.

VESSELS OVERTAKING OTHER VESSELS.

Art. 17. Every vessel overtaking any other vessel shall keep out of the way of the said last-mentioned vessel.

CONSTRUCTION OF ARTICLES 12, 14, 15, AND 17.

Art. 18. Where, by the above rules, one of two ships is to keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course, subject to the qualifications contained in the following

article:

PROVISO TO SAVE SPECIAL CASES.

ART. 19. In obeying and construing these rules due regard must be had to all dangers of navigation, and due regard must also be had to any special circumstances which may exist in any particular case rendering a departure from the above rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger.

NO SHIP UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES TO NEGLECT PROPER PRECAUTIONS.

Art. 20. Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any ship, or the owner or master, or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper lookout, or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the

case.

Approved April 29, 1864.

Should a collision unfortunately take place, each commanding officer is required to furnish the department with the following information:

1st. His own report, that of the pilot, the officer of the deck, and other officers who witnessed the occurrence. These reports and statements are to be exemplified by a diagram, and must contain the courses steered, the point at which the vessel was first seen, the bearing, the time when the engine was slowed, when the vessel was stopped, whether in motion, and, if so, at what speed at the moment of collision, the direction of the wind, the condition of the weather and atmosphere, what lookouts were placed, what lights were exhibited by both vessels, whether either vessel deviated from the above rules and regulations, whether any blame can attach to any one, and, if so, to whom, and any and all other facts bearing upon the subject.

2d. Written statements and estimate of damage from officers of the vessel with which the vessel of the United States Navy collided, if they can be obtained.

3d. Survey of the injury to both vessels by United States officers.

4th. If the vessel is in charge of a pilot, and the collision has occurred from his acting in violation of the above rules and regulations, the fact must be established in the report, and no pilotage paid to him.

The following diagrams are designed to illustrate the use of the lights carried by vessels at sea as prescribed in the foregoing order, and the manner in which they indicate to each vessel the position and course of the other.

1. First. When the Red and Green lights are both seen.-A sees a red and green light ahead; A knows that a vessel is approaching him on a course directly opposite to the one he is steering, as B :

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2. If A sees a Irhite mast-head light above the Red and Green lights, he knows that the vessel B is a steamer. A should put his helm to port, and B, seeing the same lights, on board of A, should, by the same rule, put his helm to port also.

3. SECOND. When the Red light only is seen.--A sees a Red light ahead, or on the port bow; A knows that either, first, a vessel is approaching him on his port bow, as B,

G

B

R

R

A

G

or, second, a vessel is crossing his bows to port in some direction, as D D'D".

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4. If A sees a Thite mast-head light above the Red light, he knows that the vessel is a steamer, and is either approaching in the same direction as B, or is crossing to port in the same direction as D D D''.

5. In the first position A sees B a little on the port bow; B's red light exposed, and, by the diagrams, B should see A's red light as well, in which case both vessels should put their helms to port.

6. In the second positions A sees D on his starboard bow, and from the fact that he only sees D's red light, he knows that D must be steering in some direction as at D D' D; at the same time D D'D' will see A's green light on his port bow. In this case A haring D clearly on his starboard bow, should put his helm to starboard to turn from I), and D having A clearly on his port bow, should put his helm to port to turn to starboard from A.

7. THIRD. When the Green light is seen, and the Red light is not seen.-A sees a green hight ahead or on his bow ; A knows that either, first, a vessel is approaching him on his starboard bow, as B,

R

A

G

G

B

R

or, second, a vessel is crossing his bow in some direction to starboard, as D D' D'.

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c. If A sees a White mast-head light above the Green light, A knows that the vessel is a steamer, and is either approaching him in the same direction as B, or is crossing to starboard in some direction as D D D'.

9. In the first position, A sees B on his starboard bow; B's green light exposed, and, by the diagram, B should see A's green light as well, in which case both vessels should put their helms to starboard.

10. In the second position, A sees D on his port bow, and from the fact that he only spes D's green light, he knows that D must be steering in some direction as D D'D"; at the same time D will see A's red light on his starboard bow. In this case, A having D clearly on his port bow, should put his helm to port to turn from D, and Ď having

Å elearly on his starboard bow, should put his helm to starboard to turn to port from A.

11. Steam-vessels discovering other vessels near them at night, should slow down, und, if need be, stop the engines until the exact position of both vessels is ascertained.

COLLISIONS-RULES OF THE SEA.

TITLE 48, CHAP. 5.

Sec. 4233. Rules for preventing collisions. Sec. 4234. Forfeiture of sailing.vessels for omission of

lights.

Rules for prerenting collisions. SEC. 4233. The following rules for preventing collisions on the water, shall be followed in the navigation of vessels of the Navy and of the mercantile marine of the United States.

STEAM AND SAIL VESSELS.

Rule one. Every steam-vessel which is under sail, and not under steam, shall be considered a sail-vessel; and every steam-vessel which is under steam, whether under sail or not, shall be considered a steam-vessel.

LIGHTS.

Rule two. The lights mentioned in the following rules, and no others, shall be carried in all weathers, between sunset and sunrise.

Rule three. All ocean-going steamers, and steamers carrying sail, shall, when under way, carry

(A) At the foremast head, a bright white light, of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atinosphere, at a distance of at least tive miles, and so constructed as to show a uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of twenty points of the compass, aud so fixed as to throw the light ten points on each side of the vessel, namely, from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side.

(B) On the starboard side, a green light, of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles, and so constructed as to show a uniform and unbroken light over an are of the horizon of ten points of the compass, and so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard side.

(C) On the port side, a red light, of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles, and so constructed as to show a uniform and unbroken light over an are of the horizon of ten points of the compass, and so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abatt the beam on the port side.

The green and red lights shall be fitted with inboard screens, projecting at least three feet forward from the lights, so as to prevent them from being seen across the bow.

Rule four. Steam-vessels, when towing other vessels, shall carry two bright white mast-head lights vertically, in addition to their side-lights, so as to distinguish them from other steam-vessels. Each of these mast-head lights shall be of the same character and construction as the mast-head lights prescribed by Rule three.

Rule five. All steam-vessels, other than ocean-going steamers and steamers carrying sail, shall, when under way, carry on the starboard and port sides lights of the same character and construction and in the same position as are prescribed for side-lights by Rule three, except in the case provided in Rule six.

Rule six. River-steamers, navigating waters flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, and their tributaries, shall carry the following lights, namely: One red light on the outboard side of the port smoke-pipe, and one green light on the outboard side of the starboard smoke-pipe. Such lights shall show both forward and abeam on their respective sides.

Rule seven. All coasting steam-vessels, and steam-vessels other than ferry-boats and vessels otherwise expressly provided for, navigating the bays, lakes, rivers, and other enland waters of the United States, except those mentioned in Rule six, shall carry the red and green lights, as prescribed for ocean-going steamers; and, in addition thereto, a central range of two white lights; the after-light being carried at an elevation of at least fifteen feet above the light at the head of the vessel. The head-light shall be so constructed as to show a good light through twenty points of the compass, namely: from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side of the vessel; and the after-light so as to show all around the horizon. The lights for ferry-boats shall be regulated by such rules as the board of supervising inspectors of steam-vessels shall prescribe.

Rule eight. Sail-vessels, under way or being towed, shall carry the same lights as

screens.

steam-Vessels under way, with the exception of the white mast-head lights, which ther shall never carry.

Rule bine. Whenever, as in case of small vessels during bad weather, the green and red lights cannot be fixed, these lights shall be kept on deck, on their respective sides of the vessel, ready for instant exhibition, and shall, on the approach of or to other Tessels, be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the green light shall not be sted on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side. To make the use of these portable lights more certain and easy, they shall each be painted outside with the color of the light they respectively contain, and shall be provided with suitable

Rule ten. All vessels, whether steam-vessels or sail-vessels, when at anchor in roadsteals or fairways, shall, between sunset and sunrise, exhibit where it can best be seen, bat at a height not exceeding twenty feet above the hull, a white light in a globular lautem of eight inches in diameter, and so constructed as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light, visible all around the horizon, and at a distance of at least one mile.

Rule eleven. Sailing pilot-vessels shall not carry the lights required for other sailing. Fessels, but shall carry a white light at the mast-head, visible all around the borizon, and shall also exhibit a flare-up light every fifteen minutes.

Rule twelve. Coal-boats, trading-boats, produce-boats, canal-boats, oyster-boats, @shing-boats, rafts, or other water-craft, navigating any bay, harbor, or river, by handpower, borse-power, sail, or by the current of the river, or which shall be anchored or moored in or near the channel or fair way of any bay, harbor, or river, shall carry one or more good white lights, which shall be placed in such manner as shall be prescribed by the board of supervising inspectors of steam-vessels.

Rnle thirteen. Open boats shall not be required to carry the side-lights required for other vessels, but shall, if they do not carry such lights, carry a lantern having a green slide on one side, and a red slide on the other side; and on the approach of or to other vessels, such lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision, ani in such a manner that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the Ted light on the starboard side. Open boats, when at anchor or stationary, shall exhibit a bright white light. They shall not, however, be prevented from using a flareup, in addition, if considered expedient.

Role fourteen. The exhibition of any light on board of a vessel of war of the United States may be suspended whenever, in the opinion of the Secretary of the Navy, the commander-in-chief of a squadron, or the commander of a vessel acting singly, the special character of the service may require it.

FOG-SIGNALS.

Rule fifteen. Whenever there is a fog, or thick weather, whether by day or night, fog-signals shall be used as follows:

(A) Steam-vessels under way shall sound a steam-whistle placed before the funnel, not less than eight feet from the deck, at intervals of not more than one minute.

(B) Sail-vessels under way shall sound a fog-horn at intervals of not less than five minates.

C) Steam-vessels and sail-vessels, when not under way, shall sound a bell at intervals of not more than five minutes.

(D) Coal-boats, trading-boats, produce-boats, canal-boats, oyster-boats, fishingbrats, rafts, or other water-craft, navigating any bay, harbor, or river, by handpwer, horse-power, sail, or by the current of the river, or anchored or moored in or bear the channel or fairway of any bay, harbor, or river, and not in any port, shall sound a fog-horn, or equivalent signal, which shall make a sound equal to a steambistlr, at intervals of not more than two minutes.

STEERING AND SAILING RULES.

Rule sixteen. If two sail-vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, so as to invulve risk of collision, the helms of both shall be put to port, so that each may pass on the port side of the other.

Rnie seventeen. When two sail-vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, then, if they have the wind on different sides, the vessel with the wind on the port sdr sball keep out of the way of the vessel with the wind on the starboard side, extept in the case in which the vessel with the wind on the port side is close-hauled, and the other vessel free, in which case the latter vessel shall keep out of the way. But if they have the wind on the same side, or if one of them has the wind aft, the Tessel which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward. Bale eighteen. If two vessels under steam are meeting end on, or nearly end

H. Ex. 55—2

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