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of it is, that the operation of this influence is often secret and gradual. When, therefore, it does not produce such violent effects as these, we are not authorized to feel, that no evil has resulted from exposure. - The foundation of chronic maladies," says Dr. Johnson, " that render life miserable for years, is every summer laid in hundreds of our countrymen who wander about beneath the azure skies of Italy. They bring hone with them a poison circulating in their veins, which ultimately tells on the constitution, and assumes all the forms of Proteus, harassing its victims with a thousand anornalous and indescribable feelings of wretchedness, inexplicable alike to himself and to his physician." Still, he allows, that "people in health may wander through Italy in safety, at all periods between September and June," and even thinks, tbat a sedentary residence during the winter would not be injurious, provided suitable precautions be taken against the climate. But farther than this he would have no one venture, who ralues his health. So much for the boasted climate of Italy, with the balmy exhalations of its pestiferous Mareinma. We cannot forbear adding the concluding remarks of Dr. Mac Culloch, on this point, who says, "this must suffice for the pure, the bright, the fragrant, the classical air of ltaly, the Paradise of Europe. To such a pest-house are its blue skies the canopy,—and where its bright sun holds out the promise of life and joy, it is but to inflict misery and death. To him who knows what this land is, the sweetest breeze of summer is attended by an unavoidable sense of fear, and he who, in the language of the poets, wooes the balıny zephyr of the evening, finds death in its blandishments." We must not leave the subject without another inquiry, although somewhat foreign to our immediate purpose. If such is their present desolating influences, what will be the effect of the increase of these destructive miasmata? “I have not," says Dr. Johnson, “the smallest doubt, that the silent and invisible enemy, which has already taken possession of at least three of the seven bills of Rome, will, ere many centuries, reduce the former mistress of the world to a wretched village or den of robbers." “ ST. PETER's, like PÆSTUM, will yet be visited at the risk of life, as the wonder of the desert."
Intimately connected with this, is the next topic to which Dr. Johnson directs bis attention,—"the medicinal influence of an Italian climate.” He considers this influence in reference to several of the common diseases for which a visit to this country, and perhaps a temporary sojourn there, are frequently recommended. Under this head comes, not inappropriately, ibe consideration of the prevalent habits and customs of the country, so far as they may affect health or facilitate its recovery. We allude to the effects of the peculiar mode of living, -as to dwellings, cleanliness, etc. Of the latter, sufficient has already been said in another connection to satisfy us, that were the malarious agencies to cease their work of death, the filth which is suffered to accumulate in the streets and dwellings in Italian cities, would send forth noxious exhalations enough to breed a pestilence, in which the absence of the malaria would scarcely be noticed. But as it is, it serves to the people themselves, as a shield against the assaults of the malaria. The Jewish quarter, the filthiest in Rome, is also the healthiest. So thick is the incrustation of filth without, that this subtle agent cannot penetrate to the living man within ! But this fact will not render this poisonous effluvia a less formidable evil to the foreign invalid.The dwellings are as ill adapted as they could be, to aid the endeavors of the invalid who has courted the medicinal influence of an Italian climate. They are all constructed in reference to the heat, with no provisions at all for alleviating the cold or preventing dampness. Some exceptions may exist in the largest and most frequented cities, where foreign taste has introduced changes in the present style of living. But generally, the houses are of stone, with stone stair-cases and stone floors. The casements of the windows are loose and open, admitting freely the cold, damp air. Every thing within, is therefore penetrated with moisture. There are sew, if any, provisions for warming the apartments, except, perhaps, the smoking caldanini, or open pan of coals, filling the room with their dangerous gases; and last, not least, there are no carpets to protect the feet from the cold, damp stone floors, and give the glooiny chamber one cheering sign of comfort. Some of the comforts of civilized life, may, as we have said, be found in the large cities; but in the country towns and villages, through which the traveler passes, and in which he must necessarily take up an occasional night's lodging, or remain in his carriage, he must not presume to look for them. We are not surprised, therefore, when we hear the invalid, Mr. Matthews, declare, " that during the time it lasts, winter is more severely felt here than at Sidmouth, (England,) where I would even recommend an Italian invalid to repair, froin November till February.”
To one predisposed to pulmonary affections, the great variation of temperature in different streets, and in different situations on the same street, presents another ground of danger. This variation often amounts to twenty degrees, or even more. neighbor directly opposite, on the Lung 'Arno, in Florence, is sitting with his window up, apparently enjoying the mild, warm breeze of summer, you may be shivering over a miserable fagyot fire, endeavoring in vain to protect yourself from the damp, penetratiog and wintry chilliness of the atmosphere. The conclusion at which Dr. Johnson arrives, after an extended examination of these causes, and of the nature of diseases of the chest, we give in his own words :
While your • The sum total of our knowledge, then, on this important point, appears to stand thus ; I. In DELICATE HEALTH, without any proof of organic changes in the lungs,-in what is called a " tendency to pulmonary affection,”—a journey to Italy, and a winter's residence there, under strict caution, offer probabilities of an amelioration of health: II. In cases where there is a suspicion or certainty of tubercles in the lungs, not softened down or attended with purulent expectoration, an Italian climate may do some good, and тау
do much harm; the chances being pretty nearly balanced: III. Where tuberculous matter appears in the expectoration, and where the stethoscope indicates that a considerable portion of the lungs is unfitted for respiration, a southern climate is more likely to accelerate than retard the fatal event,—and takes away the few chances that remain of final recovery.' p. 305.
In regard to bronchial affections, our author at first seems to be of the opinion, that benefit may be realized from a winter's residence in Italy.
in Italy. But of this, he afterwards expresses some doubt, and is at a loss to see how a climate, “ in which acute inflammation of the lungs appeared more violent and more rapid in its course, than in England,” can be supposed to possess the property of relieving inflammation of the tubes leading to the same organ. Some little experience and observation lead us to coincide with him in his more matured opinion.
As to nervous disorders, he deems it clear, that the climate of Rome is “extremely hostile to the brain and the nervous system.” While a journey may be of service, it is very questionable whether a residence there would be productive of any benefit. To support this opinion, he appeals to the extreme morbid sensibility by which the Romans are characterized; evincing itself in their peculiar sensitiveness to perfumes,-the odor of the most pleasant flower often throwing a Roman lady into convulsions, -and in the frequency of sudden deaths.
There is another large class of invalids who are prone to try the efficacy of a residence in Italy, to whom Dr. Johnson is at a loss what to say. We allude to those who are troubled with “ disorders of the digestive organs.” He seems to have a dread of the acid wines and oily dishes which they must there take into the stomach. The air, 100, of the Campagna, is always depressing, and the Sirocco is murderous. Malaria, moreover, he thinks a leading cause of dyspepsia, and warns all dyspeptics to shun exposure to its influence. Even in winter, these pestilential miasmata may be exhaled in sufficient quantities to lay the foundation of permanent disorders.
of the beneficial influence of traveling-exercise, in the promotion of health, he entertains no doubis whatever. haps no country in the world offers stronger attractions, in this respect, than Italy. The causes of excitement are so numerous,
And perand the sources of healthful enjoyment so abundant, that scarcely an improvement in this particular could be desired. Every thing which can gratify the senses, please the eye, charm the ear, or stimulate the mental faculties to pleasant action, is here found in the richest abundance. Even the annoyances and vexations 10 which a traveler is subject, from police men and passports, douaniers and beggars, impositions and frauds of retturini, postillions, landlords and servants, for a while arouse and entertain, from their novelty and the insight they afford into character and customs. A journey in Italy, it may therefore reasonably be expected, will considerably increase the ordinary benefits to health, which result from the healthful excitement of traveling. The drawbacks are the pernicious influence of the Italian climate, and of its poisonous malarivus exhalations and effluvia, and the exposures from a deprivation of customary comforts. How far these will probably counterbalance the beneficial tendencies of travel, must depend upon the constitution, habits and condition of the individual himself, and the season and length of time he proposes to pass in Italy. He should especially avoid spending the summer there ; and even in winter, except the consumptive, who will be liable to great exposure from the damp walls, rooms and furniture of country hotels, and who therefore should rather fit up for himself quarters furnished with provisions against cold and dampness, customary in cold climates,-the great body of valetudinarians will do well io take Dr. Johnson's advice and keep moving." Change of air, with the succession of pleasurable excitements, which change of place in a country like Italy always brings with it, in promoting serenity and evenness of temper, elevating and soothing the spirits, reducing an excessive and morbid sensibility, augmenting the powers of assimilation and digestion, and exerting a healthful action upon the blood,--these, will do more towards the restoration of impaired health, where there is no organic disease, in one season, ihan a fixed, stationary residence in the most healthy climate under the wisest precautions, and the most guarded attention to diet, etc., will accomplish, in a much greater length of time. We speak of a majority of cases of debility. Exceptions doubtless exist; and the invalid, who purposes a resort to travel as a means of restoration, must consult bis own condition, the causes of his infirmity, its degree and nature, the influence of different climates and states of air upon his system, the tried effects of change and travel, and, above all, prudent and experienced physicians.
The next and closing section of Dr. Johnson's work, is devoted to the moral and religious" infuence of an Italian climate and residence.” This is a topic, which, though it little attracts the attention of travelers, aud rarely enters into the mind, when considering the propriety of a foreign tour, is yet one, that should engage the serious thoughts and consideration of all who ajtach any value to a delicate moral sense, to correct habits and to an elevated christian spirit. For it may be a question, after all, whether the physical and intellectual gain, may not be more than counterbalanced by the moral loss which he may experience. While looking at the invigoration of frame, the enlargement of intellectual views, and the increase of mental and physical energy which he may hope to realize, the tourist may easily reconcile himself to the expenditure of his hundred dollars a month,—the usual expense of a moderate traveler in continental Europe, and of his ten to twenty months of time, which a tour in the old world commonly occupies. The elements in this calculation are more tangible ; certainly in deciding this point, more aid can be derived from the known fruits of others' experience. But the moral part of the calculation is more difficult. Travelers have not so fully recorded the effects which have resulted to their spiritual and moral character. These effects depend more on individual temperament and habits; and vary more with circumstances. Still as the cultivation of the moral feelings is an object far above the culture of the physical or intellectual system, no christian will throw himself into a situation where his character, in this respect, will be so seriously affected,-beneficially or otherwise,-without giving the subject serious consideration. We propose, in this connection, to throw out some bints, that may be of service to those who are considering the question of a foreign tour.
We would remark at the outset, that, beyond all question, material benefit may be realized from a temporary residence in Italy or France. We doubt whether men are ever placed in any situation whatever, except from their own fault, where they may not improve their moral character. We do most fully believe, that if a inan goes through the sea of corruption, which overspreads nearly the whole of continental Europe, and withstands the tide of polluting influence, which must unavoidably be met there ; if lie will do this successfully, and come off with no delicate sensibility blunted, no pure feeling sullied, or elevated principle shaken; no holy purpose forgotten, and no high air lowered, he will have attained,we hesitate not to say it, a strength of moral character which will carry bim successfully through all the possible shocks to which subsequent life may expose him. We will go farther, and affirm our belief, that individuals have passed through this ordeal, and come out more firm, more pure, more moral and virtuous than besore. But the question here, is not of possibility but of probability; not of particular exception, but of general fact. How far may a man go without danger? How far may he go without fault? There are some general principles which may aid us in settling these questions. One is, ihat familiarity with moral degradation