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able consequences of the act or omission as a prudent man ordia narily bestows in acting in his own concerns;

3. The word "corruptly" imports a wrongful design to acquire or cause some pecuniary or other advantage to the person guilty of the act or omission referred to, or to some other person;

4. The words "malice" and "maliciously" import a wish to vex, annoy, or injure another person, or an intent to do a wrongful act, established either by proof or presumption of law;

5. The word “knowingly" imports only a knowledge that the facts exist which bring the act or omission within the provisions of this code. It does not require any knowledge of the unlawfulness of such act or omission;

6. The word “bribe” signifies anything of value or advantage, present or prospective, or any promise or undertaking to give any, asked, given, or accepted, with a corrupt intent to influence, unlawfully, the person to whom it is given, in his action, vote, or opinion, in any public or official capacity;

7. The word “vessel,” when used with reference to shipping, includes ships of all kinds, steamboats, canal-boats, barges, and every structure adapted to be navigated from place to place for: the transportation of merchandise or persons;

8. The words "peace officer” signify any one of the officers mentioned in section eight hundred and seventeen;

9. The word “magistrate” signifies any one of the officers mentioned in the section eight hundred and eight;

10. The words “property” includes both real and personal property;

11. The words “real property” are coextensive with lands, tene

nts, and hereditaments;

12. The words “personal property" include money, goods, chattels, things in action, and evidences of debt;

13. The word "month” means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed; the word “daytime" means the period between sunrise and sunset, and the word “night-time" means the period between sunset and sunrise;

14. The word "will" includes codicil;

15. The word "writ” signifies an order or precept in writing, issued in the name of the people, or of a court or judicial officer, and the word "process” a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings;

16. Words and phrases must be construed according to the context and the approved usage of the language; but technical words and phrases, and such others as may have acquired a peculiar and appropriate meaning in law, must be construed according to such peculiar and andropriate meaning;

17. Words giving a joint authority to three or more public o1Ti ers or other persons, are construed as giving such authority to a majority of them, unless it is othervise expressed in the act riving the authority;

18. When the seal of the court or public officer is required by 1:1 to be affixed to any paper, the word “seal” includes an impression of such seal upon the paper alone, or upon any substance attached to the paper capable of receiving a visible impression. The seal of a private person may be made in like manner, or by the scroll of a pen, or by writing the word "seal" against his none;

19. The word “state," when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territorics, and the words “United States” may include the district and territories;

20. The word "section," whenever hereinafter employed, refers to a section of this code, unless some other code or statute is expressly metioned. 1905-635.

8. Whenever, by any of the provisions of this code, an intent to defraud is required in order to constitute any offense, it is sufficient if an intent appears to defraud any person, association, or Bwly politic or corporate, whatever.

9. The omission to specify or affirm in this code any liability to damages, penalty, forfeiture, or other remedy imposed by law and allowed to be recovered or enforced in any civil action or proceeding, for any act or omission declared punishable herein, does Tot affect any right to recover or enforce the same.

10. The omission to specify or affirm in this code any ground of forfeiture of a public office, or other trust or special authority conferred by law, or any power conferred by law to impeach, remove, dispose, or suspend any public officer or other person holding any trust, appointment, or other special authority conferred by law, does not affect such forfeiture or power, or any proceeding authorized by law to carry into effect such impeachment, removal, doposition, or suspension.

11. This code does not affect any power conferred by law upon any court-martial, or other military authority or officer, to impose or inflict punishment upon offenders; nor any power conferred by law upon any public body, tribunal, or officer, to impose or inflict punishment for a contempt.

12. The several sections of this code which declare certain crimes to be punishable as therein mentioned, devolve a duty upon the court authorized to pass sentence, to determine and impose the punishment prescribed.

13. Whenever in this code the punishment for a crime is left undetermined between certain limits, the punishment to be inflicted in a particular case must be determined by the court authorized to pass sentence, within such limits as may be prescribed by this code.

14. The various sections of this code which declare that evidence obtained upon the examination of a person as a witness cannot be received against him in any criminal proceeding, do not forbid such evidence being proved against such person upon any proceedings founded upon a charge of perjury committed in such examination.

15. A crime or public offense is an act committed or omitted in violation of a law forbidding or commanding it, and to which is annexed, upon conviction, either of the following punishments:

1. Death; 2. Imprisonment; 3. Fine; 4. Removal from office; or, 5. Disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust,

or profit in the state. 16. Crimes are divided into:

1. Felonies; and,

2. Misdemeanors. 17. A felony is a crime which is punishable with death or by imprisonment in the state prison. Every other crime is a misdemeanor. When a crime, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison, is also punishable by fine or imprisonment in a county jail, in the discretion of the court, it shall be deemed a misdemeanor for all purposes after a judgment imposing a punishment other than imprisonment in the state prison. 1873—455.

18. Except in cases where a different punishment is prescribed by this code, every offense declared to be a felony is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison, not exceeding five years.

18a Except in cases where a different minimum punishment is prescribed by law, for every offense declared to be a felony and punishable by imprisonment in the state prison, the minimum punishment shall be imprisonment in the state prison for not less than six months. 1919—7.

19. Except in cases where a different punishment is prescribed by this code, every offense declared to be a misdemeanor is punishable by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding siz months, or by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, or by both.

20. In every crime or public offense there must exist a union, or joint operation of act and intent, or criminal negligence.

21. The intent or intention is manifested by the circumstances connected with the offense, and the sound mind and discretion of the accused. All person are of sound mind who are neither idiots nor lunatics, nor affected with insanity.

22. No act committed by a person while in a state of voluntary intoxication is less criminal by reason of his having been in such condition. But whenever the actual existence of any particular purpose, motive, or intent is a necessary element to constitute any particular species or degree of crime, the jury may take into consideration the fact that the accused was intoxicated at the time, in determining the purpose, motive, or intent with which he committed the act.

23. Nothing in this code affects any of the provisions of the following statutes, but such statutes are recognized as continuing in force, notwithstanding the provisions of the codes, except so far as they have been repealed or affected by subsequent laws:

1. All acts incorporating or chartering municipal corporations, and acts amending or supplementing such acts.

2. All acts consolidating cities and counties, and acts amending or supplementing such acts.

3. All acts for funding the state debt, or any part thereof, and for issuing state bonds, and acts amending or supplementing such acts.

4. All acts regulating and in relation to rodeos.
5. All acts in relation to judges of the plains.

6. All acts creating or regulating boards of water commissioners and overseers in the several townships or counties of the state.

7. All acts in relation to a branch state prison.

8. An act for the more effectual prevention of cruelty to animals, approved March thirtieth, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight.

9. An act for the suppression of Chinese houses of ill-fame, approved March thirty-first, eighteen hundred and sixty-six.

10. An act relating to the Home of the Inebriate of San Francisco, and to prescribe the powers and duties of the board of managers and the officers thereof, approved April first, eighteen hundred and seventy.

11. An act concerning marks and brands in the county of Siskiyou, approved March twentieth, eighteen hundred and sixty-six.

12. An act to prevent the destruction of fish in the waters of Bolinas Bay, in Marin County, approved March thirty-first, eighteen hundred and sixty-six.

13. An act concerning trout in Siskiyou County, approved April second, eighteen hundred sixty-six.

14. An act to prevent the destruction of fish in Napa River and Sonoma Creek, approved January twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight.

15. An act to prevent the destruction of fish and game in, upon, and around the waters of Lake Merritt or Peralto, in the county of Alameda, approved March eighteenth, eighteen hundred and seventy.

16. An act to regulate salmon fisheries in Eel River, in Humboldt County, approved April eighteenth, eighteen hundred and fifty-nine.

17. An act for the better protection of stock-raisers in the counties of Fresno, Tulare, Monterey, and Mariposa, approved March twentieth, eighteen hundred and sixty-six.

18. An act concerning oysters, approved April twenty-eighth, eighteen hundred and fifty-one.

19. An act concerning oyster-beds, approved April second, eighteen hundred and sixty-six.

20. An act concerning gas companies, approved April fourth, eighteen hundred and seventy.

24. This act, whenever cited, enumerated, referred to, or amended, may be designated simply as The Penal Code, adding, when necessary the number of the section.

PART I.

Title I.

II. III. IV. V.

VI. VII. VIII.

IX.

CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS.
Person Liable to Punishment for Crime.
Parties to Crime.
Offenses against the Sovereignty of the State.
Crimes against the Elective Franchise.
Crimes by and against the Executive Power of the

State.
Crimes against the Legislative Power.
Crimes against Public Justice.
Crimes against the Person.
Crimes against the Person and against Public De-

cency and Good Morals.
Crimes against the Public Health and Safety.
Crimes against the Public Peace.
Crimes against the Revenue and Property of this

State.
Crimes against Property
Malicious Mischief.
Miscellaneous Crimes.
General Provisions.

X. XI. XII.

XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.

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