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The fact here related, we have not any further account of in sacred history, nor any thing that we can clearly and certainly call it in any human writer. It is commonly conceived to have been done at Jerusalem, where Pilate abode, and that his power was exercised and done upon the followers of that Judas of Galilee spoken of, Acts v. 37, being such as denied it to be lawful to give obedience to the Roman empire, or to offer sacrifice for the interest and good of it. When they, it is likely, were coming together to offer at Jerusalem, and to maintain and to spread their opinion, Pilate comes upon them, and, while they were at the solemnity, makes a sacrifice of them to that authority they refused to sacrifice for whether justly or not, we cannot determine; our Saviour does not ; but if it was just, surely it was very tragical and severe, suitable to that character Philo gives of his disposition who acted it. L'Ausínixtov.] The straining of justice, commonly breaks it: a little of the other side, is, of the two, doubtless, the safer extreme.

However, this stroke and all others, as they come from the Supreme Hand, are righteous. Whatsoever be the temper or intent of the lower actor, and whatsoever be the nature of the action as from him, the sovereign hand of God is in them, and chief in them. Amos iii. 6. Shall there be evil in a city, anil the Lord hath not done it? And yet all evils, as He doth them, are both good and well done. Actions, whether voluntary or casual, as these two here, yet, do powerfully issue from the First Being and Worker, and, as from Him, are both unalterably certain and unquestionably just. Thus they who here report it, seem to have judged of this passage, that it was a just punishment of sin. And our Saviour contests not about that, but rather seems to agree to them so far, and draws that warning out of it: he only corrects the misconceit it seems they were in, in thrusting it too far off from themselves, and throwing it too heavy upon those who sacrificed. Think ye that they were sinners ?] Though it were an error

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to think that all temporal evils are intended of God as punishments of some particular guiltiness, and so to be taken as infallibly concluding against either persons or causes as evil, yet, certainly, the hand of God, either upon ourselves or others, is wisely to be considered, and it will very often be found a punishment pointing to the sin. And it is certainly an argument of very great stiffness and pride of heart, not to observe and acknowledge it, and a sure presage either of utter ruin, or, at least, of a heavier stroke. Any one who is set against the Lord, and will not he humbled, whether by what he sees on others, or what he feels on himself, shall find he hath an overmatch to deal with, that will either bow him or break him. Isa. xxvi. 11. Lord, when thy hand is lifted up, they will not see ; but they shall see and be ashamed for their envy at the people ; yea, the fire of Thine' enemies shall devour them.

Think ye that they were sinners above all men that dwelt at Jerusalem ?] Our Saviour goes not to search into the quarrel, and to condemn or justify either the one party or the other; that was not for his purpose. His aim was, to rectify the mistake of those he spoke to, and to draw forth from their own relation what was most proper for their use.

Much of our hearing and telling of news, häth little of this in it; and with most persons it doth not relish, to wind things that way. Some, even good persons, do accustom themselves, and take too much liberty, to an empty, fruitless way of entertainment in this kind. And if we make any remark, it commonly keeps abroad, comes not home to ourselves. Be it a judgment, be the persons great sinners in a sinful course, yet, they are not always the greatest of all because they suffer and others escape, as we readily think, and the Jews here concluded concerning those Galileans. - God is to be adored and reverenced, who useth His own freedom in this ; He does injustice to none, yet, chooses them on whom He will do exemplary justice, and whom He will let pass, and gives not account of this to any. Some less wicked

have been ensamples to them who were much more wicked than they.

Do not flatter yourselves in the conceit of exemption from some stroke which others in the same way with

you have fallen under, or even from some course which others have run and smarted in, and bear yourselves big upon the name of God's people. But tremble before the Lord, and search your own hearts. And let us think, though we may not be guilty of such public scandalous evils as others fall into, and are punished for, yet, how full are we of secret malice, pride and lust, &c., and let us wonder at the patience of God to ourselves, while multitudes have been swept away round about us. Think you that they who have died by sword or pestilence of late, were greater sinners than we who are left behind ? Oh, no! but except we repent, we shall all likewise perish. Enough of these arrows are still in God's arsenal, and though He use not these to us, yet remember, death, and judgment, and eternity, are before us, and they call for wise and speedy consideration and repentance. Oh! you who

go on in your transgressions after all that is come upon us, who were drunkards and swearers, and are so yet, what think you ? Because the heat of public judgments is abated, is there no more fear? Have you made a covenant with hell and death, and gained quarter of them, that they will not seize on you? Oh! that will never hold: they will not, they cannot keep to you. And if you hold on your course when the day of visitation shall come, how much heavier shall it be by all this forbearance ! You shall wish you had been cut off with the first. The day is at hand, when it shall be easier for them than for you. Only, the advantage is, that there is an exception yet sounding in your ears; Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.

I beseech you, my brethren, enter into your own hearts, and be not always out of yourselves, and so, out of your wits. Consider the Lord's way and your own, and wonder at His goodness. Why am not I made an example to others, as well as so many have been made examples to me? Now, let me fall down at His feet, and beg of Him, that as He hath not made me an example of justice all this while, He may now make me an example of mercy and free grace to all that shall look

on me.

Our Saviour, to their reported instance adds another himself, which was no doubt late and recent with them, to the same purpose, and in the same strain : Think ye that they were sinners above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem? I tell you, nay ; but except ye repent, ye shall alt likewise perish. Not just after the same particular manner, but the likeness is in perishing,~You shall as certainly perish as they are perished. And this, to many impenitent sinners, is verified in their being cut off, even by some temporal judgment, after long-abused forbearance, and often very like those they have seen instances of, and would not be warned by. Thus, it was fulfilled to many of the Jews, in the death of many thousands of them, and the destruction of their city by the Romans, in which there was much likeness with the two explanatory judgments here mentioned. But the universal and far more dismal perishing of unrepenting sinners, is, that death which lies unseen on the other side of that death we see and are so afraid to

Oh! saw we the other, this would appear nothing: it would be the only terrible of all terribles indeed. And how terrible soever, it is the unfailing attendant of impenitence. These God hath linked together, and no creature can sever them, continuance in sin and perishing, repentance and life. It is faith, indeed, that lays hold on our pardon and life in Christ, and by that we are justified and saved; yet, so as this is still true, so that the other no wise crosses it, that there is no life without repentance. And this wrongs not the Gospel at all, to preach and profess repentance ; yea, it is a prime point of preaching the Gospel. And here we find the Great Preacher of the Gospel, who is himself the great substance and subject of the Gospel, this is his doctrine, Except ye re pent, ye shall all likewise perish. There is no right preach

look on.

ing of the Gospel, but the doctrine of repentance must be in it: the drawing and turning of the soul to God, from whom it is gone out by sin, this the Gospel aims at. And there is no right preaching of repentance, without the Gospel. The Law indeed discovers sin, but that is not enough to work repentance: for that, there must be a door of hope opened to a sinner, at which he may come in, hoping to be pardoned and accepted upon returning and submitting. This the Gospel alone does. And whensoever the prophets preached repentance, there was somewhat that always expressed or imported the notion of the Gospel, God declaring Himself reconciled, ready to forgive and receive him.

Now, not to speak of the nature of repentance, which here were pertinent, I shall only desire you to seek to know the nature of it, by feeling the power of it within you* Oh! happy they that do! Were the sweetness of it known, we might persuade most by that; but that cannot be known, till we be persuaded and brought to repentance, the delight there is in those tears, the pleasure in crucifying sin, even the most pleasant sins. The soul, then in its right motion when turning towards God, finds itself moved sweetly; but it is thrown, and distorted, and disappointed, in turning from Him and following sinful lusts. But here, necessity is the argument, the highest necessity. If it may be necessary for you not to perish, then it is necessary for you to repent. Had any of you an ulcer, though painful to be lanced, yet, if told it must be, else you would die, that would make a man call for it and entreat it. Lord, what is the madness of the minds of men! Do we believe that there is such a thing after all that is here, as perishing and being saved, eternal death and eternal life, and can we think on any thing else, so as to forget these, or to be negligent and unresolved concerning them, and yet, eat and please the flesh, and seek to make other things sure, and leave

* Malo sentire compunctionem, quàm scire ejus definitionem. 1 would rather feel compunction, then know its definition. [Thomas & Kempis.]

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